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The Art of Music 

A Comprehensive Library of Information 
for Music Lovers and Musicians 



Columbia University /fJ 

Associate Editors 

Harvard University Past Professor, Univ. of Wisconsin 

Managing Editor 

Modern Music Society of New York 

In Fourteen Volumes 

Profusely Illustrated 



I -J -.,*?« 

NEW YORK ^\V\\\ t I 





, ,» 




A Dictionary-Index 
of Musicians 

Department Editors: 






Copyright, 1917, by 

[All Rights Reserved] 


The primary purpose of Volumes XI and XII of The 
Art of Music is to serve as an index to the ten preced- 
ing volumes of the series, as well as to the two volumes 
of musical examples which follow. As in every history 
of music, or any volume dealing with a particular phase 
of the art, so also in the course of this series, it was 
quite impossible to mention all of the thousands of per- 
sons who have had a share in its development. Hence 
the editors were obliged to relegate all treatment of 
such subjects to the present volumes, which, therefore, 
have become not only an index, but a dictionary. 

Included are also the records of the great number 
of theoreticians, scholars, historians, critics, teachers, 
organizers, inventors, manufacturers, publishers and 
musical journalists, who have played so important a 
part in the history of music. A reference work aiming 
at completeness could not omit these, though in a histor- 
ical or analytical work such a bewildering mass of de- 
tail would impair the flow of the narrative, obscure the 
main issues, and overburden the reader's mind with 
^dry facts. 

For the sake of completeness the principal facts con- 
cerning the lives also of those musicians already treated 
in the earlier volumes are here recapitulated, and a 
list of their works (or a summary, in the case of the 
less important ones) is appended in each case, so that 
for ordinary information the reader is not required 
to turn to any other volumes of the work. If he desires 
more detailed information, criticism, or a treatment of 
any particular phase of the subject's work, he may 



turn to the references given, according to his needs. 
These references are in every case preceded by the 
abbreviation Ref. in italics, so that they may be easily 
located at the end of each article. With the most im- 
portant subjects, the minor or incidental references 
have been largely eliminated for the sake of clarity, 
but in every case of this kind the reader is specifically 
referred to the individual indexes, which may be found 
at the end of every volume (excepting I and II, which 
form a unit with Vol. Ill, and Vol. XIII, which forms 
a unit with Vol. XIV). 

No dictionary of musicians can be complete in the 
full sense of the word. Nevertheless, the editors feel 
that, in the present instance, the ground has been cov- 
ered as comprehensively as possible, without rendering 
the work cumbersome. There are included very nearly 
10,000 names covering all periods, probably a greater 
number than in any similar work thus far published 
in English. In the individual biographies, the editors 
have aimed at conciseness, without, however, omitting 
any essential details. 

The facts have, in every instance, been revised ac- 
cording to the latest authorities available at this time. 
The exigencies created by the World War have, in a 
great measure, excluded direct communication with 
living subjects residing in Europe, as well as independ- 
ent research on the ground. Existing works of ref- 
erence had therefore to be relied upon for most of 
the facts and dates. In this connection, the editors 
must acknowledge their indebtedness especially to the 
eighth (German) edition of that most scholarly of mu- 
sical encyclopedias, Riemann's Musiklexikon. That 
edition, having had the benefit of the great work of 
research in musical history carried on from various 
European centres during the last decade, — to a great 
extent under the direct supervision of Dr. Riemann, — 



has furnished the present editors with facts not only 
concerning contemporary musicians, but also concern- 
ing hitherto doubtful periods of musical history and 
subjects, which by virtue of recent discoveries have 
assumed new significance. 

Beyond this the editors are indebted to various other 
standard works such as Grove's 'Dictionary of Music 
and Musicians,' Fetis' Biographie Universelle, Eitner's 
Musikalisches Quellenlexikon, Norlind's Almdnt Mu- 
sik-Lexikon (Stockholm), Baker's 'Biographical Dic- 
tionary of Musicians' (New York), Wyndham and 
L'Epine's 'Who's Who in Music' (London), etc., besides 
a large number of special works dealing with separate 
phases of the subject. 

As regards contemporary musicians, a great many 
facts have, of course, been adduced from the exclusive 
material gathered in the course of three years by the 
editors of The Art of Music. This is especially true 
with regard to American subjects, though here also 
publications like 'Who's Who in America,' Hughes' 
'Music Lovers' Cyclopedia,' and the advance sheets of 
the American 'Who's Who in Music' (edited by Cesar 
Saerchinger) , have been freely consulted. 

As the work is designed for music lovers no less than 
musicians and students, simple language has been em- 
ployed in the explanations of technical matters. Ab- 
breviations have been most sparingly used, and in most 
cases they are self-explanatory. A list of these will be 
found on page xiii. 

The reader is cautioned to consult the Addenda for 
any subject not found in its proper alphabetical place. 
Also, owing to the confusion which exists as to the spell- 
ing of old names, the reader must be warned to use 
particular care in looking for them, though most of 
such cases are taken care of, it is thought, by adequate 
cross-references. Russian names, also, because of the 



different transliterations of the Slavic alphabet, have 
become confused in the English reader's mind. In the 
present work they have been spelled, as far as is rea- 
sonable, phonetically (in the English sense). For in- 
stance, the Russian s/i-sound has been reproduced by 
'sh.' But exceptions have been made with such fa- 
miliar names as Tschaikowsky, which, having been 
introduced to the western world by way of Germany, 
have been generally accepted in the German form. 
Uniformity in these matters is hardly possible without 
a radical and wide-spread reform, though such a re- 
form is highly desirable. 

The Editors. 
March, 1917. 


Prefatory Note XI. vii 

List of Arrreviations XI. xiii 

Dictionary-Index A-L . . XL 1 

Addenda A-L XL 305 

Dictionary-Index M-Z XII. 1 

Addenda M-Z XII. 307 



a, in (i.e. a 4, in 4 parts, for 4 

ace, accomp., accompaniment. 

b., born. 

B.C., Basso continuo. 

ca. (Lat., circa), about. 

cent., century. 

cf. (Lat., confer), compare. 

chor., chorus. 

clar., clarinet. 

comp., composed, composition. 

Cons., Conservatory. 

cont., continuo. 

contemp., contemporary. 

Denkmaler, d.T. (Ger., Denkmdler 
der Tonkunst), 'Monuments of 
Musical Art' (a series of pub- 
lications in Germany and Aus- 
tria, containing complete schol- 
arly editions of the works of 
the great composers, also more 
or less obscure works of his- 
torical importance) . 

dir., director. 

do., ditto. 

Dr. jur. (Lat., Doctor juris), Doctor 
of Law. 

Dr. phil. (Lat., Doctor philos- 
ophiae), Doctor of Philosophy. 

e.g. (Lat., exempli gratia), for ex- 

ed., edited, edition. 

Eng., England, English. 

estab., established. 

et seq. (Lat., et sequentis, sequen- 
tia), and the following. 

f., and following page (i.e., 369f). 

ft., and following pages. 

fl., flute. 

Pr., French. 

Ger., German. 

govt., government. 

harm., harmony. 

h.c. (Lat., honoris causa), indicating 
an honorary degree. 

ib., ibid. (Lat., ibidum), in the 
same place. 

I.e. (Lat., id est), that is. 

Imp., Imper., Imperial. 

incid., incidental [music]. 

incl., including. 

Inst., Institute, Institution. 

instr.. instrumental, instruments. 

introd., introduced. 

maj., major. 

Met., Metropolitan [Opera House]. 

lain., minor. 

MS., MSS., manuscript, manu- 

mus„ musical. 

Mus. B., Bachelor of Music. 

Mus. D., Doctor of Music. 

mus. ex., musical example. 

op., opus (pi. opera). 

or eh., orchestral. 

Oxon. (Lat. Oxoniae), of Oxford. 

perf., performed. 

port., portrait. 

prod., produced. 

Prof., Professor. 

pseud., pseudonym. 

pub., published. 

q.v. (Lat., quod vide), which see. 

Kef., Reference (indicating volume 
and page of The Art of Music, 
where additional information is 
to be found). 

Soc., Society. 

stud., studied. 

*ymp]i., symphonic. 

transl., translated, translation. 

U. S., United States. 

Univ., University. 

v. (Lat., vide), see. 

v. [e.g., 4 v.] (Lat., voces, vocum; 
Ital., voci), voices. 

via., viola. 

vln., violin. 

vol.. vols., volume, volumes. 

w., with. 

N. B. — Reference figures in Italics indicate major references. Italics 
have been employed only to give emphasis to one or more out of a num- 
ber of figures, and not when the important reference occurs first 





AARON. See Aron. 

ABACO (1) [Evaristo] Felice dalP 
(1675-1742): b. Verona, d. Munich; 
'cellist at the Munich court, 1704; dur- 
ing its exile in Brussels became nom- 
inally, and after the return to Munich 
definitely, master of chamber music 
and councillor to Prince Max Emanuel. 
His compositions, 'representing the 
lofty style of Italian chamber music at 
its purest' (Riemann), include 14 violin 
sonatas with bass, 6 each of chamber 
and church sonatas a 3, 10 4-part 
church concertos, 6 7-part concertos 
(4 vlns., via., bassoon or 'cello) and 
violin concertos. (2) Joseph Clemens 
Ferdinand (1709-1805) : b. Brussels, d. 
Verona; 'cellist in the court band at 
Bonn, director of chamber music and 
councillor there, 1738; wrote 29 'cello 
sonatas, a dramatic cantata (MSS.), 

ABBA-CORN AGLI A, Pietro (1851- 
1894) : b. Alessandria, Piedmont, d. 
there; composer of chamber and church 
music, also of three successful operas. 

ABBADIA (1) Natale (1792-ca. 
1876) : b. Genoa, d. Milan; composed op- 
eras and church music. (2) Luigia (b. 
Genoa, 1821): a daughter of (1), oper- 
atic mezzo-soprano; created Donizetti's 
Maria Padilla; in 1870 founded a vocal 
school in Milan. 

ABBATINI, Antonio Maria (1595 (?)- 
1677) : Tiferno, Citta di Castello, d. 
there; maestro di cappella at the Lat- 
eran, del Gesu, and other Roman 
churches. His works were chiefly re- 
ligious, some published, others in 
manuscript. His comic opera (com- 
posed with Marco Marazzoli to the text 
by Rospigliosi) Dal male il bene (1654, 
one of the first on record, prod, in 
Rome), holds an important place in 
the development of opera. He wrote 
two other operas, lone (Vienna, 1666) 
and La comico del cielo (Rome, 1668). 
Ref.: IX. 67. 

ABBE (1) Philippe P. de St. 
Sevin (18th cent.) : French 'cellist. (2) 
Pierre de St. Sevin (18th cent.) : 
brother of Philippe, also 'cellist. (3) 
Joseph Barnabe de St. Sevin (1727- 
1787): b. Agen, France, d. Charenton; 
son of Philippe, violinist and com- 

ABBEY (1) John (1785-1859): b. 
Whilton, d. Versailles; organ-builder, 


noted for introduction of the pneumatic 
mechanism into France. The business 
is still continued in Versailles by his 
sons, E. and J. (2) Henry E.: Ameri- 
can impresario. Ref.: IV. 136f, 142f. 

ABBOTT, Emma (1850-1888): b. 
Chicago, d. New York; dramatic so- 
prano; studied with Erani, Sangiovanni 
and Delle Sedie; distinguished in Eu- 
rope and America. Ref.: IV. 160f, 168. 

ABD EL KADIR, or Abdolkadir, 
Ben Isa (14th cent.) : Arabian theorist, 
author of three theses on Arabic melo- 
dies (still extant). 

ABD EL MUMIN (or Saffledin) : 
13th-14th cent. Arabic theorist. 

ABEILLE, Johann Christian Lud- 
wig (1761-1838) : b. Bayreuth, d. Stutt- 
gart; court conductor and organist at 
Stuttgart; virtuoso on piano and organ; 
prolific composer for pianoforte, of 
Singspiele and of songs. 

ABEL (1) Clamor Heinrich (17th 
cent.) : chamber musician at the Han- 
overian court, composer of instrumental 
works (3 vols.), courantes, sarabandes, 
etc. (2) Christian Ferdinand (18th 
cent.) : player of the viola da gamba at 
Cothen, 1720-1737. (3) Leopold Au- 
gust (1717-1794): b. Cothen, son of 
(2) ; court violinist and composer. He 
studied under Benda and played at 
Brunswick, Sondershausen, Berlin, etc.; 
composed violin eludes. (4) Carl 
Friedrich (1725-1787) : b. Cothen, d. 
London ; last noted virtuoso on the viola 
da gamba; wrote many symphonies, 
clavier concertos, string quartets, etc. 
He studied with J. S. Bach at the 
Thomasschule, played in the Dresden 
court band for ten years; in 1765 be- 
came chamber musician to Queen Char- 
lotte in London, where he founded, 
with J. C. Bach, the Bach-Abel Concerts. 
Ref.: II. 62; (infl. on Mozart) II. 102; 
VII. 591. (5) Ludwig (1835-1895); b. 
Eckartsberga, Thuringia, d. Neu-Pass- 
ing; violinist; member of the Ge- 
wandhaus and Weimar Court orches- 
tras; conductor of the Munich Court 
orchestra (1867), teacher and Royal 
professor at Royal School of Music. 
Wrote excellent methods, studies, etc. 

ABELA (1) Don Placido (1814- 
1876): b. Syracuse, d. Monte Cassino; 
prior of abbey there, organist and com- 
poser of church music. (2) Karl Gott- 
lob (1803-1841): b. Borna, Saxony, d. 


Halle; cantor at Francke Stiftung there, 
author of song books for schools, com- 
poser of male choruses. 

ABELL, John (ca.1660-ca.1720) : 
alto singer, lutenist, composer of songs. 
In 1688 he lost his position in the 
Chapel Royal (held since 1679) and 
travelled in Italy, France, Germany, 
Holland and Poland until 1700 when 
he regained his former post. 

ABENDROTH, Irene (1872- ) : b. 

Lemberg; 1889 sang at the Vienna court 
opera, later in Munich, then again for 
four years in Vienna, and during 1899- 
1908 in the Royal Opera at Dresden. 
Her husband, Thomas Thaller, is the 
author of her biography. 

ABENHEIM, Joseph (1804-1891) : b. 
Worms, d. Stuttgart; violinist and mu- 
sical director there; composer of 
entr'actes, overtures, songs, piano 
pieces, etc., only a few of which have 
been printed. 

ABERT (1) [Johann] Joseph (1832- 
1915): b. Rohemia, d. Stuttgart; noted 
virtuoso on double bass; studied at 
Prague Cons., later in Paris and London. 
In 1852 he became a member, and in 1867 
was appointed conductor of the Stutt- 
gart court orchestra, which he led until 
1888. His compositions include con- 
certos and etudes for the double bass, 
symphonies, 5 operas, overtures, string 
quartets, etc. Ref.: III. 212, 257; (Bach 
transcription) VI. 438. (2) Hermann 
(1871- ): b. Stuttgart; son of J. J. 
(1), musicographer and historian; stud- 
ied at Stuttgart Cons, and Berlin Uni- 
versity; author of Die Lehre vom Ethos 
in der griechischen Musik (1899) ; bi- 
ographies of Schumann, Franz, etc.; 
since 1909 professor at Halle Univ. 

ABESSER, Edmund (1836-1889) : b. 
Margolitz, Saxony, d. Vienna; composer 
of salon music, also an opera, Die 
liebliche Fee. 

ABINGTON. See Abyngdon. 

ABORN (1) Milton: American oper- 
atic manager. Ref.: IV. 155ff, 173. 
(2) Sargent: brother of (1) and as- 
sociated with him as manager. Ref.: 
IV. 155ff, 173. 

ABOS (Avos, d'Avossa) (1) Giro- 
lamo: composer of operas for Venice, 
Vienna, Rome, Turin, Ancona and Lon- 
don (1746-58). (2) Giuseppe: com- 
poser of operas for Naples (1742-64), 
also church music; teacher at Naples 

ABOTT, Bessie Pickens (Mrs. T. 
Walso Story): b. Riverdale, N. Y.; 
operatic soprano; studied with Mme. 
Frieda Ashforth, New York, and Vic- 
tor Capoul, Paris; debut as Juliette in 
Romio et Juliette at the Opera, Paris; 
sang in London, Metropolitan Opera, 
New York, 1907, and elsewhere in the 
United States. 

ABRAHAM (1) John. See Braham. 
(2) Dr. Max. See Peters, C. F. (3) 
Otto (1872- ): b. Berlin; musical 
psychologist, associate of Stumpf in 
the Berlin Institute of Psychology, au- 


thor of studies on tone sensations 
and phonography of the music of Hin- 
dus, Japanese, etc. ' 

ABRAHAMSON, [Werner Hans] 
Friedrich (1744-1812) : b. Schleswig, 
d. Copenhagen; published in collabora- 
tion with Rahbek and Nyerup a col- 
lection of Danish songs, Danske Viser 
fra Middelalderen. 

ABRAM, John (1840- ): b. Mar- 
gate; English organist, composer of 
oratorios and cantatas. 

ABRAMS, three sisters (1) Harriet, 
soprano, made her debut Drury Lane, 
1775, composer of popular songs and 
collector of several volumes published 
ca. 1787ff. She sang at the Handel 
Commemoration with her sister (2) 
Theodosia, a contralto. (3) Eliza, 
the youngest, sang with her sisters at 
the Ladies' Catch and Glee Concerts. 

ABRANYI (1) Kornel (1822-1903): 
b. Szent Gyorgy Abrany, d. Budapest; 
composer, critic and librettist. He re- 
ceived his training from Chopin, Kalk- 
brenner, Halevy and Fischhof. In 1860 
joined Mosonyi and Roszavolgyi in es- 
tablishing the Zendszeti Lapok, the 
first Hungarian magazine devoted to 
music. This he continued to edit until 
1876. Other writings include a volume 
on musical aesthetics, a history of mu- 
sic, a book on harmony and a bi- 
ography of Mosonyi. (2) Emil (1882-) : 
b. Rudapest, son of the poet Emil A.; 
composer of 3 Hungarian operas; from 
1907 Royal conductor at Hanover, from 
1911 at Budapest. Ref.: III. 199. 

ABRICI, Vincenzo (1631-1696): or- 
ganist; chapel-master to the Elector of 
Saxony, Dresden, teacher of Kuhnau; 
composed church music. Ref.: VI. 425. 

ABT (1) Franz (1819-1885) : b. Eilen- 
burg, d. Wiesbaden; famous popular 
song-writer, pupil of the Thomasschule, 
where he led the Students' Philhar- 
monic and composed successfully; con- 
ductor of theatres in Bernburg, Zurich, 
and Brunswick, also of singing soci- 
eties; composer of popular songs, quar- 
tets for men's voices, women's voices, 
choruses, cantatas, etc. Extremely 
prolific (more than 500 works, with 
over 3,000 numbers). Ref.: III. 19; 
(quot.) IV. 309f; VI. 177. (2) Alfred 
(1855-1888): b. Brunswick, d. Geneva; 
son of Franz, theatre-conductor in Ru- 
dolstadt, Kiel and Rostock. 

ABYNGDON, Henry (15th cent.) : d. 
Wells, England; Master of the Song 
of the Chapel Royal, London, etc.; com- 
poser of church music; friend of Sir 
Thomas More. Ref.: VI. 447. 

ACHARD, L,eon (1831- ) : b. 

Lyons; tenor. He studied at the Con- 
servatoire and made his first appear- 
ance at the Theatre Lyrique; has sung 
since then in Lyons and in Paris at 
the Opera Comique and the Opera. 

ACHENBACH, Max. See Alvary. 

Vladimirovitch (1864- ) : b. Odessa; 
violinist, conductor of symphony con- 


certs in Pultawa and a branch of the 
Imperial Russian Musical Society. 

ACKERMANN, A. J. (1836- ) : 

b. Rotterdam; teacher of organ and 
theory at the Royal Music School of 
The Hague, composer of songs and in- 
strumental works. 

ACKTfi, Aino (Mme. Ackt6-Renvall) : 
b. Helsingfors, Finland; contemp. op- 
eratic soprano at Paris Opera, New 
York, London, etc. Ref.: X. 205. 

ACTON, John B. (1863- ): b. 

Manchester(?), Eng. ; vocal teacher; pu- 
pil of Francesco Lamperti; prof, of mu- 
sic, Royal College of Music; comp. can- 
tatas for women's voices, male chorus 
'For Home and Liberty, 5 duets, songs, 

ADALID y GURRfiA, Marcel del 
(1826-1881) : b. Coruna, d. Longara, 
Galicia; pianist and composer. He 
studied under Moscheles and Chopin, 
published 3 collections of Galician folk- 
songs; comp. piano pieces and an un- 
published opera. 

ADAM (1) Jean (18th cent.) : tenor- 
violinist at Dresden court and com- 
poser of ballets, concertos for oboe 
and piano, string quartets and sym- 
phonies. (2) Louis (Johann Ludwig) 
(1758-1848): b. Miittersholtz, Alsace, d. 
Paris; professor of pianoforte at Paris 
Cons., author of works on principles of 
piano-playing, composer of sonatas, 
etc. (3) Adolphe-Charles (1803-1856): 
b. Paris, d. there; son of Louis (2); 
prolific and successful comic opera 
composer, (53 operas) ; pupil and fol- 
lower of Roieldieu and Auber. His 
one-act opera Pierre et Catherine, prod, 
successfully at the Opera-Comique was 
followed by 13 others and in 1836 by 
Le Postilion de Lonjumeau, a brilliant 
success. In all he prod. 53 stage works, 
including the operas Le Chalet, Au 
fldele berger, Postilion de Lonjumeau, 
Le Roi d'Yvetot, La Poup&e de Nurem- 
berg, Cagliostro, Richard en Palestine, 
and the ballets Giselle, Le Corsair, 
Faust, etc. He founded the Theatre 
National in 1847 but his enterprise 
failed in the revolution of the follow- 
ing year. He succeeded his father as 
professor at the Conservatoire on the 
latter's death (1848). Ref.: II. 211f; 
IX. 73, 229f, 236; X. 151, 158; portrait, 
IX. 226. 

(ca. 1240-87): b. Arras, d. Naples; poet 
and composer of great historical impor- 
tance. The 'Hunchback of Arras' was 
one of the most gifted and accom- 
plished of the trouveres. His chan- 
sons, rondeaux, motets, and especially 
his famous pastoral song-play, Les 
gieulx de Robin et de Marion (1285), 
have been revived during the 19th cen- 
tury. His complete works, in modern 
notation, were edited by Coussemaker 
(Oeuvres completes du trouvere Adam 
de la Halle, etc., 1872). Robin et 
Marion, according to modern scholar- 
ship, is a compilation from folk-song 


sources, etc. It is frequently referred 
to as the earliest example of comic 
opera. It has been published in ar- 
rangement with piano accompaniment 
by J. R. Weckerlin. Other song-plays 
credited to A. are the Jeu d'Adam and 
Jeu du pelerin. Ref.: I. 211, 213; V. 
138; VI. 25f; IX. 3, 71; mus. ex., 
XIII. 9. 

ADAM VON FULDA (15th cent.): 
probably a Renedictine monk, composer 
and theorist. Some of his compositions 
(hymn and antiphonary melodies in 
contrapuntal settings) are preserved in 
the Rerlin and Leipzig libraries. 

ADAMBERGER, Valentin (1743- 
1804) : b. Munich, d. Vienna; tenor. He 
made his debut under the name of Ada- 
monti and sang in Italy, London, and 
Vienna, occupying the position of court 
chapel singer at the last-named place. 
He is mostly remembered by the fact 
that Mozart honored him by writing 
the part of Relmonte for him. 

terra), Andrea (1663-1742) : b. Venice, 
d. Rome; papal singer and papal 
maestro di cappella. In 1711 he wrote 
Osservazioni per ben regolare il coro 
dei cantori delta Cappella Pontificia. 

ADAMONTI. See Adamberger. 

ADAMOWSKI (1) Timothee(1858-): 
b. Warsaw; noted violinist and com- 
poser. He studied with Kontchi and 
Massart at Warsaw and Paris. He 
toured America and later taught in the 
New England Conservatory at Roston, 
where in 1888 he established the 
Adamowski String Quartet; was con- 
ductor of Roston Symphony 'Pops' dur- 
ing 1890-94. Composer of songs, etc. 
(2) Joseph: brother of above; 'cellist. 

ADAMS (1) Thomas (1785-1858) : or- 
ganist in London. He composed organ 
fugues, intermezzos and variations, for 
piano and for organ. He was a pupil 
of Dr. Rusby. Ref.: VI. 475. (2) 
Charles R. (ca. 1834-1900) : b. Charles- 
town, Mass., d. West Harwich; operatic 
tenor; studied with Rarbieri, sang 
in Vienna, Milan, London, Madrid, Ger- 
many and United States. (3) Stephen. 
See Maybrick, M. Ref.: V. 327. 

ADCOCK, James (1778-1860): b. 
Eton, d. Cambridge; choirmaster and 
composer. He was a choirboy at Wind- 
sor and at Eton, became a lay priest in 
1797 and later choirmaster at King's 
College. He wrote glees, an evening 
service and anthems, also 'The Rudi- 
ments of Singing.' 

ADDISON (1) John (1765-1844): b. 
London, d. there; double-bassoon play- 
er and dramatic composer. His rather 
erratic career included 'cello playing, 
conducting in Dublin, manufacturing 
in Manchester, selling music in Lon- 
don, and at all times composing, sing- 
ing and giving singing lessons. He prod. 
6 popular operettas, wrote glees, songs 
etc. (2) Robert Brydges (i860- ) : 
b. Dorchester, Oxford; teacher and com- 
poser. He studied under Macfarren 


at the Royal Academy of Music, where 
he later taught harmony and composi- 
tion. He wrote orchestral works, songs 
and church music. 

ADE, George: American humorist 
and dramatist. Ref.: IV. 457. 

ADELBOLDUS (d. 1027): Bishop of 
Utrecht; musical theorist (work extant 
in Gerbert's Scriptores). 

ADELBURG, August, Ritter von 
(1830-1873) : b. Constantinople, d. 
Vienna; violinist. He composed sona- 
tas, etudes, and concertos for the vio- 
lin, also string quartets and three op- 
eras. Pub. criticisms of Liszt's book 
on Gypsy music. 

ADELUNG. See Adlung. 

ADGATE, Andrew: American musi- 
cal pioneer. Ref.: IV. 73, 87, 235. 

ADLER (1) Georg: b. Ofen, 1806; 
pianist, teacher and composer of cham- 
ber music, variations, songs, etc. (2) 
Vincent (1826-1871) : b. Raab, Hun- 
gary, d. Geneva; composer. He studied 
at Budapest, Vienna, and Paris, and 
at Paris made the acquaintance of 
Wagner, Billow, Ernst and Lalo. He 
taught for six years at the conserva- 
tory upon his return to Geneva. His 
compositions include studies for the 
piano, and salon music. (3) Guido 
(1855- ) : b. Eibenschiitz, Moravia ; 
teacher and musicographer. He studied 
at Vienna Cons, with Bruckner and 
Dessoff, also at the Univ., became Dr. 
jur. and Dr. phil.; docent for music 
science at Vienna Univ., 1881, professor 
extraordinary at Prague in 1885 and 
professor at Vienna Univ. in 1898. He 
founded the Vierteljahrsschrift fiir 
Musikwissenschaft with Chrysander 
and Spitta in 1884, edits the Denk- 
maler der Tonkunst in tisterreich, 
wrote studies on the history of har- 
mony, Beethoven's works, Wagner, 
Haydn, mediaeval music, etc., also 
Der Stil in der Musik (vol. 1, 1912). 

ADL.GASSER (or Adelgasser), An- 
ton Cajetan (1728-1777) : b. Innzell, d. 
Salzburg; organist, composer of church 
music and collaborator with Michael 
Haydn and Mozart in Die Schuldigkeit 
des ersten Gebots (1767). 

ADLUNG (or A del ung), Jakob 
(1699-1762): b. Bindersleben, d. Erfurt; 
'organist, teacher and writer. He studied 
successively philology, theology and 
music, in 1727 became city organist at 
Erfurt and later professor of the Gym- 
nasium there. He taught the clavi- 
chord; built a number of clavichords 
himself, and wrote three treatises of 
importance, Anleitung zu der musi- 
kalischen Gelahrtheit (1758), Musica 
mechanica organoedi (1768) and Musi- 
kalisches Siebengestirn (1768). 

ADOLPATI, Andrea (1711-ca.l760) : 
b. Venice, d. Genoa; studied with Ga- 
luppi, church conductor in Venice and 
Genoa, composer of 5 operas and church 

ADRASTOS (ca. 4th cent. B. C.) : pu- 
pil of Aristotle, musical theorist, wrote 


three books on harmony (Latin transl. 
found 1788 in Sicilian court library). 

ADRIAENSEN, Emanuel, called 
Hadrianus (16th cent.) : b. Antwerp, 
published two works in lute tablature, 
containing transcriptions of canzonets, 
dance-tunes, fantasias, madrigals, mo- 
tets and preludes by di Rore, Lassus, 
van Berchem, etc. (1584, 1592). 



ADRIEN or Andrien (1) Martin Jo- 
seph, called La Neuville, or Adrien 
Paine (1767-1822): b. Liege, d. Paris; 
bass and chorus master at Pari^ Opera; 
teacher at the ficole Royale and writer 

of patriotic hymns. (2) J (ca. 

1768-ca.l824) : b. Liege; brother of 
Martin, chorus master at the Theatre 
Feydeau (Paris) ; published song col- 
lections. (3) Ferdinand (1799-1801) : 
chorus master, Paris Opera; song com- 

cent.) : writer on musical theory. His 
dissertations on measured music still 
extant in Coussemaker's Scriptores. 

(13th cent.) : Franciscan friar of Zam- 
ora, Spain; musical theorist; wrote Ars 

AELSTERS, Georges Jacques 
(1770-1849): b. Ghent, d. there; caril- 
lonneur and director at St. Martin's, 
composer of much church music still 
in vogue. 

AERTS (1) tigide (1822-1853): b. 
Boom, near Antwerp, d. Brussels; flut- 
ist, pupil and teacher at the Brussels 
Cons.; wrote symphonies and concertos 
for flute. (2) Felix (1827-1888) : b. St. 
Trond, Belgium, d. Nivelles; violinist 
at Brussels, conductor at Tournai, 
teacher in Paris and Nivelles and com- 
poser of religious and secular pieces. 
He wrote also on methods and several 
essays on plain-chant. 

yESCHYLlTS: Greek dramatist. 
Ref.: I. 120, 329; III. 149; IX. 414; X. 
55 56. 

AFANASSIEFF, Nicolai Jacovele- 
vitch (1821-1898): b. Tobolsk, d. St. 
Petersburg; violinist and composer. His 
compositions include, besides violin 
pieces, a piece for viola d'amour, a 
string quartet, a quintet, an octet, piano 
pieces and songs, several operas, also 
a cantata 'The Feast of Peter the Great' 
(prize-crowned), symphonies and ora- 
torios (still in manuscript). 

AFFERNI (1) Ugo (1871- ): b. 
Florence; pianist and conductor. He 
studied at Florence, Frankfort and 
Leipzig, counting among his teachers 
Schwarz, Urspruch, Biilow, Reinecke, 
Jadassohn, Piutti. After his marriage 
in 1895 he and his wife introduced 
chamber music evenings at Liibeck. 
Later he conducted concerts at Harz- 
burg and Wiesbaden, and has written 
piano pieces and songs and one opera, 
Potemkin an der Donau. (2) May, 
nee Brommer (1872- ): b. Great 



Grimsby ; studied at Leipzig Cons. ; vio- 
linist, wife of (1). 

[PJAFFILARD, Michel (17th cent.) : 
tenor in chapel of Louis XIV., 1683- 
1708; author of Principles tres faciles 
for sight singing, first pub. 1691. 

cent.) : b. Pavia, canon of Ferrara, re- 
puted inventor of the bassoon. Ref.: 
VIII. 77. 

AFZELIUS, Arvid August (1785- 
1871): b. Enkoping, Sweden, d. there; 
clergyman and collector of folk-melo- 

AGATHON, Pope 678-681: regulated 
the Roman Antiphonary. Ref.: I. 147. 

AGAZZARI, Agostino (1578-1640) : 
b. Siena, d. there ; church-conductor and 
composer. While Kapellmeister at the 
German College at Rome, he wrote the 
dramatic pastoral, Eumelio, but upon 
his return to Siena, where he became 
cathedral conductor, he devoted him- 
self to the voluminous production of 
church music, including 4 books of 
sacred cantiones (1602-16), evening 
psalms, a magnificat, a litany, etc.; also 
published 5 books of madrigals for 
3-6 voices. A friend of Viadana, he 
adopted his reforms in religious vocal 
music and in his pamphlet La musica 
ecclesiastica attempted to harmonize 
church music with the Resolutions of 
the Council of Trent. He was one of 
the first to give directions for execut- 
ing the figured bass. Ref.: I. 379; IX. 

AGELAOS OF TEGEA (6th cent. B. 
C.) : first victor in Pythian games, 559 
B. C; first kithera-virtuoso. 

[d»]AGINCOURT, Francois (1714- 
1758) : b. Rouen, d. Paris ; organist. In 
1714 he became organist at the Royal 
Chapel in Paris. His only production, 
Pieces de Clavecin, appeared in 1733. 

AGNELLI, Salvatore (1817-74) : b. 
Palermo; operatic composer. He stud- 
ied at Naples under Furno, Zingarelli 
and Donizetti; began his operatic ca- 
reer as composer at Naples and Paler- 
mo, and in 1846 went to Marseilles. 
There he prod. 3 operas, wrote three 
others, a Miserere, a cantata, a Stabat 
Mater, etc. 

[d']AGNESI (1) Luigi. See Agniez, 
L.F.L. (2) Maria Theresa (1724- 
1780[?]) : b. Milan; pianist; composed 
5 operas, prod. 1771, in Milan, cantatas, 
2 pianoforte concertos and sonatas. 

AGNIEZ, Louis Ferdinand Leopold, 
called Luigi Agnesi (1838-1875) : b. 
Erpent, d. London; singer and com- 
poser. He studied at the Brussels 
Cons., was conductor at St. Catherine's 
and director of several societies in 
Brussels and after producing a suc- 
cessful opera, Harold le Normand, he 
toured France and Germany as operatic 
and concert bass. 

AGOSTINI (1) Ludovico (1534- 
1590) : b. Ferrara, d. there ; court-con- 
ductor and composer. He was chaplain 
at the court of Alphonse II. and wrote 


church music and madrigals, published 
partly at Venice, partly at Ancona. (2) 
Paolo (before 1593-1629) : b. Vallerano, 
d. Rome; composer; son-in-law and 
pupil of B. Nanini; while chapel mas- 
ter at St. Peter's and previously at other 
churches in Rome, he wrote much mu- 
sic still preserved in manuscript. The 
Salmi delta Madonna and 5 books of 
masses were published in 1619 and 
1627. (3) Pietro Simone (1650-[?]): 
b. Rome; operatic composer and maes- 
tro di cappella at Parma. His works 
include also an oratorio and motets. 
(4) Mezio (1875- ): See Addenda. 
Ref.: III. 394. 

AGRAMONTE, Emilio (1844- ) : 

b. Puerto Principe, Cuba; teacher of 
singing in Barcelona, Cuba and New 
York; studied in Spain and Paris, 
composer of religious music (not 
printed) . 

AGRELL, Johann Joachim (1701- 
1765): b. Loth, Sweden, d. Nuremberg; 
court violinist and piano-virtuoso at 
Cassel, and after 1746 Kapellmeister at 
Nuremberg. Concertos for harpsichord 
and quartet, sonatas and 'symphonies' 
for the piano were published. 

AGRENEFF, Demetrius Alexandro- 
vitch (1838-1908) : b. Rustchuk, Bul- 
garia, d. there; singer and director. 
After studying in Italy and Paris, he 
organized a choir and, under the name 
Slavjanski, presented folk-songs through 
Europe and America. 

AGRICOLA (1) Alexander (Acker- 
mann), frequently called 'Alexander' 
(ca.1446-ca.1506) : important composer 
of the Netherland school. He wrote 
at Milan, Mantua and Bungundy, 
where he was chapel singer. In 1505 
he followed Philip the Fair of Bur- 
gundy to Spain, where he apparently 
died at Valladolid at the age of 60. 
Petrucci printed in his three oldest 
collections (1501-3) 31 songs and mo- 
tets by this composer, and also pub- 
lished a volume of his masses. Be- 
sides these there are other masses, mo- 
tets, chansons and magnificats in MS. 

(2) Martin (1486-1556) : b. Sorau, Sax- 
ony, d. Magdeburg; private music 
teacher, then cantor at the Lutheran 
School at Magdeburg; author of im- 
portant theoretical works, including 
Eyn kurtz deudsche Musica (1528), 
Musica instrumentalis deudsch (in dog- 
gerel, based on Virdung's Musica 
getutscht), Musica flguralis deudsch 
(1533, with an appendix, Von den Pro- 
porcionibus, based on Gafori), Rudi- 
menta musices (1539), Scholia in mu- 
sicam planam Wenceslai Plulamathis 
(1540), Quaestiones vulgariores in mu- 
sicam (1543). He was the first Ger- 
man theoretician to use the vernacular. 
His compositions consist of motets and 
hymns pub. in various collections. 
Ref.: VI. 51; VII. 375; VIII. 67, 76. 

(3) Johann (ca. 1570-1605) : b. Nurem- 
berg, d. Erfurt; composer and instruc- 
tor, published motets and cantiones. 


(4) Wolfgang Christoph (17th cent.): 

German composer of church music. (5) 
Georg Ludwig (1643-1676) : b. Gross- 
furra near Sondershausen, d. Gotha; 
composer. At Miihlhausen he pro- 
duced chamber sonatas for stringed 
instruments, penetential songs and 
madrigals. (6) Johann Friedricli 
(1720-1774): b. Dobitschen, d. Berlin; 
court composer. He succeeded Graun 
as director of the Royal Chapel, and is 
known for his 8 operas, prod. Berlin 
and Potsdam, odes, a sonata, and 
theoretical works. (7) Benedetta 
Emilia (ne'e Molten!) (1722-80) : b. 
Modena, d. Berlin; wife of Johann 
F., singer in the Berlin Italian Opera. 

AGTHE (1) Karl Christian (1762- 
1797): b. Hettstadt, d. Ballenstedt; 
court organist at Ballenstedt, composed 
6 Singspiele, a ballet, piano sonatas 
and songs. (2) Willi. I m Johann 
Albrecht (1790-1873): b. Ballenstedt, 
d. Berlin; son of (1). He taught music 
at Leipzig, Dresden and Posen, Bres- 
lau and Berlin. He was a member of 
the Gewandhaus orchestra in Leipzig, 
pub. piano compositions; from 1845 
till his death conducted his own insti- 
tute of music at Berlin. (3) Prledrich 
Wilhelm (1796-1830) : b. Sangerhausen, 
d. Sonnenstein. He studied at Weimar 
and Dresden, under Miiller, Riemann 
and Weinlig. For six years he was 
cantor at the Kreuzschule (1822-1828). 
(4) Rosa. See Milde. 

AGUADO y GARCIA, Dionisio 
(1784-1849) : b. Madrid, d. there; distin- 
guished virtuoso on the guitar. His 
compositions consist of rondos and 
studies for the guitar, and pub. a gui- 
tar method (1825, French 1827). 

AGUIARI, Lucrezia. See AGUJABI. 

AGUILAR, Emanuel Abraham 
(1824-1904) : b. London, d. there ; pianist 
and composer. After distinguishing 
himself at Leipzig, he went to London, 
where he composed operas, cantatas, 
symphonies, overtures and chamber 

tiano (17th cent.) : Spanish ecclesiastic 
and organist. In 1603 he became organ- 
ist at the Cathedral of Saragossa, where 
he composed and published a volume 
of Magnificats. 

AGUJARI, Liucrezia, called La Bas- 
tardina or Bastardella (1743-1783) : 
b. Ferrara, d. Parma; soprano. She 
sang in Italy and at London, was noted 
especially for her phenomenal range, 
from middle C through three octaves. 
In 1780 she married the maestro di 
cappella Colla at Parma and subse- 
quently left the stage. 

AGUS (1) Henri (1749-1798): b. 
France, d. there; prof, of solfeggio at 
Paris Conservatoire; composer of edu- 
cational works. (2) Joseph; composer 
of string trios, duets, glees, etc., pub. 
in London, also 6 duos concertants for 
2 violins pub. as the op. 37 of Boc- 
cherini by Barbieri of Paris. 


AHLE (1) Johann Rudolf (1625- 
1673): b. Miihlhausen, d. there; or- 
ganist and composer. After acting 
as cantor at St. Andreas in Erfurt, 
Ahle became organist at St. Blasien in 
Miihlhausen, subsequently member of 
the council and burgomaster in the 
same town. His works are chiefly 
religious; they include chamber so- 
natas, choral music, and theoretical 
writings. (2) Johann Georg (1651- 
1706): b. Miihlhausen, d. there; organ- 
ist. He succeeded his father as organ- 
ist at Miihlhausen, became town coun- 
cillor, and was made poet laureate by 
Kaiser Leopold I. He was noted as 
composer and theoretician. 

AHLSTROM (1) Olof (1756-1835) : b. 
Stockholm, d. there; organist and com- 
poser. He was organist at Stockholm 
and the author of violin and piano 
sonatas, songs, also the collections 
Musikalisk Tidsfordrift and Skaldestyk- 
ken. (2) Jacob Niklas (1805-1857): 
b. Wisby, Sweden, d. Stockholm; oper- 
atic composer. Besides 2 operas, A. 
prod, songs, etc., also a compilation 
of Swedish folk-songs. 

AHN CAUSE, A. von. See Carse. 

AHNA (1) Heinrich Karl Hermann 
de (1835-1892): b. Vienna, d. Berlin; 
violinist. He studied under Mayseder 
and Mildner, became chamber virtuoso 
to the duke of Coburg-Gotha, and after 
serving in the Austrian army during 
1851-59, gave concerts in Germany and 
Holland and settled in Berlin as mem- 
ber of the Royal Kapelle, of which 
he afterward became concert-master. 
He was noted as member of the Jo- 
achim Quartet. Ref.: VII. 451. (2) 
Eleanore (1835-1865): b. Vienna, d. 
Berlin; mezzo-soprano. She was sister 
of Heinrich (1), a pupil of Mantius 
and a singer in the Royal Opera at 

AIBL, Joseph, founder of a noted 
music firm (Munich, 1824) which dur- 
ing 1836-84 was controlled by Eduard 
Spitzweg and his two sons, Eugen 
and Otto. It absorbed the firms of 
Falter und Sohn and of Alfred Lau- 
terer, and in 1904 merged with the 
'Universal-Edition' with headquarters 
at Leipzig. 

AIBLINGER, Johann Kasper (1779- 
1867) : b. Wasserburg, d. Munich; court 
conductor and composer. He studied 
at Munich and under Simon Mayr at 
Bergamo, in 1819 was second maestro 
to the viceroy at Milan, in 1826 Kapell- 
meister in Munich. He founded the 
Odeon at Venice. His best work was 
for the church: masses, requiems, 
psalms, etc.; his one opera, one farsa, 
three ballets, etc., met with little suc- 

AICHINGER, Gregor (ca. 1565- 
1628): b. Ratisbon, d. Augsburg; canon, 
of St. Gertrud in Augsburg; organist 
and composer of church music, which 
is of historical value because of his use 
of the term basso continuo. See Addenda. 


AIDE!, Hamilton, b. 1830 in Paris, of 
Greek parentage, composer of popular 

AIGNER, Engelbert (1798-ca. 1852) : 
b. Vienna, d. there; ballet director of 
the Vienna court opera, 1835-37, com- 
posed an opera, operettas, ballets, can- 
tatas, choruses and church music. 

AIMO. See Haym, N. F. 

AIMON, Pamphile Leopold Fran- 
cois (1779-1866) : b. L'Isle, near Avig- 
non, d. Paris; 'cellist, conductor of 
orchestra in Marseilles theatre, of the 
Gymnase draniatique and the The- 
atre Frangois in Paris. He composed 
operas {La Fee d'Urgele) and chamber 
music and wrote 3 books on musical 

AINSWORTH, Henry (17th cent.) : 
Pilgrim minister; compiler of psalm 
tunes. Ref.: IV. 19. 

AIRETON, Edward (1727-1807) : 
London instrument maker, imitator of 
violins and 'cellos of Amati. 

A KEMPIS. See Kempis. 

AKERBERG, Erik (1860- ) : 

Swedish composer. Ref.: III. 85. 

AKEROYDE, Samuel (ca.1650-) : 
b. Yorkshire; writer of songs, printed 
in collections by d'Urfey and others. 

AKIMENKO, Fedor (1876- ) : b. 
Kharkoff; pupil of Balakireff and 
Rimsky-Korsakoff; taught in St. Peters- 
burg, France, and Moscow; composed 
orchestral and chamber music, also 
*cello, violin, piano pieces, etc., and 
songs. Ref.: III. 160; VI. 396. 

ALA, Giovanni Batista (1580?- 
1612?): b. Monza, d. there; organist 
and composer of madrigals and church 

AIiABIEFF, Alexander Alexandro- 
vitch (1787-1851): b. Moscow, d. there; 
composer. Collaborated with Verstov- 
ski, Vielhorski, and Maurer in writing 
the music for the musical comedies of 
Chmelnitzki, also was the composer of 
several operas. His songs, especially 
'The Nightingale,' are still popular. 
Ref.: IX. 380. 

ALALEOXA, Domenico (1881- ) *. 

b. Montegiorgio, Piceno; composer; 
studied at Liceo musicale, Rome; con- 
ductor of the Societa Guido Monaco, 
Leghorn, 1908-1910; cond. of the Au- 
gusteo and professor at the Cons., 
Rome, since 1910; has composed Attolite 
Portas for soli, chorus and orchestra; 
a requiem, pro defuncto Rege; an opera, 
Mirra; a Sinfonia Italica, and songs; 
author of Su Emilio de Cavalieri (1905), 
Studii sulla storia dell' Oratorio (1908), 

ALARD (1) Jean-Dolphin (1815- 
1888): b. Bayonne, d. Paris; violinist, 
teacher and composer. He studied the 
violin as a pupil of Habeneck at the 
Paris Conservatoire; later he succeeded 
Baillot as professor there. His com- 
positions include concertos^ studies and 
duets for piano and violin; his style 
as a violinist was noted for abandon 
and verve. He also published a violin- 


ists* anthology. Ref.: VII. 447, 452. 
(2) Cesar (1837- ): b. Gosselies, 
Belgium; 'cellist. He studied under 
Servais at the Brussels Cons. ; solo 
'cellist under Jullien and Pasdeloup. 

ALARY, Giulo Eugenio Abramo 
(1814-1891): b. Mantua, d. Paris; flut- 
ist at La Scala, teacher in Paris, com- 
poser of 9 operas, an oratorio, etc. 

[d'JALAYRAC. See Dalayrac. 

ALBA, Alonzo de: Spanish compos- 
er represented in the Cancionero Mu- 

ALBANESE, (1729-1800) : b. Al- 

bano, d. Paris; dilettante and com- 
poser of temporarily popular songs; 
played in Concerts Spirituels. 

ALBANESI (1) Lnigi (1821-1897) : 
b. Rome, d. Naples; composer of church 
music and piano works. (2) Carlo 
(1856-1893): b. Naples, d. London; 
professor of pianoforte at Royal Acad- 
emy of Music, composed for his in- 

ALBAN (Albanus), Matthias (1621- 
1712): b. Kaltern, d. Bozen; violin 
maker, pupil of Steiner. His instru- 
ments of 1702-09 are considered nearly 
equal to Amati's. See Addenda. 

ALBANI (real name La Jeu- 
nesse), Emma (1852- ) : b. Cham- 
bly; operatic soprano. She was a pu- 
pil of Duprez in Paris and of Lam- 
perti. She appeared first in opera at 
Messina, and since then has sung in 
Florence, London, Paris, St. Peters- 
burg and America. She is known also 
as a pianist. In 1878 she married Ernest 
Gye, manager of Covent Garden. 

ALBENIZ (1) Don Pedro (1755- 
1821): b. Biscaya, d. San Sebastian; 
chapel master of the cathedral there; 
composer of church music valued 
greatly in Spain. (2) Pedro (1795- 
1855) : b. Longrono, d. Madrid; pupil 
of Kalkbrenner and Herz in Paris, 
pianist and professor at Madrid 
Cons.; court organist there, and pub. 
many piano compositions and a piano 
method. (3) Don Isaac (1860-1909) : 
b. Camprodon (Spain) 2 d. Cambo au 
Bains (Pyrenees) ; pianist to the Span- 
ish court, composer. He studied in 
childhood with Marmontel, then toured 
America and Europe, and finally re- 
turned to study again in the Brussels 
Cons. He wrote songs, operas, operet- 
tas, an oratorio, and pianoforte works 
which show relationship with the 
modern impressionistic school of 
France. Pioneer in the modern renais- 
sance of Spanish music. Ref.: III. 362f, 
404, W5f; V. 120; VII. 339; IX. 477. 

[d'JALBERGATI (1) Pirro Capacel- 
li, Conte (1663-1735): b. Bologna, d. 
there; composer of oratorios, church 
music, instrumental pieces and canta- 
tas. Ref.: VII. 391. (2) Aldobrandini 
(17th cent.) : Bolognese composer. 

[d»] ALBERT (1) Charles L. N. 
(1809-1886) : b. Nienstetten, near Altona, 
d. London; professor of dancing and 
composer of dance music. (2) Eagen 


(1864- ): b. Glasgow, Scotland, 
son of (1) ; pupil Ernest Pauer, Prout 
and Sullivan in London, of Hans 
Richter in Vienna, and Liszt in Wei- 
mar; resident in Vienna; distinguished 
not only as piano virtuoso but also as 
composer. He has written 2 concertos 
for the piano, one for the 'cello, a 
symphony, 2 overtures, 2 string quar- 
tets, a piano sonata and a suite for 
the piano, songs, a choral piece and 
9 operas, including Der Rubin (Carls- 
ruhe, 1893), Ghismonda (Dresden, 
1895), Gemot (Mannheim, 1897), Die 
Abreise (Frankfort, 1898), Kain (Ber- 
lin, 1900), Der Improvisator (Berlin, 
1900), Tiefland (Prague, 1903, also Ber- 
lin, etc., and New York), Flauto solo 
(Prague, 1905), Tragabaldas (Hamburg, 
1907), lzeyl (ib. 1909), Die verschenkte 
Frau (Vienna, 1912), Liebesketten (ib. 
1912), Tote Augen (Dresden, 1914); 
also incidental music, transcriptions of 
Bach organ works, etc. He was mar- 
ried three times, to Teresa Carreiio 
(1892), the singer Hermine Finck (1895) 
and Ida Theumann (1910). Ref.: III. 
viii. 243, 2U, 268; VII. 324, 330; (Bach 
transcription) VI. 440 footnote; IX. 430; 
portrait, VII. 364. 

ALBERT, Heinrich (1604-1651) : 
b. Lobenstein, d. Konigsberg; nephew 
and pupil of Heinrich Schutz; organist 
at Konigsberg Cathedral from 1630; 
composer of Arien (8 parts, 1638-50; 
solo and part-songs, chorales, etc.), a 
cantata consisting of 12 terzets, 2 
Singspiele, Prussiarchus (lost) and 
Clonides (some vocal pieces preserved). 
He wrote the texts of most of his songs. 
A. was one of the first Germans to use 
Italian monody but soon abandoned it 
for polyphony. 

ALBERT, Prince of Saxe-Coburg- 
Saalfeld (1819-1861): b. Schloss-Rose- 
nau, d. London; prince consort of 
Queen Victoria of England; music- 
lover and patron, composer of church 
music and one opera. 

ALBERT V., Duke of Bavaria: 
patron of Orlando di Lasso. Ref.: I. 
307ff; VII. 56, 57. 

ALBERTI (1) Johann Friedrlch 
(1642-1710): b. Toning, d. Merseburg; 
theologian, pupil of Fabricius and Al- 
brici, organist of the cathedral of Merse- 
burg, and composer of church music, 
with a masterly command of counter- 
point. (2) Giuseppe Matteo (1685- 
1746 [?]) : composer of instrumental 
music, concerti, violin sonatas, sin- 
fonie, etc.; concerti for violin, strings 
and bass were pub. in Bologna, Am- 
sterdam and London. (3) Domenico 
(ca. 1707-ca. 1740): b. Venice; pianist, 
singer, composer of operas, motets, 
piano sonatas, etc. One of the first to 
use the hyper-homophonic piano style, 
he has been considered the originator 
of the simple harmonic accompaniment 
formula known as Alberti bass. Ref.: 
II. 55, 56; VII. 48, 97, 107f, 139. (4) 
Karl Edmund Robert (1801-1874) : b. 


Danzig, d. Berlin; theologian, philos- 
opher, and musical dilettante. His mu- 
sical writings are both historical and 
critical; his compositions comprise a 
few books of songs. 

ALBERTINI (1) Gioacchino (1751- 
1811) : d. Warsaw; royal Polish conduc- 
tor; composer of popular Italian opera. 
(2) Michael, known as Momoletto (18th 
cent.) : soprano at the Cassel court. (3) 
Giovanna, called Romanina (18th 
cent.) : sister of Michael, prima donna 

ALBICASTRO, Henrico (Weissen- 

l»ur«r> : Swiss violinist and composer 
of chamber music in the late 17th cent. 

ALBINONI, Tommaso (1674-1745) : 
b. Venice, d. there; composer of 
about fifty operas in typical conven- 
tional Italian style. He wrote also 
concertos, sonatas and fugues, and ex- 
celled in violin playing. Ref. : VII. 399, 

ALBINUS (1) Casionius Rufus (5th- 
6th cent. A.D.) : Roman author of 
Compendium de musica cited by Boe- 
tius. (2) Flaccus. See Alcuinus. 

ALBONI, Marietta (1823-1894): b. 
Cesena, Romagna, d. Ville d'Avray, near 
Paris; operatic contralto, who after 
studying with Rossini, made her debut 
at La Scala in Lucrezia Borgia, 1843. 
Her voice ranged from g- "T, with a 
clearness and purity seldom if ever 
surpassed. Her success and popularity 
were world-wide; she sang in Italy, 
St. Petersburg, London, Paris, and 
North and South America. 

ALBRECHT (1) Johann Matthaus 
(1701-1769) : b. Osterbehringen, near 
Gotha, d. Frankfort; organist at Frank- 
fort. (2) Johann Lorenz, called 'Mag- 
ister* (1732-1773) : b. Gormar, near 
Muhlhausen, d. Miihlhausen; Gymna- 
sium teacher and organist in Muhl- 
hausen; musical editor and critic of 
note; published an edition of Adlung's 
Musica mechanica and Siebengestirn 
(1768), wrote 2 treatises on philosophical 
aspects of music, an elementary theory 
(1761) and contributed articles to Mar- 
purg's Kritische Beitrdge. Composed 
a Passion, some cantatas and harpsi- 
chord lessons. (3) Karl (1807-1863) : 
b. Posen, d. Gatschina; studied with 
Schnabel in Breslau; violinist and di- 
rector of a travelling troupe ; for 12 years 
conductor of the Imperial Russian opera 
at St. Petersburg; director of Philhar- 
monic concerts and singing teacher at 
Gatschina. He composed one mass, one 
ballet, 3 string quartets, etc. (4) Kon- 
stantin Karl (1836-1893) : b. Elberfeld, 
d. Moscow; son of Karl; 'cellist in 
Moscow Imperial Theatre, one of the 
founders of the Cons, there (1860) in 
which he later taught. He composed 
songs, choruses, etc., wrote an Unter- 
suchung fiber die Ausfiihrung der Tem- 
pi in den Kammermusikwerken Klass- 
ischer Autoren. (5) Eugen Maria 
(1842-1894) : b. St. Petersburg, d. there ; 
son of Karl and trained by David at 



the Leipzig Cons., conductor of St. Pe- 
tersburg Italian opera, director of music 
in military schools, inspector of mu- 
sic at the Imperial theatres and founder 
of the Society of Chamber Music in St. 


Georg (1736-1809) : b. Klosterneuburg, 
d. Vienna; regens chori at the Carmelite 
monastery, court organist and conduc- 
tor at St. Stephen's, in Vienna; teacher 
of theory with whom Beethoven studied, 
1794, composer of fugues for organ and 
piano, string quartets, quintets, trios, 
organ preludes, masses, oratorios, sym- 
phonies, etc. Only 27 of his 261 com- 
positions appeared in print. His 
Griindliche Anweisung zur Komposition, 
the best of his theoretical works, passed 
through two editions in Germany and 
was translated into French and English. 
Ref.: II. 63, 138; VI. 458. 

ALBRICI, Vincenzo (1631-1696): b. 
Rome, d. Prague; organist, composer 
and conductor. He served as organist 
for Queen Christina, for the Elector 
at Dresden and as chapel composer in 
London. In 1680 he left Dresden to 
become organist at the Thomaskirche 
at Leipzig; later returned to Prague. 

AIiCAROTTI, Giovanni Francesco 
(16th cent.) : Italian organist, who 
published 2 books of madrigals (1567, 
1569) and a book of lamentations in 

ALCOCK (1) John (1715-1806): b. 
London, d. Litchfield; organist. He 
studied under Stanley, the renowned 
blind organist, was subsequently organ- 
ist at churches in London, Reading, 
Plymouth and in the cathedral at Litch- 
field. 1761 Oxford bestowed upon him 
the title of doctor of music. His com- 
positions include religious works, songs 
and 7-part instr. concertos, also pub. 
collections of church music. (2) John 
(1743-1791): son of (1), organist. 

ALCUINUS (Albinus), Flaccus 
(735-804) : b. York, d. Tours, where he 
had been abbot for about three years; 
author of a fragment contained in 
Gerbert's Scriptores I, the oldest extant 
account of the 8 church tones. 

ALl) A, Frances (real name Francis 
Davis) (1883- ): b. New Zealand; 
debut Opera Comique, Paris; sang op- 
era in Brussels, London, Milan, War- 
saw, New York, etc.; married Giulio 
Gatti-Casazza, dir. of Met. Opera 
House, New York. Ref.: IV. 153. 

ALDAY (1) the father, an inhabit- 
ant of Perpignan, b. 1737, played the 
mandolin. (2) the elder son, b. 1763, 
player of mandolin and violin at Con- 
cert Spirituels, founder of music busi- 
ness in Lyons, 1795, author of violin 
method. (3) Paul (1764-1835), the 
younger son, violinist at Concert Spir- 
ituels, conductor and music teacher in 
Edinburgh and Dublin, composer of 
violin concertos, duos, etc. 

ALDEN, John Carver (1852- ): 
b. Boston, Mass.; studied there and in 


Leipzig; taught in New Eng. Cons, and 
the Quincy Mansion School and com- 
posed piano pieces, anthems, etc. 

ALDER, Richard Ernst (1853-1904) : 
b. Herisau, Switzerland, d. Bois Colon- 
be, near Paris; operatic conductor at 
Toulouse and Algiers, also conducted 
at Trouville, Cannes, Biarritz, and the 
Association Artistique at Marseilles. 
He composed for orchestra, pianoforte 
and chorus, and revised French operas. 

ALDOVRANDINI. See Aldrovan- 
drini (correct form). 

ALDRICH (1) Henry (1647-1710) : b. 
London, d. Oxford; theologian, his- 
torian, architect and composer. As 
deacon of Christ Church, he collected 
a library of music second only to that 
of the British Museum. He is also a 
composer, whose catches are still sung 
to-day. (2) Richard (1863- ) : b. 
Providence, R. I.; music critic; grad. 
Harvard, where he studied music un- 
der J. K. Paine. In 1885 he became 
music critic and editor for the 'Provi- 
dence Journal,' then sojourned abroad, 
studying music. In 1891 he became 
associated with H. E. Krehbiel as music 
critic of the New York 'Tribune,' and 
since 1902 has been critic of the N. Y. 
'Times'; pub. 'guides' to Wagner 
operas. Ref.: (cited) VI. 341; IX. 
484. (3) Mariska (1881'- ): b. 
Boston; dramatic soprano, pupil of Gi- 
raudet and Georg Henschel; made her 
debut at Manhattan Opera House, New 
York, later sang at the Metropolitan 
Opera House; sang Briinnhilde at 
Bayreuth, 1914. (4) Perley Dunn 
(1863- ): b. Blackstone, Mass.; stud- 
ied at New England Cons., with Shake- 
speare in London and with Trabadello 
and Sbriglia in Paris; professor of mu- 
sic, Univ. of Kansas, 1885-87, at Utica 
Cons., 1889-91, in Rochester, 1891-1903, 
in Philadelphia, 1903-11, in New York, 
since 1911; has composed a cantata, 
choruses, songs, etc.; author of 'Vocal 
Economy' (1895). 

tonio (ca.1673-1707) : b. Bologna; was a 
court conductor and dramatic com- 
poser. His music is for the most 
part vocal, consisting of 15 operas and 
6 oratorios. He wrote also chamber 
concertos and chamber sonatas a 3. 

[d'JALEMBERT, Jean le Rond 
(1717-83) : b. Paris, d. there; acoustician 
and theorist. Wrote Aliments de mu- 
sique theorique ct pratique, suivant les 
principes de M. Rameau (1752), a de- 
tailed treatise on Rameau's theories, also 
several Recherches on acoustic ques- 
tions and a Histoire de la musique 
francaise. Most of his writings were 
translated into German. He contrib- 
uted musical articles to the Diction- 
naire encyclopedique edited by A. and 
Diderot (1751-72). Like his contem- 
porary Parisian academicians, [d']- 
Alembert had neither knowledge of nor 
interest in instrumental music. Ref.: 
IX. 58. 



ALESSANDRI, Felice (1747-1798): 
b. Rome, d. Casinalbo; maestro di cap- 
pella at Turin, then in Paris, London, 
etc., second Kapellmeister at the Ber- 
lin Royal Opera, 1789-92. His works, 
which had only ephemeral success, in- 
cluded chiefly operas, 32 of which were 
produced in thirty years. He also 
wrote a ballet, an oratorio, trio sonatas, 
symphonies, etc. 

del la Viola). See Merlo. 

ALEXANDRE, Jacob (1840-1876) : 
d. Paris; one of the first makers of 
harmoniums (accordions, melodiums), 
popular under the name of 100-franc 
organs. He acquired the patents of 
Alexandre Martin [de Provins], who 
became a silent partner till 1855, but 
later fought the firm in the courts. In 
1868 the house failed through A.'s 
speculations. He wrote a Methode pour 
VAccordeon (1839) and a Notice on his 
harmoniums. His son £douard (1824- 
1888) was associated with his father, 
and 6douard's wife, Charlotte (nee 
Dreyfus), was a virtuoso on the har- 
monium. A new kind of harmonium, 
the Alexandre organ, was brought out 
by the firm in 1874, being an improve- 
ment on the so-called American organ. 

ALFANO, Franco (1876- ): Ital- 

ian composer; studied at Leipzig Cons.; 
wrote operas Die Quelle von Enschir [La 
Fonte d'Enscot] (1898), Risurrezione 
(1904), 11 Principe Zila (1909); a sym- 
phony in E minor; Suite Romantica 
and piano pieces. Ref.: III. 389, 390; 
VIII. 446, 448. 

ALFARABI, or Elfarabi, or Al- 
pharabius, or Farabi (ca. 900-ca. 950) : 
Arabic theoretician, whose correct 
name was Abu Nasser Mohammed Ben 
Tarchau; authority on Greek scales. 

ALFIERI, Abbate Pietro (1801- 
1863) : b. Rome, d. there; Camaldulen- 
sian monk; professor of singing at the 
English College in Rome; wrote Accom- 
pagnato coll'organo, etc. (directions for 
accompanying church chants) ; also 
works on the revival of Gregorian 
chants (1843), etc., a treatise on Grego- 
rian chant (1855), historical, biograph- 
ical essays (Bettoni, Jomelli) ; edited 
collections of works by Palestrina, Vit- 
toria, Allegri, Anerio, also Raccolta di 
musica sacra (the first collective edition 
of Palestrina's works, 7 vols., 1841-46) ; 
and translated Catel's 'Harmony' into 
Italian (1840). 

ALFORD, J. (16th cent.) : London 
lutenist, translated Le Roy's text book 
for lutenists, 1568. 

ALFVfiN, Hugo (1872- ): b. 

Stockholm; studied with Lindgren 
there; violinist in court orchestra and 
composer of 3 symphonies, 2 symphon- 
ic poems, pianoforte works, marches, 
sonata for violin and a Swedish 
Rhapsody. He taught at the Univ. of 
Stockholm and became musical director 
in that of Upsala. Ref.: III. 69, 84; 
VIII. 470. 


ALGAROTTI, Francesco, Conte 
(1712-1764): b. Venice, d. Pisa; cham- 
ber musician to Frederick the Great, 
opera librettist, author of Saggio sopra 
Vopera in musica (1755). 

[d'JALHEIM. See Dalheim. 

ALIAN1, Francesco (19th cent.): b. 
Piacenza; violinist and 'cellist; teacher 
composer and player of 'cello, first 'cel- 
list at Piacenza theatre. 

ALIPRANDI (1) Bernardo (18th 
cent.) : b. Tuscany; Bavarian court 'cel- 
list and composer; later (1750) concert- 
master; composed a few operas and 
a Stabat Mater. (2) Bernardo, son of 
(1); first 'cellist ca. 1780 at Munich; 
composer for 'cello and viola da gamba. 

ALIZARD, Ad. Joseph L. (1844- 
1850) : b. Paris, d. Marseilles; bass and 
later baritone. 

ALKAIOS (625-575): Greek poet. 
Ref.: I. 115. 

ALKAN (1) Charles-Henrl-Valen- 
tln (correctly Morhange) (1813-1888): 
b. Paris, d. there; studied at the Con- 
servatoire and at 10 received the first 
piano prize; from 1831 taught and 
played in the Conservatoire con- 
certs. He wrote a piano sonata, 
studies, marches, a concerto, etc. Ref.: 
VII. 342ff. (2) Napoleon Morhange 
(1826- ): b. Paris; brother of (1) ; 
pianist, composer for piano. 

ALLACCI, Leone, or Leo Allatius 
(1586-1669): b. Chios, d. Rome; libra- 
rian at the Vatican; archeologist and 
writer of Drammaturgia (1666), a cata- 
logue of great historical worth; a sec- 
ond edition, brought up to date, was 
published 1755 at Venice. 

ALLAN, Maud: contemporary dancer. 
Ref.: III. 321; X. 201, 206; portrait, 
X. 210. 

ALLEGRI (1) Gregorio (1584- 
1652): b. Rome; studied with G. M. 
Nanini; papal chapel singer from 
1629, composer of a 9-part Miserere 
which was sung during Holy Week 
in the Sistine Chapel, and which 
could not be copied (first pub. by 
Burney in 1771). A. also pub. 2 books 
of Concertini 2-4 v. (1618-19), 2 books 
motets 2-6 v. (1621), a 4-part sonata 
for strings, and left in MS. a great 
number of church compositions, pre- 
served in S. Maria, Vallicella, the 
Papal chapel and the Santini Library. 
Ref.: VI. 66f; VII. 475. (2) Domenlco 
(17th cent.) : composer; maestro di 
cappella at S. Maria Maggiore, Rome; 
composed motets, etc.; one of the first 
to provide independent instrumental 
accompaniment to vocal music. 

ALLEN (1) George Benjamin (1822- 
1897) : b. London, d. Brisbane, Queens- 
land; organist in Kensington, director 
of opera in Brisbane, composer of 
opera, cantata, pianoforte pieces and 
songs. (2) Edward Heron- (1861-) : 
b. St. John's Wood; author of bib- 
liography of writings on violin and 
■Violin Making as It Was and Is' (1884). 
(3) Nathan H. (1848- ) : b. Marion, 



Mass.; studied in Berlin, taught in 
Hartford, where he played the organ 
and was known as composer of can- 
tatas. (4) Henry Robinson (1809- 
1876): b. Cork, d. London; operatic 
bass in London theatres; after retire- 
ment taught and wrote popular bal- 
lades. (5) Hugh (1869- ) : b. 
Reading; organist at Chichester Ca- 
thedral, also Oxford; musical director 
at Reading University College. (6) 
Paul: contemp. American composer. 
Ref.: IV. 449. (7) William Francis: 
American compiler of negro folk-songs. 
Ref.: (quot. on negro music) IV. 289, 
295 301 304. 

ALLIAMATULA (Roman dancer). 
Ref.: X. 77. 

ALLIHN, Heinrich (Max) (1841- 
1910): b. Halle-on-Saale, d. there; 
clergyman and school-inspector at Ath- 
enstadt, near Halberstadt, then in 
Halle; wrote on organ construction, on 
the piano and the harmonium, etc. 

ALLISON (1) Richard (16th cent.): 
London music teacher, contributor to 
Este's collections of psalms, also com- 
poser of part-songs, etc. (2) Robert: 
possibly related to (1), member of 
Chapel Royal ca. 1609. (3) Horton C. 
(1846- ): b. London; studied Royal 
Academy, Leipzig Conservatory and 
Dublin; taught and composed in Man- 
chester for piano, organ and voice. 

ALLITSEN, Frances (d. London, 
1912) : English singer and composer of 
songs (settings of Heine, Tennyson, 
etc.). Ref.: III. 443. 

ALLON, Henry Erskine (1864- 
1897) : b. Canonbury; composer of pop- 
ular cantatas and choral ballades. 

ALLWOODE (16th cent.) : composer 
of Church music in England. 

ALMAGRO, Antonio Lopez (1839-) : 
b. Murcia, Spain; pianist and com- 

[d'] ALMEIDA, Fernando (ca. 1618- 
1660): b. Lisbon; church composer. 

ALMENRADER, Karl (1786-1843) : 
b. Ronsdorf , d. Nassau ; virtuoso on bas- 
soon, teacher of his instrument at 
Cologne; played in orchestras at Frank- 
fort-on-Main and at Mayence. He es- 
tablished a factory at Cologne for 
wind-instruments, but abandoned it in 
1818 to enter the court band at Bieb- 
rich. He improved the bassoon and 
wrote a pamphlet on the subject; also 
composed for voice and for wind and 
string instruments. 

ALOIS, Ladislav (1860- ): b. 
Prague; solo 'cellist of the Imperial 
Orchestra, St. Petersburg; composer of 
concertos and other pieces for 'cello, 
piano pieces, songs, etc. 

ALPHARABIUS. See Alfarabi. 

ALPHEGE. Bishop of Winchester. 
Ref.: VI. 401. 

ALPHERAKY, Achilles Nicholaie- 
vitch (1846- ) : b. Kharkoff; composer 
of pianoforte works, more than 100 
songs, an a cappella mixed chorus, etc. 
Ref.: III. 136. 


[d»]ALQ,UEN (1) [Peter Cornelius] 
Johann (1795-1863) : b. Arnsberg, West- 
phalia, d. Miilheim-on-Rhine ; aban- 
doned medicine for music and wrote 
popular songs. (2) Friedrich (1810- 
1887): b. Arnsberg, d. London; forsook 
his study of law to become the pupil 
of Ries; violinist and teacher in Brus- 
sels and London; composed and pub- 
lished works for piano, violin and 
piano, etc. 

ALSAGER, Thomas Massa (1779- 
1846) : English musical critic and pa- 
tron, executant on all orchestral instru- 
ments and introducer of foreign mu- 
sicians to English audiences through 
private concerts. 

ALSHALABI, Mohammed (15th 
cent.) : Spanish- Arabian theorist; his 
work on musical instruments is still 
extant in the Escurial. 

ALSLEBEN, Julius (1832-1894) : b. 
Berlin, d. there; student of Oriental 
languages and music, teacher of piano; 
founded the Musiklehrerverein ; pub. 
Abriss ■ der Geschichte der Musik; 
Kleines Tonkiinstlerlexikon (1864) ; 
tiber die Entwickelung des Klavier- 
spiels (1870), etc. 

ALSTEDT, Johann Heinrich (1588- 
1638) : b. Bellersbach, near Herborn, 
Nassau, d. Weissenburg; theologian, 
philologist and author of works on 
musical theory. 

ALTANI, Hyppolit (1846- ): Bu- 

manian composer; studied with Zarem- 
ba and Bubinstein, conducted provin- 
cial theatres until 1882, when he be- 
came director of the Moscow Boyal 

ALTENBURG (1) Michael (1584- 
1640) : b. Alach, near Erfurt, d. Erfurt; 
deacon at St. Andreas' Church, com- 
poser of vocal church music, some with 
instruments. (2) Johann Ernst (1736- 
1801): b. Weissenfels, d. Bitterfeld; 
trumpeter, organist; wrote on the 
'heroic trumpeters' and drummers' art.' 

ALTfiS (1) Joseph-Henri (1826- 
1895): b. Bouen, d. Paris; flutist at 
the Paris Opera; prof, at the Conser- 
vatoire, where he had previously stud- 
ied. He wrote some compositions for 
his instrument. (2) Ernest-Eugene 
(1830-1899) : b. Bouen, d. St. Dye, near 
Blois; violinist in the orchestras 
of the Opera and the Concerts Spir- 
ituels. He was deputy conductor of 
the Opera for many years, a member 
of the Legion of Honor and composer 
of sonatas, a string quartet, a sym- 
phony, etc. 

ALTHOUSE, Paul (1889- ): b. 

Beading, Pa.; dramatic tenor; studied 
with P. R. Stephens and Oscar Saenger 
in New York; debut as Dimitri in Boris 
Godunoff at the Metropolitan Opera 
House, 1913; created the Duke d'Esterre 
in Herbert's Madeleine, 1914, and the 
Conte de Neipperg in Giordano's Ma- 
dame Sans-Gene (1915) ; also sings in 
concert and oratorio. 

ALTMANN, Wilhelm (1862- ) : b. 



Adelnau; studied violin in Breslau, his- 
tory in Marburg and Berlin (Dr. phil.), 
became librarian in 1886, since 1900 in 
the Berlin Boyal Library, where he be- 
came chief of the music division in 
1914; 'professor' since 1905; head of 
the Deutsche Musiksammlung since 
1906; music critic (since 1912 for the 
Norddeutsche Allg. Zeitung), etc. He 
wrote Chronik des Berliner Philhar- 
monischen Orchesters (1902), H. von 
Herzogenberg (1903), offentliche Musik- 
bibliotheken (1903), and on Wagner's and 
Brahms' correspondence; edited cham- 
ber music by Stamitz, M. Haydn, etc. 

ALTNIKOL, Johann Christoph 
([?]-1759): d. Naumburg, whither he 
went as organist and composer. He 
studied with J. S. Bach, whose daughter, 
Elizabeth Juliane Friederike, he mar- 
ried. Two piano sonatas and a sacred 
cantata are extant in the Berlin Boyal 

ALVAREZ (1) Fermin Maria ([?]- 
1898): b. Saragossa, d. Barcelona; com- 
posed about 100 vocal pieces with in- 
strumental accompaniment, also piano 
works. (2) Albert Raymond Gourron: 
b. Bordeaux, tenor at Ghent (debut), 
Paris Opera, Met. Opera, N. Y. (1898). 

ALVARY, Max, stage-name for Max 
Achenbach (1858-1898) : b. Dusseldorf, 
d. Gross-Tabarz ; studied with Stock- 
hausen; operatic tenor at Weimar, Mu- 
nich, New York, Hamburg and Mann- 
heim. Ref.: IV. 140, 145, 147. 

[d'JALVIMARE. See Dalvimabe. 

ALVSLEBEN, Melitta. See Otto- 


ALWOOD, Richard (ca. 1550) : priest 
and composer in England, whose mass 
and organ works are preserved in Ox- 
ford and in Hawkins' 'History of 

ALYPITJS (4th cent.) : Greek writer 
to whose 'Introduction to Music,' 
printed by Meursius (1616), Kircher 
(1650) and Meibom (1652), containing 
extensive tables of the Greek transpo- 
sition scales, we owe complete under- 
standing of Greek notation. 

AMADE (1) Lad is law, Baron von 
(1703-1764): b. Kaschau, Hungary, d. 
Felbar; poet and composer of folk 
songs. (2) Thaddaus, Baron von 
(1782-1845): b. Pressburg, d. Vienna; 
pianist, famous improvisator, pub. the 
folk-tunes of (1) ; helped to pay for 
Liszt's training. 

AMADEI, Roberto (1840- ) : b. 

Loreto, Italy; organist and maestro di 
cappella there; composed 4 operas, 
church, vocal and pianoforte music. 

AMADINO, Riccardo: Venetian mu- 
sic publisher (1583-1615). 

AMALARIUS. Ref.: I. 137f. 

AM ALIA (1) Anna A., sister of 
Frederick the Great (1723-1787): com- 
posed excellent chorales which are pre- 
served in Berlin. (2) Anna A., Duchess 
of Weimar (1739-1807) : composed mu- 
sic to Erwin und Elmire by Goethe. (3) 
Marie A. Friederike of Saxony (1794- 


1870): b. Dresden, d. there; composed 
church music and operas as Amalib 

AMANI, Nicholas (1875-1904): pu- 
pil of Bimsky-Korsakoff ; Bussian com- 
poser of variations, suites, valses, pre- 
ludes, and other music. Ref.: III. 145. 

AMATI: family of famous makers of 
violins, 16th-17th centuries. Ref.: I. 
362. (1) Andrea (ca. 1530-1611) : mak- 
er of violins when the model had just 
evolved from the viola. Ref.: VII. 375; 
VIII. 73. (2) Nicola: brother of Andrea, 
maker of bass viols. Ref.: VIII. 73. (3) 
Antonio (1555-1638): son of (1), made 
violins while the instrument's size still 
varied. (4) Girolamo the 1st (1556- 
1630): brother of (3) and associated 
with him. His violins are rather large. 
Ref.: VIII. 73. (5) Nicola (1596-1684): 
son of Girolamo ; greatest of the family ; 
teacher of Stradivari and Guarneri. (6) 
Francesco Alessandro, son of Giro- 
lamo the 1st. (7) Girolamo the 2nd 
(1649-1740): son of Nicola (5). (8) Giu- 
seppe (early 17th cent.) : maker of 
violins and double basses famous for 
beautiful clear tone; may have be- 
longed to famous A. family. 

AMATO, Pasquale (1878- ): b. 
Naples; operatic baritone; debut at 
Teatro Bellini, Naples, 1900; sang in 
Buenos Aires and Milan, and in Bus- 
sia, England, Egypt and Germany; 
as member of the Metropolitan Opera 
Company he has sung in leading roles 
in Rigoletto, A'ida, La Giaconda, Tris- 
tan, Trovatore, I Pagliacci; created 
roles in Puccini's 'Girl of the Golden 
West,' and Giordano's Madame Sans- 

AMATUS, Vincentins (1629-1670) : 
b. Ciminna, Sicily, d. Palermo; cathe- 
dral conductor there and composer of 
church music and 1 opera. 

AMRROGIO, Alfredo. Ref. : VI. 393. 

AMBROS, August Wilhelm (1816- 
1876) : b. Mauth, near Prague, d. Vien- 
na, studied legal science and became 
state's attorney in Prague and later 
(1872) entered the ministry of justice 
in Vienna, but, having made extensive 
musical studies also acted as music 
critic in Prague, became professor of 
music at the Univ. there, 1869, and a 
director and teacher of musical his- 
tory at the Cons. In Vienna he taught 
the Crown Prince Budolf and was also 
professor at the Cons. He also com- 
posed considerable church music, piano 
pieces, a national Bohemian opera, 
overtures, songs, etc. His fame, how- 
ever, rests on his achievements as a 
historian. In 1856 he pub. as a reply 
to Hanslick's Vom Musikalisch-Schonen, 
Die Grenzen der Poesie und Musik, 
which brought him in contact with 
Liszt. Under the pseudonym Flamin 
he contributed to the Neue Zeitschrift 
fur Musik. 4 vols, of his great Ge- 
schichte der Musik (only to early 17th 
cent.) appeared in Leipzig 1862-78 (va- 
riously reworked by others), a 5th vol. 


was compiled from posthumous mate- 
rial by O. Kade (1882). He wrote fur- 
ther Kulturhistorische Bilder aus dem 
Musikleben der Gegenwart (I860, 2nd 
ed. 1865), Bunte Blatter (2 vols. 1872, 
1874), Das Konservatorium in Prag 
(1858), and other historical and theo- 
retical studies. Ref.: (cited) I. 263, 
271ff, 315; VI. 68. 

AMBROSCH, Joseph Karl (1759- 
1822): b. Crumnau, d. Berlin; operatic 
tenor trained by Kozeluch, sang in 
Berlin National Theatre, composed pop- 
ular songs. 

[St.] AMBROSE], or Ambrosius 
(333-397) : b. Treves, d. Milan. As 
Bishop there he developed the church 
ritual and introduced the antiphonary 
responses and hymns of the Eastern 
church into the Roman, and composed 
many hymns himself. A.'s reputed in- 
vention of letter notation is mere 
legend. Ref.: I. 135ff, 142f; VI. 8ff, 
484; mus. ex., VIII. 4. 

AMERBACH. See Ammerbach. 

AMERUS, or Aumerus (13th cent.) : 
theorist of English origin, who wrote 
Practica artis musica in the house of 
Cardinal Ottoboni (1271). 

AMES (1) John Carlowitz (I860-): 
b. Bristol, England; operatic composer; 
prod. 1898, 'The Last of the Incas.' (2) 
Philip (1837-1908): d. Durham; pro- 
fessor of music and cathedral organist 

AMEYDEJT, Christ (16th cent.) : 
composer of church music. 

AMPT, Gcorg (1873- ) : b. Ober- 

hannsdorf, near Glatz, Silesia; studied 
in Berlin, edited old organ music, etc., 
and wrote choruses, piano pieces, etc. 

AMICIS, Anna Lucia de (1740?- 
[?]): b. Naples; operatic soprano, 
whose debut was made in London 
under J. C. Bach and who was greatly 
admired by Mozart. 

Father AMIOT (1718-1794) : b. Tou- 
lon, d. Pekin ; missionary to the Chinese, 
and translator into French of a mu- 
sical work of Li-Koang-Ti. 

AMMERBACH, or Amerbach, Elias 
Nikolaus (ca. 1540-1597) : b. Naumburg, 
d. Leipzig; organist of the Thomas- 
kirche; produced two tablature books 
for organ. Ref.: VI. 428. 

AMMON (1) Blasius ([?]-1500): b. 
in the Tyrol, d. Vienna; court sopranist 
for Ferdinand of Austria, Franciscan 
monk in Venice and Vienna; composed 
masses and motets published in Vienna 
and Munich. (2) Johann Andreas. 
See Amon. 

AMNER (1) John (d. 1641) : organ- 
ist and choirmaster at Ely Cathedral; 
composer of church music. (2) Ralph: 
son of John; bass in the Royal Chapel 
at Windsor (1623-1662). 

AMON, Johann Andreas (1763- 
1825): b. Bamberg, d. ottingen; wald- 
horn virtuoso, pupil of Punto, with 
whom he travelled, and in composition 
of Sacchini; municipal Musikdirektor 
and publisher in Heilbronn, 1789, Ka- 


pellmeister to the Prince of Ottingen- 
Wallerstein from 1817. He pub. over 
100 works (sonatas for various instru- 
ments, trios, quartets, etc., concertos, a 
symphony, songs) ; while masses, 2 
Singspiele, etc., remained in MS. 

AMPHION: Greek musician of myth- 
ical origin. Ref.: I. 93f, 111. 

[d'^ANA, Francesco (16th cent.) : 
Venetian writer of frottole printed by 

ANACKER, August Ferdinand 
(1790-1854): b. Freiberg, Saxony, d. 
there; cantor, director of music and 
teacher at Freiberg; founded a choral 
society and directed the mining music 
corps; composed 2 cantatas, part-songs, 
miners' songs, piano pieces, etc. 

ANACREON (B. C. 562?-477) : Greek 
lyric poet of Tevo, Ionia. Ref.: I. 115f. 

ANCHIETA, Juan de (ca. 1450- 
1523): b. Arpeitia, Biscaya, d. there; 
tenor, court conductor and composer of 
a mass on the tenor Ea judicos. 

ANCOT (1) Jean (1779-1848) : pupil 
of Kreutzer and Baillot, father of Jean 
and Louis. He composed violin con- 
certos. (2) Jean (1799-1829): b. 
Bruges, d. Boulogne; trained at the 
Conservatoire, professor and pianist 
in London, toured Belgium and wrote 
more than 225 compositions in less 
than 30 years, including concertos, 
overtures, fugues, etc. (3) Louis (1803- 
1836): d. Bruges; brother of (2); pian- 
ist who toured the continent and lived 
in London, Boulogne and Tours. 

ANDER, Aloys (1817-1864) : b. Liebi- 
titz, Bohemia, d. Bad Wartenberg; 
tenor in Vienna court opera. 

ANDERS, Gottfried Engelbert 
(1795-1866) : b. Bonn, d. Paris; archeol- 
ogist and music custodian in Royal 
(National) Library of Paris; author of 
monographs on Paganini and Beethoven 
and on the history of the violin. Ref.: 
II. 405. 

ANDERSEN (1) Karl Joachim 
(1847-1909): b. Copenhagen; flutist; 
member of the Royal Orchestra, Copen- 
hagen, the Italian Opera, St. Peters- 
burg, the Bilse Orchestra, Berlin, vice- 
conductor of the Berlin Philharmonic. 
In 1895 he returned to Copenhagen 
where he founded the Palace Orchestra 
and the Orchestra School. He com- 
posed pieces for flute with orch. and 
with piano (etudes, fantasies, etc.). (2) 
Vigo (1852-1895) : b. Copenhagen, d. 
Chicago; solo flutist in the Thomas 
Orchestra ; distinguished as flute vir- 
tuoso. (3) Hans Christian. Ref.: III. 
71, 74; X. 167. 

(1835- ): b. New York; pianist and 
composer. She has made excellent ar- 
rangements of Spohr and Mendelssohn 

ANDERSON (1) Thomas (1836- 
1903): b. Birmingham, England, d. 
there; critic, organist and composer. (2) 
Lucy [Philpot] (1790-1878) : b. Bath, d. 
London ; self-taught concert-pianist, 



who married Mr. George Frederick An- 
derson, the violinist. She was the 
first woman pianist with the London 
Philharmonic; teacher of Queen Vic- 
toria. (3) Angelo: contemporary pian- 
ist who studied with Stojowsky and 
Paderewsky. (4) Arthur Olaf: con- 
temp. American composer. Ref.: IV. 

ANDERTON, Thomas (1836- ) : 

b. Birmingham; organist, critic, and 

ANDING, Johann Michael (1810- 
1879) : b. Queienfeld, near Meiningen, 
d. Hildburghausen ; composer; teacher 
in the Hildburghausen seminary; pub- 
lished text books, school song books 
and part songs. 

[d'JANDRADE, Francesco (1859-) : 
b. Lisbon; baritone; sang first in San 
Remo in A'ida, since throughout Europe. 

ANDRfi (1) Johann (1741-1799): b. 
Offenbach, d. there; was theatre con- 
ductor in Berlin; composed Singspiele 
and numerous songs, etc.; founded a 
music engraving plant in Offenbach, 
which became the important A. pub- 
lishing house in 1874. Ref.: V. 191f. 
(2) Johann Anton (1775-1842): b. 
Offenbach, son of (1) ; acquired Mo- 
zart's posthumous MSS., which made 
his firm world-famous; composed 
church and instrumental music and 
wrote text books, Mozart catalogues, 
etc. (3) Karl August (1806-1857): d. 
Frankfort, where he established a 
branch of his father's (2) business, 
also made pianos and wrote a history 
of the instrument. (4) Julius (1808- 
1880),: d. Frankfort, son of (2), organ- 
ist, pianist and organ composer. (5) 
Johann August (1817-1887) : owner of 
the Offenbach house. (6) Karl and 
Adolf (1855-1910): sons of (5), asso- 
ciated in the management of the Andre 
firms. (7) Jean Baptiste (1823-1882) : 
d. Frankfort; Bernberg court conductor, 
pianist, composer for piano and for 

ANDREA, Volkmar (1879- ): b. 

Berne; studied with Munzinger and at 
Cologne; director in Winterthur and in 
Zurich, conductor of symphony con- 
certs; composed music for violin and 
for chorus, also chamber music. 

ANDREAS OF CRETE (650-720) : 
the oldest composer of 'canons' for 
the Greek church; perhaps the author 
of the oldest forms of the melodies 
preserved in MSS. dating back to the 
9th and 10th centuries, the style of 
which is similar to that of the ancient 
Greek hymns. 

ANDRfiE, Elfrida (1841- ): b. 
Wisby, Sweden; composer; pupil of 
Sohrling, Norman and Gade; organist 
successively in Stockholm and at the 
Cathedral of Gothenburg; composer of 
Snofrid, for chorus, a symphony for 
orchestra, 2 symphonies for organ, a 
string quartet, a piano quintet, a pi- 
ano trio, 2 romanzas for violin, piano 
pieces and songs. See Stenhammar. 


ANDREOL.I (1) Guglielmo (1835- 
1860): b. Mirandola, d. Nice; pianist 
of distinction who toured Europe, 
composer of chamber music, etc, wrote 
a Manuale d'armonia. (2) Carlo 
(1840- ): b. Mirandola; pianist and 
teacher at Milan Cons., gave successful 
concerts in London. (3) Evangelist a 
(1810-1875): father of Guglielmo and 
Carlo and organist at Mirandola. (4) 
Giuseppe (1757-1832) : b. Milan, d. 
there; harpist and double bass player 
at La Scala, teacher of double bass at 
Milan Cons. 

ANDREOZZI (1) Gaetano (1763- 
1826) : b. Naples, d. Paris; composed 45 
operas for Italian theatres, besides 
others for St. Petersburg and Madrid. 
He wrote also three oratorios and taught 
in Naples and Paris. (2) Anna (1772- 
1802) : b. Florence, d. near Dresden, 
where she sang as prima donna. 

ANDRES, Pater Juan (1740-1817): 
b. Planes, Valencia, d. Rome; patronized 
by Count Bianchi in Mantua, librarian 
to Duke of Parma, to Murat in Naples, 
then guest of the Roman Jesuits. He 
made valuable historical and literary 
researches, several of which were in 
the musical field. 

ANDREVI, Francesco (1786-1853): 
b. Sanabuya, near Lerida, d. Barcelona; 
priest and Spanish cathedral conductor, 
composer of church music and author 
of a method of harmony. 

ANDREWS, Mark: contemp. Ameri- 
can organist and composer. Ref.: IV. 
358f; VI. 501. 

ANDRIEN. See Adrien. 

ANDRIES, Jean (1798-1872): b. 
Ghent, d. there; professor of violin and 
ensemble music, solo violinist in thea- 
tre, director of Ghent Conservatory and 
author of three works on the history of 

ANDRIESSEN, Pelagic (1863- ) : 
b. Vienna, where he studied at the Con- 
servatory, sang in Munich, Berlin, Leip- 
zig, Vienna, Frankfort and with the 
Neumann Wagner troupe. 

[d'JANDRIETJ, Jean Fr. (1684- 
1740): b. Paris; organist of the Royal 
Chapel, composer of Pieces de clavecin, 
Pieces d'orgue, etc. 

ANDROGEONIA (Greek hero). Ref.: 
X. 54. 

ANDROT, Albert Auguste (1781- 
1804): b. Paris; dramatic composer; 
also wrote a requiem. 

ANERIO (1) Felice (ca. 1560-ca. 
1614).: b. Rome, d. there; sopranist at 
St. Peter's, successor of Palestrina as 
composer to papal chapel, co-editor of 
Editio Medicsea of the Graduate, com- 
posed hymns, responses, madrigals and 
canzonetts. Ref.: I. 321. (2) Giovanni 
Francesco (ca. 1567-ca. 1620) : b. Rome, 
d. there; sang under Palestrina at St. 
Peter's, conductor at Verona cathedral 
and prefect of the Jesuit College of 
Rome; composer of madrigals, galli- 
ards, a pastoral dialogue, masses, lit- 
anies, etc. Ref.: I. 321. See Addenda. 



ANET, Baptiste. See Baptiste. Ref.: 
VII. 406. 

ANFOSSI, Pasquale (1727-1797): b. 
Taggia, near Naples, d. Rome; a pupil 
of Piccini, who produced 73 Italian op- 
eras, received favorably except in Paris. 
He directed Italian opera in London, 
Dresden, Prague and Berlin, 1781-83, 
became maestro di cappella at the 
Lateran, 1791, and wrote, besides his 
operas, 12 oratorios, 2 cantatas, masses. 

ANGELERI, Antonio (1801-1880) : b. 
Pieve del Cairo, d. Milan; teacher of 
pianoforte and writer of a method for 
that instrument. 

ANGELET, Charles-Francois (1797- 
1832) : b. Ghent, d. Brussels ; pupil of 
the Conservatoire, teacher in Brussels, 
court pianist to King Wilhelm of Prus- 
sia; composer of piano pieces, a trio 
and a symphony. 

[d']ANGELI, Andrea (1868- ): 
b. Padua, teacher of Italian literature, 
author of a work on Greek music, com- 

Eoser of an opera, church and cham- 
er music. 

[Fra] ANGELICO. Ref.: VII. 373. 

ANGELINI, Bontempi Giovanni, 
Andrea (ca. 1624-1705): b. Perugia; 
court singer and dramatic composer. 

ANGELIS, Girolamo de (1858- ) : 

b. Givita Vecchia; studied at the Milan 
Conservatory, taught there and at the 
Boyal Irish Music Academy, Dublin, 
solo violinist at La Scala, Milan; writ- 
er and composer of an opera, produced 

ANGELONI, Luigi (1758-1842): b. 
Frosinone, Papal States, d. London; 
writer on music. 

ANGERER, Gottfried (1851-1909) : 
b. Waldsee, d. Zurich; studied at Stutt- 
gart and Frankfort, directed choral so- 
cieties and the Zurich Music Academy; 
composed 8 ballads for male chorus 
and other choral works. 

D'ANGLEBERT, Jean Baptiste- 
Henri (1628[?]-1691) : pupil of Cham- 
bonnieres, court clavecinist to Louis 
XIV., author of Pieces de clavecin. 
Ref.: VI. 442, 443; VII. 36, 396f. 

ANGLIN, Mile., ballet dancer. Ref.: 
X. 91. 

ANGRISANI, Carlo (ca. 1760-[?]): 
b. Biggio; operatic bass in Italy, Vi- 
enna, and in 1817 in London; composed 

ANIMUCCIA (1) Giovanni (d. 
Borne, 1571) : maestro of St. Peter's be- 
tween Palestrina's two incumbencies 
(1555-71), and a precursor of that mas- 
ter in style reform; composed Laudi 
spirituali for Neri's (q.v.) • 'oratory' 
(1563, 1570). Among his preserved 
works are 4 books of madrigals, 3- to 6- 
part (1547-65), 1 book of 4-part masses 
(1567) and 1 of 4-part Magnificats 
(1568). Ref.: VI. 224. (2) Paolo ([?]- 
1563): maestro at the Lateran; com- 
poser of whose works only a few are 
preserved in collections. 

anna ivanovna, Empress of 
Russia. Ref.: X. 179. 


Queen, patron of the masque. Ref.: 
X. 83, 84, 119. 

ANNIBALE (1) called II Padovano, 
or Patavinus (1527-1575): b. Padua; 
organist at Venice and Kapellmeister to 
the Archduke Charles at Graz. He 
composed masses, madrigals, ricercari, 
toccatas, etc. (2) Domenico: Italian so- 
pranist, sang under Handel in London. 

[d']ANNUNZIO, Gabriele. Ref.: 
III. 381, 389; VI. 387; VIII. 449; X. 165. 

ANSANI, Giovanni (18th cent.) : Bo- 
man tenor, sang at Copenhagen, London, 
Florence, Borne, etc.; vocal teacher in 
Naples; died after 1815. He composed 
duets and trios and produced one opera. 

ANSCHttTZ (1) Johann Andreas 
(1772-1856): b. Coblenz, d. there; pian- 
ist and distinguished composer for that 
instrument; founder of a musical so- 
ciety and school in Coblenz (now sub- 
ventioned). (2) Carl (1815-1870): b. 
Coblenz, d. New York; son of. (1), 
opera conductor in New York; opened 
an independent German opera season 
there in 1864. Ref.: IV. 132ff. 

ANSELM OF PARMA (or Anselmns 
Georgius Parmensis) (d. 1443) : b. 
Parma; theorist of extensive scholar- 
ship; his work, De harmonia dialogi, 
was discovered in 1824 at Milan. 

ANSORGE (1) [Eduard Beinhold] 
Konrad (1862- ) : b. Buchwald, Si- 
lesia; studied in Leipzig and with 
Liszt; toured America, played in Wei- 
mar and Berlin; taught at Klindworth- 
Scharwenka Cons.; wrote piano so- 
natas, string quartets, etc., choral and 
orchestral works. (2) Max (1862- ) : 
b. Striegan, Silesia; cantor, organist 
and director (Stralsund, Breslau) ; com- 
poser of choruses, motets, and songs. 

ANTEGNATI (1) Bartolomeo (16th 
cent.) : founder of a famous house of 
organ builders. (2) Giovan Francesco: 
son of the above ; maker of harpsichords 
and organs. (3) Giovanni Jacopo: 
built the organ in Milan Cathedral. 
(4) Giovanni Batista: third son of 
(1). (5) Costanzo (1557-ca. 1620): 
organist at Brescia cathedral; composer 
of masses, psalms, madrigals, ricercari, 
etc. Ref.: VI. 423. 

ANTICO, Andrea. See Antiquus, 

ANTINORI, Luigi (1697-[?]): b. 
Bologna; London tenor in 1725. 

ANTIPOFF, Constantin (1859- ) : 

b. Bussia; wrote Allegro symphonique 
for orchestra; etudes, valses, preludes, 
etc., for piano. 

ANTIQUIS (1) [de Mondona], An- 
tiquum, Antiqus, Antigo: 16th cent, 
rival printer to Petrucci, printed a vol. 
of masses by the most eminent mas- 
ters (Josquin, Brumel, etc., 1516) ; also 
composed frottole and canzoni, some of 
which appear also in Petrucci's collec- 
tions (1504-8). (2) Giovanni de (late 
16th cent.) : church maestro at Bari, 
Naples, edited a collection of villanelles 
(2 vols., some numbers by himself), 



also canzonette 2 v. (1584); composed 
4-part madrigals (1584). 

ANTON, Konrad Gottlob (1745- 
1814) : b. Lauban, Prussia, d. Dresden ; 
professor of Oriental languages at 
Wittenberg; wrote on Hebraic metrics. 

(14th-15th cent.) : Italian composer of 
French chansons, extant in Paris and 

ANTONII, Pietro degli (ca. 1645-ca. 
1720) : b. Bologna, d. there ; church 
conductor there, composer of chamber 
cantatas, 3 oratorios, 3 operas, sonate e 
versetti for organ, church sonatas for 
violin, 2 books of masses (2 sop. w. 
cont.), 1 book motets (solo voice and 
strings), etc. 


ANTONIOTTI, Giorgio (18th cent.) : 
Milanese composer of instr. sonatas and 
author of L r arte armonica, translated 
into English, 1760. Ref.: VII. 591. 

15th cent.) : composer of sacred and 
secular music, preserved in Florence. 
Bologna and Oxford. 

ANTONOLINI ([?]-1824): court con- 
ductor and singing teacher in St. Pe- 
tersburg, composed 7 operas and one 

ANTONY (1) Joseph (1758-1836) : 
organist and composer, father of (2) 
Franz Joseph (1790-1837) : b. Minister, 
Westphalia, d. there; cathedral choir 
master and organist, author of text 
books on Gregorian church song, etc. 

APEL, Johann August (1771- 
1816): b. Leipzig, d. there; writer; 
attacked Gottfried Hermann's Ele- 
menta doctrinee metricas with articles 
in the Allegemeine musikalische Zei- 
tung (1807-08) and wrote a Metrik 
himself (2 vols., 1814-16). He was the 
author of the 'Ghost Tales' from which 
Kind took the plot of Weber's Frei- 
schiitz. Ref.: II. 374f; IX. 193. 

APELL, Johann David von (1754- 
1833): b. Cassel, d. there; composer of 
masses, operas, cantatas, etc., author 
of biographical sketches of musicians, 
translator of Piccini's Roland into Ger- 

APIARIUS (1) Mathias (d. 1553): 
Swiss music printer associated with 
Schoffer the younger, 1534-37 in Strass- 
burg, then in Berne. (2) Samuel: son 
of (1) and his successor to the business. 

APOLLO, Greek God, originally of 
physical light and purity, later of all 
spiritual, intellectual and moral vir- 
tues, thus becoming not only the god 
of the Sun and of religious oracles, but 
of poetry and music. To him was at- 
tributed the power which ordained the 
harmonic movement of the Spheres, 
and the invention of the lyre. The 
Pythian games held at Delphi every 
four years were given in his honor, 
the most important place being given 
to the musical contests. Ref.: I. 122; 
X. 54, 56, 59, 69f ; (mysteries) X. 61. 


APPEL, Karl (1812-1895): b. Des- 
sau, d. there; court concert-master and 
composer of male quartets. 

APPENZELDER, Benedictus. See 

APPUNN (1) Georg August Ignaz 
(1816-1885): b. Hanau, d. there; per- 
former on instruments of every variety, 
which he taught at Hanau, where also 
he taught theory and the voice; after 
1860 he worked on his experiments in 
acoustics and constructed a har- 
monium comprising 53 degrees within 
the octave. (2) Anton (1839-1900) : b. 
Hanau, d. there; son of Georg; studied 
at Leipzig Cons, and with his father; 
acoustician, constructed a new form of 
bell; wrote Ein natiiraliches Harmonie- 
system (1893) and on acoustics. 

APRILE, Giuseppe (1738-1814) : b. 
Bisceglia, d. Martina, Apulia; alto; 
sang in Stuttgart, Milan, Florence, and 
Naples, where he taught. He was au- 
thor of 'The Modern Italian Method of 
Singing, with 36 Solfegges' (Lond., 

APTHORP, William Foster (1848-) : 
b. Boston, Mass.; music critic ('Boston 
Transcript' from 1881), author of 
books on Hector Berlioz, 'Musicians and 
Music Lovers,' and 'The Opera, Past 
and Present,' editor of Boston Sym- 
phony concert programs ; teacher in 
Boston National College of Music and 
at the New England conservatory. Ref.: 
IX. (quoted) 3, 5. 

APTOMMAS, John and Thomas: b. 
1826 and 1829; b. Bridgend, Eng.; vir- 
tuosos on harp; teachers and composers 
for their instruments. Thomas also 
wrote a history of the harp, 1CLD. 

ARA, Ugo (1876- ): r. Venice; 
studied violin with Tirindelli at the 
Cons. Benedetto Marcello, Venice, and 
with Cesar Thomson at Liege Cons.; 
violinist in the orchestra of La Fenice, 
Venice; studied composition with Fuchs 
at the Vienna Cons.; since 1903 viola 
player of the Flonzaley Quartet. 

ARAJA, Francesco (1700-1767) : b. 
Nappes, d. Bologna; composed about 22 
operas, produced in Naples, Florence, 
St. Petersburg, etc., including the first 
opera set to a Russian text ('The Chari- 
table Titus,' 1751), also a Christmas 
oratorio. Ref.: X. 180. 

ARANAS, Pedro ([?]-1825): d. 
Cuenca, Spain; priest, cathedral con- 
ductor and composer of church music. 

ARANDA (1) Matheus de (16th 
cent.) : professor of music at Coimbra 
Univ.; author of a work on counter- 
point (1533). (2) del Sessa. See Sessa. 

ARAUXO, or Araujo, Francisco 
Correa de (ca. 1581-1663) : Spanish 
Dominican bishop of Segovia; author 
of an Organ School (1626) and a mu- 
sico-ethical treatise. 

A R B A N , Joseph - Jean - Batiste - 
Laurent (1825-1889) : b. Lyons, d. 
Paris; virtuoso on the cornet, which he 
taught at the Conservatoire. 

ARBOS, E. Fernandez (1863- ): 



b. Madrid; violinist; studied there and 
in Brussels, also with Joachim; concert 
master of the Berlin Philharmonic; 
teacher of violin at Hamburg and Mad- 
rid conservatories, since 1891 at Boyal 
College of Music, London; composed 
violin pieces, piano trios, orchestral 
works and an opera. 

ARBUCKLE, Matthew (1828-1883) : 
d. New York, where he played the cor- 
net and was known as a band-master. 

ARBUTHNOT, John (1667-1735) : 
English court physician in 1709, foun- 
der of Scriblerus Club (1714) and a 
friend of Handel during his stormy 
London days. 

ARCADELT, sometimes Arkadelt, 
Erchadet, Harcadelt, or Arcadet, 
Jacob, Jacques, or Jachet (ca. 1514- 
after 1557): d. Paris; singer in the 
Cappella Julia and Papal Chapel; ac- 
companied the Due de Guise to Paris 
(1555) ; two years later regius musicus. 
He pub. 6 books madrigals (3-4 v., 
1539-44) ; 1 book masses (3-5 v., 1557) ; 
4-part motets (1545) ; chansons, etc., in 
collections. Ref.: I. 273f, 305; VII. 10; 
mus. ex., XIII. 20, 30. 

[d']ARCHAMBEAU (1) Jean-Mi- 
chel (1823-1899): b. Herve, d. Ver- 
vfers; teacher, organist, composer of 
church and salon music in Verviers. 
(2) Ivan (1879- ): b. near Liege; 
'cellist; studied with his father and A. 
Massau at Verviers, with Eidouard 
Jacobs at Brussels, and with Hugo 
Becker at Frankfort; toured as 'cello 
soloist in Germany, Belgium and Scot- 
land; 'cellist of the Flonzaley Quartet 
since. 1903. 

ARCHANGELSKY, Alexander An- 
drejevitcn (1846-) : b. Govt. Pensa, Bus- 
sia; director of church choirs; has 
made concert tours with a choir and 
composed 2 masses, church choruses, 
etc. (using women's voices). Ref.: III. 

ARCHER, Frederick (1838-1901) : b. 
Oxford, d. Pittsburg, Pa.; organist in 
London, Brooklyn, New York, Pitts- 
burg; conductor of Boston Oratorio 
and of the Pittsburg Orchestra; writer 
on organ and editor of the 'Keynote'; 
composed organ pieces and a cantata. 

ARCHILEI, Vittoriat famous Ital- 
ian singer about 1600. Ref.: I. 342; V. 
40; IX. 13 (footnote). 

ARCHILOCHOS (Greek poet). Ref.: 
I. 114f. 

ARCHYTAS (ca. 400-365 B. C.) : 
mathematician at Tarentum and musi- 
cal theorist. 

ARDITI (1) Michele, Marchese 
(1745-1838): b. Presioca, d. Naples; 
archeologist, director of museum; com- 
poser of an opera, cantatas, and instru- 
mental pieces. (2) Luigi (1822-1903): 
b. Crescentino, Vercelli, d. Hove, near 
Brighton; violinist, conductor at Ver- 
celli, Milan, Turin, Havana, New 
York, Constantinople, St. Petersburg, 
and London, where he directed the 
Italian opera; composer of 3 operas, 


instrumental pieces and popular dance 
songs (II bacio ['Kiss Waltz']), etc. 

AREND, Max (1873- ) : b. Deutz- 
on-Bhine; lawyer and musician; writer 
on and exponent of Gluck. 

ARENS, Franz Xavier (1856- ): 

b. Neef, Bhenish Prussia, Germany, 
studied with Bheinberger; conductor, 
teacher and composer in New York; 
founded People's Symphony Concerts 
and affiliated activities, which he con- 
ducts at present; engaged in vocal 
teaching in New York. 

ARE N SKY, Anton Stepanovitch 
(1861-1906) : b. Novgorod, d. Tarioki 
(Finland) ; stud, with Bimsky-Korsa- 
koff at the St. Petersburg Cons.; 
teacher of composition at the Mos- 
cow Cons.; conductor of the court 
chapel choir, St. Petersburg, 1895. Com- 
posed 3 operas, choral works, 1 ballet, 
2 symphonies (B min. and A), 1 trio, 
2 string quartets, 1 piano quintet, 1 
piano concerto, 1 fantasy for piano 
and orch., 3 suites for 2 pianos, pieces 
for orchestra, violin, 'cello, piano (2 
and 4 hands), duets, church music, etc. 
His style leans to the eclecticism of 
Tschaikowsky rather than the national 
character of the Neo-Bussian school. 
He wrote a text-book on harmony (2nd 
ed. 1900) and a manual of form (2 
parts, 2nd ed. 1900). Ref.: III. 28, 143, 
UGff; V. 368; VI. 395; VII. 333; IX. 414; 
X. 183, 224. 

ARETINO, or AretinuM, or d'Arezzo. 
See Guido d'Arezzo. 

[d']AREZZO, Guido. See Guido d' 

[dalijARGINE, Constantino (1842- 
1877) : b. Parma, d. Milan; com- 
poser of popular ballets and operas. 

ARIA, Cesare (1820-1894): b. Bo- 
logna, d. there; singing teacher. 

ARIADNE. Ref.: X. 56. 

Flemish theorist whose Musica (Ger- 
bert's Scriptores, vol. ii) includes a com- 
mentary on Guido d'Arezzo's writings. 

[d']ARIENZO, Nicola (1842- ): 
b. Naples; teacher of counterpoint and 
composition and history at the Boyal 
Conservatory; director from 1879: com- 
poser of 9 operas (3 seria), church, 
chamber and orchestral music, author 
of 2 books of theory, and many works 
of historical interest. See Addenda. 

ARION (7th cent. B. C.) : mythical 
Greek singer whose name is generally 
associated with singing societies. Ref.: 
I. 118. 

ARIOSTI, Attilio (1666-ca. 1740) : b. 
Bologna, d. Spain (?); opera composer, 
first in the style of Lully, then Scarlatti. 
Member of a religious order, he wrote 
a Passion oratorio (1693), etc., in 1695 
entered the service of the court of 
Mantua, then that of Tuscany; was 
court composer in Berlin 1697-1703, 
then went to Vienna and later to Lon- 
don (1715, 1720-27), where he and 
Buononcini had great success till Han- 
del took the field. Some 25 operas 



(favorite arias printed by Walsh), ora- 
torios, cantatas, divertimenti (violin 
and cont. (1695) and Lezioni for viola 
d'amore (1728) constitute his works. 
Ref.: I. 435; IX. 31. 

ARIOSTO. Ref.: I. 328; II. 27. 

cent.): Greek theoretician; author of De 
musica libri VII (printed by Meibom, 
1652, A. Jahn, 1882). Ref.: I. 91; X. 54. 

ARISTOPHANES. Ref.: X. 52, 55, 61. 

ARISTOTLI# (1) (4th cent. B. C), 
he great Greek philosopher, whose writ- 
ings contain few but important expres- 
sions on music. These have been com- 
piled by Karl von Jan in his Musici 
scriptores greeci (1895). Jan also is- 
sued a new edition of the Problemata, 
Sec. XIX (on music), which were as- 
scribed to A. but were probably writ- 
ten during the first and second cent. 

A. D., in Alexandria. Ref.: I. 89, 97; 
V. 55. (2) Pseudonym of a 12th-13th 
cent, writer on measured music. 

ARISTOXENOS: b. Tarentum (354 

B. C.) ; pupil of Aristotle, the most 
important and prolific Greek writer 
on music (writings said to number 
452). Only 2 books, 'Elements of Har- 
mony' and 'Elements of Bhythmics' 
(the latter in fragments), are pre- 
served, and are published by Gogavi- 
nus (1562), Meursius (1616), Meibom 
(1652) ; and in modern times by Mar- 
quard (1868), B. Westphal and F. Sa- 
ran (jointly, 1883 [commentary], 1893 
[text]). Ref.: I. 99, 110. 

ARK, Karl van (1842-1902): d. St. 
Petersburg, pianist, professor at St. 
Petersburg Cons., pub. a 'School of 
Piano Technics.' 

ARKWRIGHT (1) Godfrey Edward 
Pellew (1864- ) : editor of The Old 
English Edition, in which are collected 
works of Arne, Campion, Boyce, Tye, 
Purcell, etc.; edited the 'Musical An- 
tiquary', 1909-13. (2) Marian Ursula: 
Durham graduate, composer of orches- 
tral and chamber music. 

ARLBERG, Georg Ephraim Fritz 
(1830-1896) : b. Leksand, Dalecarlien, 
Sweden, d. Christiania; baritone in the 
Stockholm Boyal Opera, sang Moscow, 
Naples, Paris and London; vocal 
teacher and song writer in Copenhagen. 

ARMBRUST (1) Georg (1818-1869) : 
b. Harburg, d. Hamburg; organist in 
Hamburg, father of Karl. (2) Karl F. 
(1849-1896): b. Hamburg, d. Hanover; 
critic and teacher of organ and piano 
there. (3) Walter: son of Karl, church 
organist in Hamburg. 

ARMBRUSTER, Karl (1846- ) : 

b. Andernach-on-Bhine ; pianist and 
Wagnerian conductor, especially influ- 
ential in London. See Addenda. 

ARMES, Philip (1836-1908): b. Nor- 
wich, England, d. Durham; organist in 
various churches, professor of music, 
Durham, music examiner, Oxford, com- 
poser of three oratorios, other church 
music, a 5-part prize madrigal (1897, 
Madrigal Soc), etc. 


ARMIN, George. See Hermann (9). 

ARMINGAUD, Jules (1820-1900) : 
b. Bayonne, d. Paris; studied at the 
Conservatoire; violinist at the Opera, 
founded a string quartet with Jacquard, 
Lalo and Mas (later the Societe clas- 
sique, with wind instr.) ; composer for 

ARMITT, Mary Louisa (1851- ) : 
b. Salford; contributor of historical 
studies in the 'Quarterly Musical Maga- 
zine,' 'Musical Standard,' etc. 

ARMSHEIMER, Ivan Ivanovitch 
(1860- ): b. St. Petersburg; trained 
at the Conservatory there; composed 
3 operas, 3 ballets, 2 cantatas, choral 
and orchestral works, pieces for violin 
and for 'cello, and 150 songs. 

ARMSTRONG (1) Helen Porter. See 
Melba. (2) William D. See Addenda. 

ARNAUD, Abbe Francois (1721- 
1784) : b. Aubignan, near Carpentras, d. 
Paris; member of the Academy; par- 
tisan of Gluck, whom he defended in 
several essays. Ref.: II. 179. 

ARNE (1) Thomas Augustine 
(1710-1778): b. London, d. there; Mus. 
D. Oxon., player of spinet, violin, or- 
gan, etc.; composer of 'Bule Britannia,' 
also wrote 30 operas, 8 symphonies 
a 8 (1740), 7 trio sonatas, organ 
concertos, harpsichord sonatas, 2 ora- 
torios ('Abel' and 'Judith'), cantatas, 
songs, glees, catches and music to 
Shakespeare plays. Ref.: TV. 39, 69f; 
V. 171. (2) Cecilia, wife of Thomas: 
opera singer, admired by Handel. (3) 
Michael (1741-1786): b. London, d. 
there; son of Thomas, conductor and 
composer for London theatres; he com- 
posed 9 operas, also songs; played the 
harpsichord and is remembered as one 
of the seekers of the philosopher's stone. 

[d']ARNEIRO, Jose Angus to Fer- 
reira Veiga, Viscount (1838-1903) : b. 
Macao, China, d. San Bemo; lawyer and 
composer of one ballet, 3 operas, and a 
Te Deum. Ref.: III. 408. 

ARNOLD (1) Georg (17th cent.) : b. 
Feldsberg; organist at Innsbruck and 
aj the episcopal court of Bamberg; com- 
posed church music (motets, psalms, 
9 part masses, etc.). (2) Samuel (1740- 
1802): b. London; studied with Gates 
and Nares at the Chapel Boyal, where 
he was a chorister; wrote dramatic 
works (operas, pantomimes, oratorios, 
etc.). He became Mus. Doc. (Oxon.; 
1772) and ten years later organist and 
composer to the Chapel Boyal, in 1789 
conductor to Acad, of Ancient Music, 
1793 organist at Westminster Abbey. 
His greatest achievements are his 36 
vol. edition of Handel's works (incom- 
plete and not entirely accurate) and 
a 4 vol. collection of English cathedral 
music (1790 and reprinted 1847), a se- 
quel to the collection by Boyce. Ref.: 
V. 172. (3) Johann Gottfried (1773- 
1806) : b. Niedernhall n. cihringen, d. 
Frankfort; studied with Bomberg and 
Willman; concert-'cellist in Germany 
and Switzerland, later 1st 'cellist at the 


Arnold von Brack 

Frankfort municipal theatre. He wrote 
concertos and variations for the 'cello, 
also pieces for the guitar and a sym- 
phonie concertante for 2 flutes and or- 
chestra. (4) Ignaz Ernst Ferdinand 
(1774-1812): b. Erfurt, d. there; musi- 
cal biographer; in 1816 published 2 
vols, of sketches called Galerie der 
beruhmtesten Tonkiinstler des 18. und 
19. Jahrhunderts, also (ten years ear- 
lier) Der angehende Musikdirektor, oder 
die Kunst, ein Orchester zu bilden. (5) 
Karl (1794-1873) : b. Neukirchen, near 
Mergentheim, son of Johann Gottfried 
(3) ; studied music with Alois Schmitt, 
and Vollweiler ; pianist in St. Petersburg, 
Berlin and Minister; organist and di- 
rector of the Christiania Philharmonic 
Society. His chamber and piano com- 
positions were highly prized; he wrote 
also an opera, Irene (prod., Berlin, 
1832). (6) Henrietta Kisting, wife 
of Karl (5) ; singer in St. Petersburg. 
(7) Friedrich Wilhelm (1810-1864) : 
b. Sontheim, near Heilbronn, d. Elber- 
feld; pub. 10 books of folk-songs, also 
the Lochheimer Liederbuch, Beethoven's 
symphonies arranged for violin and 
pianoforte and an Allgemeine Musik- 
lehre. (8) Yourij von (1811-1898) : 
b. St. Petersburg, d. Simferopol, Cri- 
mea; studied at Dorpat and served 
in Bussian army until 1838, when he 
abandoned a military career to study 
music with Fuchs and Gunke. His 
compositions include a prize cantata, 
an operetta, a grand opera, over- 
tures and part-songs. He was music 
critic and editor in Leipzig (1863-70) 
and from 1870-94 professor of counter- 
point at Moscow Cons., where he wrote 
on the history and theory of Bussian 
Church music. The last four years of 
his life he spent as vocal teacher in 
St. Petersburg. (9) George Benja- 
min (1832-1902): b. Petworth, Sussex; 
d. Winchester; Mus. D. (Oxford, 1861); 
organist in various Oxford Colleges 
and at Winchester cathedral; composed 
2 oratorios, cantatas, motets, church 
services, 2 piano sonatas, etc. (10) 
Richard (1845- ) : b. Eilenburg, 
Prussia; studied with David in Leip- 
zig; violinist in Theodore Thomas Or- 
chestra, the New York Philharmonic 
Soc, and organizer of a string quartet 
known by his name (1897). 

ARNOLD von BRUCK (or Brouck) 
([?]-1545): one of the most important 
German composers of the 16th century, 
probably of Swiss origin; chief Kapell- 
meister to Ferdinand I. in Vienna as 
early as 1534. Sacred and secular 
part-songs, motets, hymns, etc., are pre- 
served in 16th cent, collections. 

ARNOLDSON (1) Oscar (1843- 
1881): d. Stockholm; tenor. (2) Sigrid 
(1861- ): b. Stockholm; daughter of 
Oscar, operatic soprano; taught by 
Strakosch; she made her debut in Mos- 
cow in 1886, and achieved international 

ARNOLLD, Madeleine Sophie (1744- 


1802): b. Paris, d. there; operatic so- 
prano, created Gluck's Iphiginie and 
said to have caused the failure of 
Armide; famous for her (often caustic) 
wit. Ref.: II. 33. 

cent.) : author of a tract De differentiis 
et generibus cantorum (Gerbert, Script.). 

ARON, Pietro (ca. 1490-1545) : b. 
Florence, d. Venice; canon in Bimini, 
and monk at Bergamo, Padua and 
Venice; author of 5 musical treatises. 
The first theoretician to declare that the 
method of composing the voices suc- 
cessively (in counterpoint) was out of 

ARONSON, Rudolph, American the- 
atrical manager active in late 19th cent. 
Ref.: IV. 144, 177f. 

ARRESTI, Giulio Cesare (ca. 1630- 
ca. 1695) : organist and conductor in 
Breslau, composer of masses, organ 
works, trio sonatas, psalms, etc.; en- 
tered a literary controversy with Caz- 
zati, his former teacher, on counter- 

Crisostomo Jacobo Antonio (1806- 
1825) : violinist, who studied at the 
Conservatoire, and composed an over- 
ture, a mass, a Stabat Mater, cantatas, 
and 3 string quartets. 

Juan [Emilio] (1823-1894) : b. Puenta 
la Beina, Navarre, d. Madrid; composed 
2 operas, 50 operettas, cantatas, etc.; 
taught at the Madrid Conservatory and 
became director there, 1868. 

ARRIGONI (1) Giovanni Giacomo 
(17th cent.) : one of the first composers 
of vocal chamber concertos (2-9 v. 
Venice, 1635), also wrote psalms and 
Magnificats with instr. and sonatas; or- 
ganist of the Vienna court band, 1637. 
(2) Carlo ([?]-1743): b. Florence, 
where he was Grand Ducal chamber 
composer; previously conducted (with 
G. Sammartini) the Thursday concerts 
in Heckford's Hall, London (1732-33), 
pub. 10 Cantate da camera (1732), etc. 

ART ARIA: art and music house, 
founded by Giovanni A. and his 
nephews Carlo and Francesco in May- 
ence, 1765, and by the two last-named 
in Vienna, 1770. The firm underwent 
many changes (consolidation, removal 
to Mannheim, new affiliations) ; is still 
conducted in Vienna by members of 
the family (C. August and Dominik A.) 

silievitch (1858- ) : b. Tsarskoe-Selo, 
Bussia; studied under Soloviev and 
Bimsky-Korsakoff, Imperial State coun- 
cillor, president of the Imp. Bussian 
Musical Society; composed for piano. 

ARTEAGO, Stefano (1730[?]-1799) : 
b. Madrid, d. Paris; Spanish Jesuit, 
lived in Bologna, Borne, Paris; author 
of a famous history of opera, Le rivo- 
luzioni del teatro musicale italiano 
(1783, 1785 [3 vols.], also German, 
etc.), also a work on art philosophy in 
Spanish (1789), etc. 



ARTHUR, Alfred (1844- ): b. 
Pittsburg, Pa.; vocal teacher, choral 
conductor, director of Cleveland School 
of Music; composer of 3 operas, piano 
pieces, songs, etc.; pub. 5 series of vo- 
cal studies. 

ARTOT (1) Maurice Montagney 
(1772-1829): b. Gray, Haute-Saone, d. 
Brussels; military bandmaster, per- 
former on horn, violin and guitar, and 
conductor at Brussels. (2) Jean-De- 
sire Montagney (1803-1887) : b. Paris, 
d. St. Josse ten Noode; son of Maurice, 
professor of horn at the Brussels Con- 
servatory, court hornist and composer 
for his instrument. (3) Alexandre- 
Joseph Montagney (1815-1845) : b. 
Brussels, d. Ville d'Avray, son of (1) ; 
studied at the Conservatoire, violinist 
of note in Europe and America; pub. 
violin concerto, etc., string quartets, pi- 
ano quintet, etc. (4) Marguerite-Jose- 
phine Desiree Montagney (1835- 
1907) : b. Paris, d. Vienna ; daughter of 
Desire^ studied with Viardot-Garcia, so- 
prano at French, Belgian, and Dutch 
operas, then with an Italian company 
in Germany, Bussia, England and 
Denmark. She married the baritone 
Padilla y Bamos (1842-1900) and their 
daughter, Lola A. de Padiixa, is soprano 
at the Berlin Boyal Opera. 

ARTUSI, Giovanni Maria (ca. 1550- 
1613) : Bolognese canon and theorist, 
composed canzonettas, etc.; author of 
L'Arte del contrapunto (1586-1589) t 
L'Artusi, ovvero delle imperfettiom 
della moderna musica (1600-1603), etc. 
Ref.: (on Monteverdi) I. 337f. 

ASANTCHEVSKI, Michael Pavlo- 
vitch (1838-1881): b. Moscow, d. there; 
studied with Hauptmann, Bichter and 
Liszt, directed St. Petersburg Conserva- 
tory and composed trios, quartets, a 
concert overture, piano pieces, songs, etc. 

Heinrich (1654-1732): b. Altstettin, d. 
Jena; 1st violinist and court conductor 
in Zeitz and Merseburg, composer of 
chamber sonatas, dance movements, etc. 

ASCHER, Joseph (1829-1869) : b. 
Groningen, Holland, d. London; studied 
with Moscheles in London and Leip- 
zig, became court pianist at Paris and 
wrote salon music. 

ASH, Gllfert (18th cent.) : early New 
York organ builder. ..Ref.: IV. 64. 

ASHDOWN, Edwin: London music 
publisher, successor to Parry who su- 
perseded Wessel (q.v.). 

ASHE, Andrew (1759-1838): b. 
Lisburn, Ireland, d. Dublin; flutist in 
Brussels, Dublin and London. His 
wife [nie Comer) sang in concert and 
oratorio and two daughters appeared 
as harpist and pianist, respectively. 

ASHLEY (1) John (ca. 1740-1805): 
d. London; assistant at the Handel 
Festival of 1784, at which his brother 
Charles Jane was the first player of 
the contraf agott ; from 1795 conductor 
of the Lenten oratorio concerts founded 
by Handel; father of (2), (3) and (4). 


(2) [General] Charles (ca. 1770-1818): 
violinist. (3) John James (1772- 
1815) : organist, pianist and vocal 
teacher. (4) Charles: 'cellist; co- 
founder of the Glee Club and Phil- 
harmonic Society. (5) Richard (1775- 
1836): viola player. (6) John (Ash- 
ley of Bath) d. 1830): bassoonist, 
ballad composer and author of con- 
troversial pamphlets on the origin of 
the English national anthem. 

ASHTON (1) Hugh (7-1522): Eng- 
lish composer of the oldest extant vir- 
ginal music; also masses, motets, etc. (2) 
Algernon Bonnet Lang ton (1859- ) : 
b. Durham, studied at Leipzig Cons, 
and Frankfort (Baff) ; piano teacher at 
Royal College of Music, 1885-1910, then 
London College of Music, etc.; com- 
posed chamber music, piano pieces, 5 
symphonies, 3 overtures and other 
orch. pieces, choruses, 200 songs, etc. 

ASHWELL, Thomas (16th cent.): 
English composer of church music, still 
extant in Oxford, Cambridge and the 
British Museum. 

ASIOLI, Bonifazio (1769-1832): b. 
Correggio, d. there; conductor in Cor- 
reggio, Venice and Milan and director 
of the Milan Conservatory. He wrote 
masses, motets, an oratorio, piano so- 
notas, 7 operas, etc., and didactic works 
of which Principi elementari di musica 
(1809) was translated into Portuguese, 
French, German and Dutch. 

ASOLA, or Asula, Giovanni Matteo 
(ca.1560-1609) : b. Verona, d. Venice; 
church composer who also wrote mad- 

A SPA SI A, Greek dancer. Ref.: X. 
54, 70, 94. 

ASPLMAYR, Franz (ca. 1721-1786) : 
d. Vienna; dramatic composer, wrote 
singspiele, ballet-divertissements, sere- 
nades, concertos, etc.; the first of the 
Viennese composers to adopt the style 
of the Mannheim school (trios, etc.). 

ASPULL, George (1813-1832) : b. 
Manchester, d. Leamington; pianoforte 
prodigy, played in Great Britain, Ire- 
land and Paris; died of tuberculosis, 
leaving pianoforte manuscripts later 
published by friends. 



ASSMAYER, Ignaz (1790-1862): b. 
Salzburg, d. Vienna; organist at St. 
Peter's, Salzburg; organist at the 
Schottenstift, Vienna, court organist, 
conductor; composed 15 masses, 2 ora- 
torios, and other church music. 

ASTAFIEVA, Seraphime: Russian 
ballet dancer. Ref.: X. 220, 221, 224. 

ASTARITTA, Gennaro (ca. 1750- 
1803) : b. Naples, d. there ; wrote more 
than 35 operas, produced in cities in 
Italy, at Pressburg and at St. Peters- 
burg (Circe e Ulisse, 1787). 

ASTON (1) Hugh. See Ashton. (2) 
Tony (18th cent.) : actor and early 
musical producer in America. Ref.: 
IV. 105ff. 

[d'JASTORGA, Emanuele Gio- 



achino Cesar e, Count It in con (1680- 
ca. 1757): b. Augusta, Sicily, d. Spain; 
Spanish noble, lived in Palermo, Vi- 
enna, Znaim and London, then for 
many years in the service of the King 
of Spain; dilettante who composed 
Dafni (1709) and other operas, numer- 
ous cantatas, a Stabat Mater for 4 
voices and strings, etc. 

2nd cent. B. C.) : Greek grammarian in 
Rome; invaluable as an authority on 
the theory of Greek music. His Deipno- 
sophistai, in 15 books, is preserved 
almost in its entirety. 

ATHERTON, Percy tee (1871- ) : 
b. Roxbury, Mass.; studied with Paine, 
Rheinberger, Thuille, Boise, Sgambati, 
Widor; composer of light operas, a 
symphonic poem, a symphonic An- 
dante, a symphonic Scherzo, a Scher- 
zino for string orchestra, 2 sonatas for 
violin and piano, suites for violin, 
piano and flute, piano pieces, choruses, 
many songs, etc. 

ATKINS, Ivor Algernon (1869-) : 
b. Cardiff; organist at Worcester Cathe- 

ATRIO, Hermannus de. See Her- 


ATTAIGNANT, Pierre (16th cent.) : 
the earliest music printer in Paris, 
who used movable types. He printed 
mostly works of French chanson wri- 
ters. Ref.: I. 286; VI. 441; VII. 469. 

ATTENHOFER, Karl (1837-1914): 
b. Wettingen, Switzerland, d. Munich; 
studied at Leipzig Cons.; conductor of 
male choruses in Rappers wyl (from 
1863) and Zurich (from 1866), where 
he was also teacher of vocal method 
in the School of Music (co-director, 
1897) ; edited collections of male cho- 
ruses, wrote mixed and women's cho- 
ruses, children's songs, songs, piano 
pieces, violin etudes, masses. 

ATTRUP, Karl (1848-1892) : b. Co- 
penhagen, d. there; pupil of Gade, 
whom he succeeded as organ teacher 
at the Cons., organist of churches, com- 
poser of organ pieces and songs. 

ATTWOOD, Thomas (1765-1838) : b. 
Chelsea, choirboy of the Royal Chapel, 
studied at Naples and with Mozart in 
Vienna; organist of St. Paul's, 1796, 
the private chapel of George IV., etc. 
He wrote 19 operas, piano sonatas, 
church and other vocal music. 

AUBER/ Daniel Francois Esprit 
(1782-1871): b. Caen, Normandy, d. 
Paris; son of a picture dealer, com- 
posed at the age of 11 and soon aban- 
doned a commercial career and prod, 
privately Julie and Jean de Couvin, 
which was heard by Cherubini, and A. 
became a pupil of that master in 
Paris. After a mass he prod. Le sejour 
militaire (1813), Le testament (1819), 
La bergere chateleine, Emma (1821), 
Leicester (1822), La neige (1823), Ven- 
dome en Espagne (w. Herold, 1823), 
Les trois genres (w. Boieldieu, 1824), 
Le concert d la court (1824), Leocadie 


(1824), Le macon (1825), of which the 
last established his fame as one of the 
greatest exponents of the opera com- 
ique. Two lesser works were followed 
by La Muette de Portici (Masaniella) , 
the first work of the new 'grand opera' 
epoch, and a number of other lighter 
works, including Dieu et la Bayadere 
(1830), Le philtre (1831), Le serment 
(1832), Gustave 111 (1833), Lestocq 
(1834), Le cheval de bronze (1835), 
Action, Les chaperons blancs, L'ambas- 
sadrice (1836), Le domino noir (1837), 
Le lac des fies (1839), Le due d'Olonne 
(1842), La Sirene (1844), La barcarolle 
(1845), Hay dee (1847), and 10 others 
showing evidences of decline. He also 
wrote some unpub. string quartets, 4 
'cello concertos (under the name of 
Hurel de Lamare). He was made a 
member of the Academy in 1829, di- 
rector of the Conservatoire in 1842, 
and Imperial court conductor under 
Napoleon III in 1842. Ref.: II. 20, 210; 
III. 278; VIII. 109; IX. 73, 157, 159ff, 
167, 169, 191, 227ff, 230, 235, 245, 255; 
mus. ex. XIII. 244; portrait IX. 226. 

AUBERT (1) Jacques (1678-1753): 
d. Belleville, near Paris ; violin virtuoso 
in Paris Opera and Concerts Spirituels, 
concert-master of the latter, 1748; com- 
poser of violin sonatas and duets, so- 
natas for the 5-stringed viola (Quin- 
ton), violin duets, pieces for vielles, 
musettes, etc.; also prod. 6 ballets. (2) 
Louis (1720-after 1798): son of (1) ; 
concert-master of the Opera; com- 
poser (symphonies, violin sonatas). (3) 
Pierre Francois Olivier (1763-ca. 
1830): b. Amiens; 'cellist in Paris Op- 
era Comique, teacher and composer for 
'cello, author of an abridged history 
of music. (4) Louis. See Addenda. 

Louis (1796-1870): b. Verneuil, d. 
there; studied at the Conservatoire 
(Monsigny, Mehul, Cherubini), wrote 
chamber music in great quantity in 
which he employs the guitar, also 
Grammaire musicale (1830), Des asso- 
ciations musicales en France (1839), 
and La Societe Philharmonique de 
VEure (1859). 

ATJDRAN (1) Marin s -Pierre (1816- 
1887): b. Aix, Provence, d. Marseilles; 
pupil of Arnaud and of the Conserva- 
toire, tenor in Marseilles, Brussels, 
Bordeaux, Lyons, and at the Paris Op- 
era Comique; director and singing pro- 
fessor, Marseilles Cons., composer of 
songs. (2) Edmond (1842-1901): b. 
Lyons, d. Tierceville; studied at the 
Niedermeyer School, church conductor 
at Marseilles, produced with success 38 
operas and operettas (Le grand Mogol, 
La Mascotte, etc.), a pantomime, a 
mass, an oratorio, etc. 

AUER, Leopold [von] (1845-) : 
b. Veszprem, Hungary; virtuoso on 
violin, trained in Pesth and Vienna 
Conservatories, also by Joachim in 
Hanover ; concert-master, Dusseldorf 
and Hamburg; imperial solo violinist, 



St. Petersburg; violin professor at the 
Conservatory there, 1887-92, leader of 
the Imperial Russian Musical Society. 
Ref.: III. 148; VII. 464, 465. 

AUFSCHNAITER, Benedikt Anton 
(d. Passau, 1742) : Kapellmeister of the 
Passau Cathedral, composer of church 
music and sonatas. 

AUGENER & CO., London publish- 
ing firm, founded, 1853, by George Au- 
gener, continued since then by his son, 
William (now 'Augener Limited'). 
Their publications are theoretical 
works and re-edited classics, and they 
are the publishers of the 'Monthly Mu- 
sical Record.' 

AUGUSTINUS, Aurelius [St. Au- 
gustine] (354-430) : b. Tagaste, Numi- 
dia, d. Hippo, where he was Bishop. 
St. Augustine defended the use of the 
Ambrosian chant and wrote on metrics 
in his De Musica libri VI. Ref.: I. 135, 
137, 141. 

II. 6, 12, 78. 

AULEN, Johannes (15th cent.) : Ger- 
man composer of masses and motets 
preserved in the libraries of Berlin and 

AULIN, Tor (1866-1914) : b. Stock- 
holm, d. there; studied in Berlin, vio- 
linist, concert-master of the Royal 
Opera, conductor of the Art Society, 
Stockholm; founded the A. String 
Quartet; composed 3 concertos and 
other works for violin, orch. suite, 
Meister Oluf, etc. Ref.: III. 85. 

[de l']AULNAYE, Francois Henri 
Stanislas (1739-1830): b. Madrid, d. 
Chaillot; writer and theorist; author 
of a Memoire sur un nouveau systeme 
de notation musicfde. 

cent, church music theorist; author of 
Musica, containing the earliest in- 
formation on the character of the 
church modes (pub. in Gerbert's Scrip- 
tores, vol. I). Ref.: I. 145. 

AUS DER OHE, Adele (ca.1865-) : 
pupil of Kullak and of Liszt, pianist in 
Germany, England and the United 
States; composer of 2 piano-suites, a 
concert-etude, etc. 

AUSTIN (1) Frederic (1872- ) : 

b. London; Liverpool organist, teacher 
at the College of Music, dramatic bari- 
tone and composer of an overture, a 
rhapsody, a symphonic poem, etc. (2) 
Ernest (1874- ): brother of (1). 
See Addenda. (3) John T.: contemp. 
Amer. organ builder. Ref.: VI. 409. 

(1845- ) : b. Palermo ; composer of 5 
operas; 1889-1910 professor of singing 
at Parma Conservatory. 

[d»]AUVERGNE (1) Peire (1152- 
1215): troubadour. Ref.: I. 211. (2) 
Antoine (1713-1797) : b. Clermont-Fer- 
rand, d. Lyons; violinist, composer; 
played in orchestras of Concerts Spir- 
ituels, the King's Band and the Opera; 
conductor and director of Opera until 
1790; prod. 2 intermedes, Les troqeurs 


and La coquette trompe'e (1753), which 
are among the earliest operas com- 
iques; composed in all 13 operas; also 
trio sonatas, etc. Ref.: VII. 409. 

[,d']AVELLA, Giovanni (17th 
cent.): Franciscan monk at Lovoro; 
author of Regole di musica (1657). 

AVENARIUS, Thomas (17th cent.) : 
organist at Hildesheim, composer of 
love songs, dance suites (1630), etc. 

AVENTINUS, Johannes (Johannes 
Turmair) (1477-1534) : b. Abensberg, Ba- 
varia; compiled Annates Bojorum and 
edited Faber's Musicee rudimenta ad- 
modum brevia. 

AVERKAMP, Anton (1861- ) : b. 

Willige Langerak, Holland; singing 
teacher in Amsterdam, choir director 
there, composed orchestral works, vio- 
lin sonata, choruses, songs, an opera, 

AVERY (1) John ([?]-1808) : English 
organ builder, constructed organs in 
Winchester Cathedral, St. Margaret's 
Church, Westminster, and many other 
famous instruments. He died during 
the building of one at Carlisle. Ref.: 
VI. 406. (2) Stanley R.: contemporary 
American composer. Ref.: IV. 400. 

AVISON, Charles (1710-1770) : b. 
Newcastle-on-Tyne, d. there; organist, 
composed 26 string concertos a 7, 
piano concertos with string quartet, 
etc.; wrote an 'Essay on Musical Ex- 
pression' (1752, etc.). 

AVOGLIO, Sigrnora: Italian soprano, 
brought to London by Handel, 1741 ; 
sang in 'Messiah,' 'Samson,' etc. 

AYLWARD, Theodore (ca. 1730- 
1801) : organist in London, Cornhill, 
etc.; musical professor, Gresham Col- 
lege; composer of glees, catches, etc., 
and writer of method for organ. 

AYRES, Frederick (1876- ) : b. 

Binghamton, N. Y.; pupil of Stillman 
Kelley and Foote; composer of piano- 
pieces, chamber music, etc. Ref.: IV. 
415ff; mus. ex., XIV. 305. 

AYRTON (1) Edmund (1734-1808) : 
b. Ripon, d. London; choir master of 
the Chapel Royal; composer of services 
for the Church of England. (2) Wil- 
liam (1777-1858): b. London, d. there; 
son of (1) ; mus. director of the King's 
Theatre, where he produced Mozart's 
Don Giovanni, etc., music critic on 
'Morning Chronicle,' 'Examiner,' 'Penny 
Cyclopedia,' etc.; and edited 'Knight's 
Musical Library' and 'Sacred Minstrel- 
sy,' also the periodical 'Harmonicon.' 

AZOPARDI, Francesco (18th cent.) : 
conductor at Malta, author of II musico 
practico (1760, Fr. transl. 1784, 1824) ; 
composed church music. 

AZVEDO, Alexis-Jacob (1813-1875) : 
b. Bordeaux, d. Paris; contributor to 
French musical journals, editor of La 
critique musicale, La Presse, etc.; biog- 
rapher of Rossini and Felicien David; 
author of pamphlets advocating Cheves* 
reforms in notation (see Notation). 

AZZAJOLO, Filippo (16th cent.) : 
Bolognese composer of madrigals, etc. 




BABAN, Gracian (17th cent.) : Span- 
ish composer; conductor in the Valen- 
cia cathedral. 

BABBI, Christoph (1748-1814) : b. 
Cesena, d. Dresden; concert-master at 
the Dresden court; composed concerti 
for violin, quartets, symphonies, flute 
duets, etc. 

BABBINI, Matteo (1754-1816): b. 
Bologna, d. there; successful operatic 
tenor; sang in Berlin, St. Petersburg, 
London, Paris, "Vienna and Italy. 

BABELL, William (ca. 1690-1723) : 
b. London, d. there; organist, violinist 
and composer. His most valuable 
works were his arrangements for the 
piano of airs, duos, etc., from Handel's 
operas and those of French contempo- 
raries. He published a volume of so- 
natas for violin, flute or oboe, and 
wrote unpublished concerti grossi for 2 
violins, 'cello and string orch. 

BABINI. See Babbini. 

BACCHIUS, Senex (Bakcheios 
6 yeswi') : musical theorist of the 4th 
cent.; his Isagoge musicae artis, a cate- 
chism in dialogue form, was reprinted 
by Mersenne (1623) ; translated into 
Latin by Morellus, Meibom (1652), 
von Jan (1891) and Coussemaker 
(Scriptores, 1895) ; published in French 
translation by Mersenne (1627) and 
Ruelle (1896). 

BACCHUS (Greek and Roman god). 
Ref.: X. 54, 65, 69, 74; (Roman orgy 
to) X. 75f. 

BACCUSI, Hippolito (1545-1609) : b. 
Mantua, d. Verona; maestro di cappella 
at Mantua and Verona; composer of 
books of psalms, motets, masses, mad- 
rigals, etc., and of scattered works in 
collections by Phalese, Pevernage, Wael- 
rant and Philipp. 

BACPARE, Bacfarre, or Bakfark. 
See Greff. 

BACH, a family of musicians living 
in Thuringia, an extraordinary num- 
ber of whose members rose to emi- 
nence in their profession in the 16th- 
19th centuries. The art was culti- 
vated among its members as perhaps 
in no other known to history, every 
reunion being made the occasion for 
improvised part-singing (quodlibets) 
and intelligent musical discussion. 
Hence many cantor's posts in Thurin- 
gian cities were filled by them and as 
late as the 18th cent, the 'town pipers' 
of Erfurt were still known as 'the 
Bachs,' though no B. was among their 
number. In 1590 the baker Veit B. 
returned from Hungary to Wechmar, 


near Gotha, the town of his ancestors. 
He was an amateur (lutenist), but his 
son Hans was already a professional 
musician. The latter's son Johann B. 
was the progenitor of the Erfurt 
'Bachs,' another, Heinrich B., organist 
at Arnstadt, a third, Christoph B., or- 
ganist and town musician at Weimar 
(grandfather of J. S. Bach). Chris- 
toph's son, Ambrosius B., succeeded his 
cousin Johann Christian (1640-82) at 
Erfurt and was in turn succeeded by 
his cousin agidius (1645-1717). Hans' 
second son Heinrich had as sons the 2 
musicians next following. (1) Johann 
Christoph (1647-1703): b. Arnstadt, d. 
Eisenach, son of Heinrich B. (see 
above) ; organist at Eisenach from 1665 
and the most important of the earlier 
Bachs, uncle of J. S. B. His vocal 
works are especialy notable. Among 
these are preserved the biblical narra- 
tive Es erhob sich ein Streit, motets 
for 4, 8 and one for 22 voices, etc. 
Among his instrumental works are a 
Sarabande with 12 variations for 
clavier, 44 chorale preludes, etc. A 
fugue in E-flat was erroneously 
ascribed to J. S. B. (Bach-Ges. ed., vol. 
36, No. 12). (2) Johann Michael 
(1648-1694) : b. Arnstadt, d. Gehren, 
near Arnstadt, where he was organist 
from 1673; brother of (1). In instru- 
mental composition he surpassed his 
brother, as a few choral preludes (all 
that is left of his works) attest. His 
vocal works show his technical ability 
none the less. His youngest daughter, 
Maria Barbara, became J. S. B~7s~ first 
wife and mother of C. P. E. and W. 
Friedemann Bach. (3) Johann Chris- 
toph (1645-1693) : b. Erfurt, violinist, 
court Musikus to the Count of Schwarz- 
burg; helped his uncle Heinrich in his 
official work, and devoted himself to 
improving the church music of the 
town. (4) Johann Ambrosias (1645- 
1695): b. Erfurt, twin brother of (3), 
violinist, associated with his brother 
till 1667 when he joined the Erfurt 
Rathsmusikanten. He settled in Eise- 
nach in 1671 and there became the 
father of J. S. Bach. Ref.: I. 455. (5) 
Johann Bernhard (1676-1749) : organ- 
ist in Erfurt, Magdeburg, and Eisenach 
where he succeeded Johann Christoph. 
Of his compositions chorale preludes, 
clavier pieces and orchestral suites are 
preserved, the first partly in the Berlin 
Library; the last were copied by 
J. S. Bach. (6) Johann Nikolaus 
(1669-1753): b. Eisenach, d. there; son 



of Johann Christoph (3) ; organist in 
Jena, 1695; for a long time the senior 
of the whole family, but his branch 
of it died out with him. He enjoyed 
a high reputation as instrument maker, 
and invented improvements toward 
the establishment of equal tempera- 
ment in tuning of piano and organ. 
He wrote suites for the organ and 
harpsichord, a comic operetta, motets 
and sacred music. (7) Johann 
Christoph (1671-1721): b. Erfurt, d. 
Ohrdruf; son of Johann Ambrosius 
(12); organist at Ohrdruf; teacher of 
the clavichord to Johann Sebastian. 
Ref.: I. 456. (8) Johann Sebastian 
(1685-1750): b. Eisenach, d. Leipzig; 
studied the violin with his father, Jo 
hann Ambrosius (4) and the clavi- 
chord with his brother, who was his 
legal guardian from 1695 and exercised 
his authority harshly. After this he 
became a chorister at Liineburg, where 
he studied the violin, clavichord and 
the organ, travelling to Hamburg to 
hear Reinken and to Celle for French 
organ music, also studying Bohm's or- 
gan works indefatigably. He was vio- 
linist in 1703 in the orchestra of the 
Weimar court, organist the following 
year at Arnstadt, in 1707 at Miihl- 
hausen, and in 1708 at the Weimar 
court, where in 1714 he became Kon- 
zertmeister. During vacations he vis- 
ited Cassel, Halle, Leipzig, Dresden, 
and in 1717 he received the appoint- 
ment of Kapellmeister at Cothen, 
where he directed the chamber music 
for Prince Leopold. In 1723 he went 
to Leipzig, where he acted as cantor 
of the Thomasschule, organist and 
music director of the Thomaskirche 
and the Nikolaikirche, retaining his 
position as Kapellmeister to Prince 
Leopold and adding to these the posi- 
tion of Kapellmeister to the Duke of 
Weissenfels and (1736) court composer 
to the Elector of Saxony, the Polish 
king. Bach's enthusiastic appreciation 
of the achievements of contemporary 
organists is one of his most memorable 
characteristics. In his boyhood he 
tramped from Liineburg to Hamburg 
to hear the renowned Reinken; in later 
jears he travelled (again on foot) 
from Arnstadt to Liibeck to profit by 
the art of Buxtehude. His challenge 
of the French organist Marchand was 
unaccepted in 1720; the preceding year 
he had just missed meeting Handel at 
Halle. He visited the Prussian court 
at Potsdam, where his son, Carl Philipp 
Emanuel, was chamber musician, and 
delighted Frederick the Great by dedi- 
cating his Musikalisches Opfer to him 
(it included a 3 part fugue, canons, 
trios for flute, violin and bass, and a 
6 part ricercare). B. had a life un- 
hampered by domestic infelicity; after 
the death of his first wife, his cousin, 
Maria Barbara, he married Anna Mag- 
dalene Wiilken, whose father was 
trumpeter at the Weissenfels court. 


She sympathized with him in his ar- 
tistic ideals and assisted him in the 
writing out of his manuscripts, and 
bore him 13 children. In his work 
B. fuses the characteristics of the two 
great musical epochs, the period of 
contrapuntal polyphony, and the age of 
tonal harmony. The list of B.'s works 
is of tremendous length, though only 
a few works were printed during his 
lifetime. Among the latter are the 
Klavierilbung, Das musikalische Opfer, 
the 'Goldberg Variations,' a number of 
chorales, etc. Besides these there is 
a large number of instrumental com- 
positions chiefly for clavier, organ, and 
clavier with other instruments, includ- 
ing preludes and fugues, fantasies, so- 
natas, toccatas, suites, partitas, con- 
certos, variations, choral preludes, 
chorales, etc.; also the celebrated 
'Well-Tempered Clavichord' (48 prel- 
udes and fugues, two in each major 
and minor key), 'The Art of the 
Fugue' (15 fugues and 4 canons on the 
same theme) . There are for violin alone 
three Partien and three sonatas; for 
viola da gamba three sonatas, for lute 
3 Partien and for viola pomposa (in- 
vented by Bach) a suite. The most 
extensive of B.'s works are his choral 
compositions, including his 5 complete 
annual series (for every Sunday and 
festival-day) of church cantatas; 5 
'Passions,' of which only two are pre- 
served (the 'St. Matthew' and the 'St. 
John') ; the Mass in B minor and 4 in- 
complete ones, the remnant of a greater 
number written for Dresden; the Mag- 
nificat, in five parts ; the Christmas ora- 
torio; the Ascension oratorio, and the 
Easter oratorio. For fifty years after 
B.'s death these works were practically 
forgotten. To Mendelssohn's efforts is 
due the fact that they are now com- 
pletely resurrected. The complete in- 
strumental works were published by 
Peters in 1837, to which were later 
added the vocal works. Societies for 
the study of this master have sprung 
up in all the large cities of the Euro- 
pean continent; the first was the Bach- 
Geselleschaft founded in 1850 by Schu- 
mann, Jahn, Becker and Hauptmann, 
which with the aid of the Hartel pub- 
lishing house has put out a complete 
critical edition of the works (59 vols., 
1851-1900) . Ref . : For B.'s life and work 
see Vol. I. 449ff; for his vocal solo 
works, V. 147, 164, 175; choral works, 
VI. 121ff, 240ff, 325ff; organ works, VI. 
437ff; clavier compositions, VII. 63ff; 
violin compositions, VII. 421ff; 'cello 
suites, VII. 591; orchestral works, VHL 
128ff; mus. ex., XIII. 141, 143, 145, 149, 
152,154; portraits, I. 468; VI. 114; birth- 
place illus., VI. 114; facsimile MS., VII. 
80. For general references see indi- 
vidual indexes. (9) Wilhelm Friede- 
mann (1710-1784) : b. Weimar, d. Ber- 
lin; son and pupil of Johann Sebastian 
B., studied the violin with Graun, at 
the Thomasschule and at Leipzig Univ. 



He was organist in Dresden, $ater in 
Halle, but dissipation resulted in the 
forfeiture of his position, and de- 
spite his unusual genius and skill, he 
died in want and distress. His works 
include concertos, sonatas, fantasies, 
suites, etc., for clavier, trio sonatas, 
concertos, fantasies, fugues, etc., for 
organ, some in MS. in Berlin, some 
repub. by Riemann, etc. Ref.: I. 461, 
468, 471, 483f; II. 60f; as organist, 

VI. 456, 457; clavier music, VII. 128; 
mus. ex. XIII. 103. (10) Carl Phi- 
lipp Emanuel (1714-1788): b. Wei- 
mar, d. Hamburg; son of John Sebas- 
tian; he abandoned the pursuit of 
philosophy and law which he had 
studied in Leipzig and at Frankfort- 
on-Oder; at Frankfort he composed 
for a singing society which he con- 
ducted; in 1737 he was in Berlin, from 
1746-57 he was chamber musician and 
harpsichord player to King Frederick 
the Great. In 1767 he held the post 
of Musikdirektor previously occupied 
by Telemann; this he retained until his 
death. His compositions were in- 
numerable and embraced every form 
for the piano. He wrote 34 pieces 
for various wind instruments, trios for 
flute, violin and bass, concertos for 
'cello and oboe, soli for 'cello, for 
flute, for the viola da gamba and for 
the harp. His one book is an analysis 
of the uses of embellishment in the 
playing of the clavichord — Versuch 
tiber die wahre Art, das Clavier zu 
spielen (2 parts, 1753-62) re-edited by 
Niemann, 1906. Ref.: II. 58ff; spiritual 
songs, V. 189f ; clavier music, etc., VII. 
96, 99, 100, 113, 116, 117, 132, 133, 417, 
490; VIII. 140; mus. ex. XIII. 107; port., 

VII. 110. (11) Johann Ernst (1722- 
1777): b. Eisenach, d. there; son of 
(5) ; lawyer, and his father's successor 
as organist at Eisenach, court Kapell- 
meister at Weimar; composed sacred 
vocal music, also clavier sonatas. (12) 
Johann Christoph Friedrich (1732- 
1795): b. Leipzig, d. Biickeburg; son 
of Johann Sebastian; abandoned his 
law studies at Leipzig to become Ka- 
pellmeister at Biickeburg. He com- 
posed a dramatic cantata, Pygmalion, 
cantatas, quartets for flute and strings, 
a 2-hand and a 4-hand clavier sonata. 
(13) Johann Christian (1735-1782) : b. 
Leipzig, d. London; popularly known 
as the Milan or the English Bach (9th 
son of Johann Sebastian) ; in 1748 he 
went to his brother Carl Philipp Eman- 
uel in Berlin; 1760 appointed organist 
of Milan Cathedral, 2 years later con- 
cert-master in London, where he be- 
came music-master to the royal family, 
and where (1763) he prod, his opera, 
Orione and many others, also instr. 
music. See Addenda. Ref.: II. 61f, 
102; VII. 86, 97, 112, 113, 114, 116, 111 ff, 
491, 498 ; IX. 34 ; mus. ex., XIII. 105. (14) 
Wilhelm Friedrich Ernst (1759-1845) : 
b. Biickeburg, d. Berlin; son of Johann 
Christoph Friedrich, grandson of Jo- 


hann Sebastian; studied with his uncle, 
Johann Christian, in London, where he 
taught and performed on piano and or- 
gan; in 1782 he appeared in concerts in 
Paris; in 1789 appointed Kapellmeister 
to Friedrich Wilhelm II, later pianist 
to Queen Louise, music master to the 
princes. He wrote some -cantatas and 
songs and music for pianos and other 
instruments. (15) August Wilhelm 
(1796-1869): b. Berlin, d. there; vir- 
tuoso on organ, teacher and director 
at the Royal Institute for Church Mu- 
sic; member of the Berlin Academy 
and professor. Mendelssohn studied 
the organ with him. He wrote an ora- 
torio, church music, etc. Ref.: HI. 
16, 95. (16) (or Bak) Alberto (1844-) : 
b. Gyula, Hungary; teacher of vocal 
music, writer of 'The Art of Sing- 
ing,' 'The Principles of Singing,* 
'The , Art-Ballard,' etc., published in 
London and Edinburgh. (17) L.eon- 
hard Emil (1849- ): b. Posen; 
studied with Kullak, Wtierst and Kiel; 
teacher at Kullak Academy, 1869; court 
pianist to the Prince of Prussia, 1874; 
about 1890 he went to London. He has 
prod, in London two successful one- 
act operas (1892 and 1894), a 2-act 
comic opera in Cologne, 1895; his other 
compositions are salon pianoforte 
pieces. (18) Otto (1833-1893): b. 
Vienna, d. Unter-Waltersdorf, studied 
with Sechter, Marx and Hauptmann; 
conductor at various theatres in Ger- 
many; Kapellmeister at Salzburg Ca- 
thedral and later at the Votivkirche 
of Vienna. He produced 5 operas, and 
wrote 4 symphonies, a ballad for cho- 
rus and orchestra, a Requiem, masses, 
chamber music, an overture, etc. 

BACHAUS. See Backhaus. 

BACHE (1) Francis Edward (1833- 
1858) : b. Birmingham, d. there; studied 
in Birmingham and Leipzig Cons. ; lived 
in Algiers and Italy during the sum- 
mer, in winter in Vienna and Leipzig; 
composed for pianoforte and violin, 
wrote an overture and prod. 2 operas 
(1851 and 1853). (2) Walter (1842- 
1888): b. Birmingham, d. London; 
brother of Francis; studied in Bir- 
mingham, Leipzig, Milan, Florence and 
with Liszt in Rome; concert-pianist and 
music teacher at the London Royal 
Academy. (3) Constance (1846-1903) : 
b. Edgbaston, d. Montreux; sister of 
Francis and Walter; music teacher, 
translator from the German and author 
of a biography of her brothers. 

BACHMANN (1) Anton (1716-1800) : 
b. Berlin, d. there; court musician and 
maker of instruments; invented ma- 
chine head method to tune 'celli and 
double-basses. (2) Karl Ludwig, son 
of Anton (1743-1809) : violist and mem- 
ber of Berlin Royal Kapelle. (3) Pater 
Sixtus (1754-1818) : b. Kettershausen, 
Bavaria, d. Marchthal, near Vienna; 
Premonstrant monk at Marchthal; vir- 
tuoso on organ and piano; competed 
on organ with Mozart (Biberach, 1766) ; 



composed pianoforte sonatas, organ 
fugues, violin quartets, cantatas, sym- 
phonies, etc. (4) Charlotte Caroline 
Wilhelmine, nee Stowe (1757-1817): 
pianist and member of the Berlin 
Singakademie under Fasch. (5) Gott- 
lob (1763-1840) : b. Bornitz, near Zeitz, 
d. Zeitz ; organist there and composer of 2 
singspiele, chamber music, piano so- 
natas, organ pieces, ballads, songs, 
etc. (6) Georg Christian (1804- 
1842): b. Paderborn, d. Brussels; solo 
clarinettist in the Boyal Kapelle, clar- 
inet professor at the Conservatory, 
and maker of clarinets. (7) Georges 
(ca. 1848-1894) : Parisian composer of 
numerous piano works. (8) Alberto 
Abraham (1875- ) : b. Geneva ; vio- 
linist; studied at Lille Cons, and with 

Ysaye, Thomson, Hubay, Brodsky and 
Petri; successful European tours; com- 
poser of 2 violin concertos, a violin 
sonata, many pieces and transcriptions 
for violin; author of Les grands vio- 
linistes du passe* (1913), he Violon 
(1906), etc. 

BACHOFEN, Jolinnn Kaspar (1697- 
1755) : b. Zurich, d. there ; organist, can- 
tor and composer of church music; 
wrote Musikalisches Notenbilchlein. 

BACHRICH, Siegmund (1841-1913) : 
b. Zsambokreth, Hungary, d. Vienna; 
violinist; trained at the Vienna Con- 
servatory, where he later taught; 
viola in Hellmesberger and Bos6 quar- 
tets, also the Philharmonic and the 
court opera of Vienna; composed 2 
comic operas, 4 operettas, a ballet. 

BACKER-GRftNDAL, Agathe Ur- 
sula (1847-1907): b. Holmestrand, d. 
Christiania; studied with Kullak and 
von Biilow, composed songs, suites, con- 
cert studies, etc. She married the singer, 
Olavus Andreas Grondahl. Ref.: III. 99. 

BACKERS. See Broadwood. 

BACKHATJS, Wilhelm (1884- ): 
b. Leipzig; studied with Alois Becken- 
dorf and d' Albert; has toured widely as 
concert pianist since 1900, since 1911 
also in the U. S.; teacher of pianoforte 
at Boyal College of Music, Manchester, 
England, 1905; gained Bubinstein prize 
(1905) and has since concertized ex- 

BACKOPEN, Jobann G. Heinricb 
(1768-1839): b. Durlach, d. Darmstadt; 
chamber musician at Gotha and Darm- 
stadt; virtuoso on clarinet, harp, flute 
and bassethorn; composed trios, quin- 
tets, concertos for clarinet and horn; 
wrote a clarinet-bassethorn method. 

BACON (1) Roger (1214-1294): b. 
Ilchester, d. Oxford; Franciscan monk, 
author of De valore musices. (2) 
Richard Mackenzie (1776-1844) : b. 
Norwich, d. Correy near Norwich; 
writer on musical science, 'Elements 
of Vocal Science,' 1824, 'Art of Improv- 
ing the Voice and Ear,' 1825. He edited 
the Quarterly Review and founded the 
Norwich Music Festivals, held trien- 
nially. (3) Sir Francis (cited on 
masques) X. 83. 


BADARCZEVSKA, Thekla (1838- 
1862): b. Warsaw, d. there; composed 
salon pieces, one of which is widely 
known, La priere d'une vierge. 

BARER, Karl Adam (1789-1870) : b. 
Bamberg, d. Berlin; organist of Bam- 
berg Cathedral, operatic tenor in Mu- 
nich, Bremen, Hamburg, Brunswick, 
and Berlin court opera; director of 
church music in Berlin. 

BADIA (1) Carlo Agostino (1672- 
1738) : b. Venice, d. Vienna; court com- 
poser to Vienna; wrote 27 operas, 21 
oratorios, solo cantatas, etc. (2) Lufgi 
(1822-1899) : b. Teramo, Naples, d. Mi- 
lan; composed 4 operas and songs. 

BADIALI, Cesare (ca. 1810-1865) : b. 
Imola, d. there; operatic bass in Ital- 
ian theatres, at Lisbon, Madrid and 
chamber singer at the Vienna court 
from 1842-1859, when he went to Lon- 
don. He was a song composer as 

BAENA, Lope de (15th cent.): 
Spanish composer. 

BAERMANN. See Barman n. 

BAGGE, Selmar (1823-1896) : b. Co- 
burg, d. Basel; studied in the Con- 
servatories of Prague and Vienna, 
where he taught and acted as organist 
in Gumpendorf, nearby; teacher at the 
Vienna Cons., which he left and as 
critic attacked. Lafer he became editor 
of the Allgemeine musikalische Zeitung. 
Besides his books on theory, musical 
biographies and criticism, he published 
chamber music, a symphony and songs. 

BAGNOL.ESI: Italian contralto; sang 
in London, 1732. 

BAHN, Martin. See Trautwein. 

It aHU (or Bar, or Beer), Jobann 
(1652-1770) : b. St. Georg, Austria, d. 
there; conductor at the court, where 
he wrote musical satire under the pseu- 
donym of Ursus. 

HAI, or Baj, Tommaso (ca. 1660- 
1714) : b. Crevalcuore, near Bologna, d. 
Borne; tenor and maestro di cappella 
at the Vatican; composer of church 
music, including a 5-part Miserere 
still sung in the Papal Chapel during 
Holy Week. 

BAiF, Jean Antoine de (1532-1589) : 
b. Venice, d. Paris; poet and com- 
poser. He attempted to introduce into 
French poetry vers mesure on the an- 
tique model and wrote sacred and sec- 
ular chansons which have been re- 
printed by Expert. In 1570 the King 
recognized his Academie de poesie et 
de musique. 

BAILEY (1) Daniel and (2) Wil- 
liam (18th cent.) : pioneer publishers 
of music in America. Ref.: TV. 29ff. 
(3) Marie Louise (1876- ) : b. Nash- 
ville, Tenn., studied with Beinecke and 
Leschetizky, pianist, made del>ut at the 
Gewandhaus, Boyal Saxon chamber 
musician, lives in Vienna. 

BAILLOT (1) Pierre-Marie-Fran- 
cois de Sales (1771-1842) : b. Passy, d. 
Paris; celebrated violinist, pupil of 
Polidori in Passy, Sainte-Marie in 



Paris, Pollani in Rome; through Viotti 
became first violinist at the Theatre 
Feydeau; thereafter acting as assistant 
in the ministry of finance. Meantime 
becoming known as concert player, he 
was made teacher in the Conservatoire 
in 1795, where he studied theory with 
Cherubini, etc. His first concert tour 
of Europe was made in 1802, in 1821 
he became solo violinist of the Opera, 
and in 1825 of the Royal Orchestra. He 
pub. his famous L'Art du Violon in 
1834 and, with Rode and Kreutzer, the 
official Method of the Cons. ; also edited 
the Cons, 'cello method and wrote 'no- 
tices' on Gretry and Viotti. He com- 
posed 9 concertos, 30 sets of variations, 
24 preludes in all keys, caprices and 
nocturnes for violin, a symphonie 
concertante for 2 violins and orch., 3 
string quartets, 15 trios for 2 violins 
and bass, etc. Ref.: VII. 412, 431, 433, 
434. (2) Rene-Paul (1813-1889): b. 
Paris, d. there; professor of ensemble- 
playing at the Conservatoire; son of 
Pierre-Marie (1). 

BAXNI, Abbate Giuseppe (1775- 
1844): b. Rome, d. there; pupil of his 
uncle Lorenzo R., maestro at the Twelve 
Apostles' Church, then of Jannaconi, 
who had him made a singer in the 
Papal chapel (camerlango from 1818). 
Imbued with the spirit of Palestrina, B. 
was a 16th cent, composer living in the 
19th. His 10-part Miserere alternates 
with Allegri's and Bai's in the Holy 
Week repertoire. His Memoire storico- 
critiche della vita e delle opere di Gio- 
vanni Pierluigi da Palestrina, etc. 
(1828) was translated^ into German 
(1834) and he pub. an essay on rhyth- 
mics, etc. Ref.: (cited, etc.) I. 253; 
VI. 64, 424. 

RAJ, Tommaso. See Bai. 

BAJETTI, Giovanni (ca. 1815-1875) : 
b. Brescia, d. Milan; violinist, '►conduc- 
tor at La Scala, where he prod, suc- 
cessfully 5 operas and one ballet. 

BAK. See Bach (16). 

BAKER (1) Benjamin Franklin 
(1811- ): b. Wenham, Mass.; 
church singer in Salem, Boston, Port- 
land; (1841) music teacher in Boston 
public schools; vice-pres. Handel and 
Haydn Soc. ; founded Boston Music 
School (1851-68); edited the 'Musical 
Journal.' He wrote vocal music (3 
cantatas, quartets and songs), compiled 
books of glees and anthems and pub. 
'Thorough-bass and Harmony.' Ref.: 
IV. 222. (2) George (1773-1847): b. 
Exeter, Eng., d. Rugeley; organist at 
Stafford, Derby and Rugeley; composed 
anthems and glees for several voices, 
organ voluntaries, piano sonatas, etc. 
(3) Theodore (1851- ): b. New 
York; studied with Oskar Paul in 
Leipzig, Dr. phil. from Leipzig Uni- 
versity; wrote Vber die Musik der 
nordamerikanischen Wilden (1882), 
'Riographical Dictionary of Musicians' 
(1900, 1905, revised and enlarged by Al- 
fred Remy, 1917), 'Dictionary of Musi- 


cal Terms' (1895, 16th ed., 1914). He 
has, translated German writers of his- 
tory and theory (Weitzmann, Jadas- 
sohn, Lamperti, etc.). Ref.: I. 37. 

BAKHMETIEPP, Nikolai Ivano- 
viteh (1807-1891) : choir director of the 
St. Petersburg court chapel; besides 
sacred music he composed a symphony, 
a string quartet, songs, pieces for piano 
and violin. 

BAK ST, Leon. Ref.: IX. 378; X. 183. 

BALAKIREPF, Mily Alexeievitch 
(1837-1910): b. Nishnij-Novgorod, d. 
St. Petersburg; studied natural sci- 
ences, then music, and appeared as 
pianist in 1855. His first compositions 
moved Glinka to announce him as his 
'successor.' His house in St. Peters- 
burg became the centre of the younger 
Russian composers, who, influenced by 
Glinka and Dargomijsky as well as 
Berlioz and Liszt, became the founders 
of the neo- Russian school (Rorodine, 
Moussorgsky, Rimsky- Korsakoff ) , of 
which B. became the acknowledged 
leader. He founded, with Lamakin, 
the Free Music School in 1862 and con- 
ducted its concerts till his death (ex- 
cepting 1874-81), also the Symphony 
concerts of the Imperial Russian Mu- 
sical Society, 1867-70, and the court 
choir, 1883-95. He composed 2 sym- 
phonic poems (Tamar and En Roheme), 
2 symphonies (C, D min.), 3 overtures 
(Spanish, Czech and Russian), a Chopin 
suite for orch. and a piano concerto; 
also fantasy 'Islamey' and other works 
for piano, and 2 sets of songs. He 
pub. an important collection of Russian 
folksongs (1866). Ref.: III. 109ff; pi- 
ano music, VII. 330f ; orchestral works, 
VIII. 450f ; ballet, X. 231f ; portrait, III. 
122. See also individual indexes. 

BALATKA, Hans (1827-1899): b. 
Hoffnungsthal, Moravia, d. Chicago; 
studied with Sechter, etc., in Vienna, 
choral conductor in Vienna, Milwau- 
kee, Chicago, where he founded the 
Liederkranz and the Mozart Club, and 
conducted the Philharmonic from 1869; 
composed cantatas and other choral 
works, songs (some with orch.), etc. 

BALBATRE, Claude (1729-1799) : b. 
Dijon, d. Paris; organist in Paris 
churches, virtuoso in the Concerts spir- 
ituels and (1776) organiste de Mon- 
sieur; published Noel variations, 
Pieces de clavecin and a quartet for 
piano, 2 violins and bass (2 horns ad 

BALBI (1) Ludovico ([?]-1604) : d. 
Venice; maestro di cappella in Padua 
and Venice; composed motets, madri- 
gals, masses, canzoni, etc.; pub. with 
G. Gabrieli and Vecchi, the gradual and 
antiphonary (1591). (2) Melchiore 
(1796-1879): b. Venice, d. Padua; stu- 
dent, theatre-conductor and maestro di 
cappella in Padua; prod. 3 operas 
there, church music (masses, Requiem, 
etc.) ; 3 books of musical theory (1 
'based on equal semitones'). 

BALDWIN, John ([?]-1615): singer 



in the Chapel Royal, London; composer 
of motets; editor of the invaluable col- 
lection, 'Lady Neville's Virginal Book,' 
and a collection of English motets, in- 
cluding pieces of Tallis, Tye, Byrd, 
Taverner, Cooper, etc. 

BALDEWIN. See Bauldewijn. 

BALFE, Michael William (1808- 
1870) : studied with O'Rourke and Horn 
(London), then in Italy as the protege 
of Count Mazzara with Federici and 
Galli; baritone in Italian opera in 
Paris and in Italy from 1828-1835; in 
1835-43 he was settled in England, mak- 
ing occasional visits to the Continent 
(Vienna, Trieste, St. Petersburg, Vienna, 
Berlin). He produced a ballet in Mi- 
lan (1826), later several other Italian 
operas in Italy, but his first great suc- 
cess came with the production in Drury 
Lane of 'The Siege of Rochelle' (1835). 
He also prod. 2 works hi the Paris 
Opera Comique (1834-44). He wrote 
29 operas, all of which were successful, 
'The Bohemian Girl' earning enthusias- 
tic applause in all the large theatres of 
Europe. Besides his operas, he wrote 3 
cantatas, ballads, part-songs, etc. He 
married the Hungarian singer Lina 
Rosen (d. 1888) and his daughter Vic- 
toria (1837-1871) was also a famous 
singer. Ref.: V. 267; IX. 155f, 424. 
• BALLANTINE, Edward: b. Ober- 
lin, Ohio; contemp. American com- 
poser (orchestral prelude) ; instructor 
of music at Harvard College. Ref.: 
IV. 442. 

BALLARD, Robert (16th cent.): 
founder of the second oldest Paris firm 
(after Attaignant) of music publishers, 
associated with Adrien Le Roy (q.v.), 
obtained an exclusive patent from 
Henri II. which the firm's heirs re- 
obtained till 1776. They used the old 
types made by Le Be in 1540 till 1750. 
Ref.: I. 287. 

BALTAZARINI. See Beaujoyeulx. 

BALTHASAR (called Balthasar- 
Florence), Henri Mathias (1844- ) : 
b. Arlon, Belgium; studied at Brussels 
Cons., composed operas, cantatas, a 
violin and a piano concerto, sympho- 
iiics etc* 

BALTZAR, Thomas (ca. 1630-1663) : 
b. Lubeck, d. London; concert-master 
at the court of Charles II; skilful vio- 
linist (double stops) ; compositions pre- 
served in Playford's 'Division Violinist.' 

BALTZELL, Winton James (1864-) : 
b. Shiremanstown, Pa.; editor; stud- 
ied music at Univ. of Pennsylvania and 
New England Cons., also with Sir 
Frederick J. Bridge and W. Shakespeare 
in London; assistant editor of 'The 
fitude,' Philadelphia, 1887; reader for 
the music-publisher Theo. Presser, 
1899-1900; professor of history and 
theory of music, Wesleyan Univ., 
1900-07; since then editor of 'The Mu- 
sician,' Boston; author of 'The Com- 
plete History of Music for Schools' 
(1905), 'Dictionary of Musicians' (1912) ; 
composer of songs and anthems. 


BANCHIERI, Adriano (ca. 1564- 
1634): b. Bologna, d. there; organist 
at Bologna and Imola; composer of 
church concerti, masses, motets, madri- 
gals, etc., author of four books on 
musical theory, in which he opposed 
the hexachordal system. Ref.: I. 279f, 
281: VII. 471; IX. 4. 

BANCK, Karl (1809-1889) : b. Magde- 
burg, d. Dresden; studied with Klein, 
Berger and Zelter; lived in various Ger- 
man cities (among them Berlin, Leip- 
zig and Dresden). Composed piano 
pieces and part-songs and edited clas- 

BANES, Antoine-Anatole (1856-) : 
b. Paris; prolific composer of ballets, 
operettas and operas produced in small 
Parisian theatres; also a successful 
lyric fantasia. 

BANESTER (or Banister), Gilbert 
(15th cent.) : English composer; Master 
of the Children, Chapel Royal, London; 
composer of motets still extant in 

BANISTER (1) John (1630-1679) : b. 
London, d. there; a protege of Charles 
II, whose intrigues against the French 
court musicians resulted in his dismis- 
sal from the Chapel Royal; directed 
a school for music and gave concerts; 
he wrote incidental music to Shake- 
speare's 'Tempest' and Davenant's 
'Circe' (1676) and two years later 'New 
Ayres and Dialogues' for 2, 3 and 4 
voices accompanied by the viol. (2) 
John (ca. 1663-1735) : son of John (1) : 
violinist in the court private band 
during the reigns of Charles, James and 
Anne; leader at the London Italian op- 
era. (3) Charles William (1768- 
1831): composer; collected and pub- 
lished 'Collection of Vocal Music' (4) 
Henry Joshua (1803-1847) : b. London, 
d. there; son of Charles (3); 'cellist. 
(5) Henry Charles (1831-1897) : b. 
London, d. Streatham, near London; 
received King's Scholarship at the Lon- 
don Royal Academy (1846-8) ; profes- 
sor there, at the Guildhall School and 
at the Normal College for the Blind. 
He wrote a 'Text-Book of Music' (1872, 
15 editions), also four other books 
on musical analysis, ethics, etc., and 
a life of Macfarren. Besides cham- 
ber music, chants, songs, etc., he wrote 
4 symphonies, 5 overtures and cantatas; 
also a pianist of repute. 

BANNELIER, Charles (1840-1899): 
b. Paris, d. there; studied at the Con- 
servatoire; contributor and editor of 
Revue et Gazette Musicale. He ar- 
ranged the Sumphonie fantastique 
of Berlioz for piano 4 hands; trans- 
lated into the French the text of the 
St. Matthew Passion and Hanslick's 
Vom Musikalisch-Schonen. 

BANTI-GIORGI, Brigitta (1759- 
1806) : b. Crema, Lombardy, d. Bologna; 
dramatic soprano; sang at Paris Opera, 
London, Milan, and Italy; discovered as 
cabaret singer, she never learned even 
to read music. Her success was im- 



mediate and universal, due solely to 
the range and brilliance of her voice. 

BANTOCK, Granville (1868- ) : b. 
London; winner of the Macfarren prize 
at the Royal Academy; conductor of 
the Gaiety Theatre Company through 
England, America and Australia; mu- 
nicipal music director, New Brighton, 
Cheshire, 1897; principal of the music 
school, Birmingham and Midland 
Institute, since 1900; director of the 
Wolverhampton Festival Chorus, 1902- 
03 ; director of the Liverpool Orches- 
tral Union since 1903; professor of 
music at the University of Birmingham 
since 1908. He has composed 4 sym- 
phonic poems, a symphonic overture, 
a comedy overture, overture to a 
Grecian tragedy and other works for 
orchestra; a 3-act ballet, 'Egypt'; a 
serenade and a suite for string or- 
chestra, many works for chorus with 
and without orchestra, numerous songs, 
piano pieces, etc. Ref.: III. x, xi, xiv, 
xix, 422, 424, 425; songs, V. 372f; cho- 
ral music, VI. 371ff; orchestral music, 
VIII. 474, 476; mus. ex., XIV. 184; por- 
trait, III. 424. 

BANWART, Jakob (17th cent.) : ca- 
thedral conductor at Constance; com- 
poser of motets 1-11 v. (1641-1661), 
masses 4-5 v., and instr. music. 

BAPTIE, David (1822-1906): b. 
Edinburgh, d. Glasgow; composer of 
anthems and part-songs; compiled the 
'Moody and Sankey Hymn Book' 
(1881); published 'Handbook of Mu- 
sical Biography' and 'Musicians of all 
Times' (1889), composed glees. 

BAPTISTE (1) (corr. Baptiste- 
Anet) ([?]-1755): d. Luneville; studied 
with Corelli, whose compositions he 
performed and whose style he imitated ; 
conductor of the music of a Polish 
nobleman; composed sonatas for the 
violin, duets and suites for musettes. 
(2) Ludwig Albert Friedrich (1700- 
ca. 1770) : b. Ottingen, d. Cassel ; violin- 
ist and dancer at the Cassel court; com- 
posed violin and flute sonatas with 
bass and minuets for 2 violins, 2 horns 
and bass, etc. 

BARBAJA, Domenico (1778-1841): 
b. Milan, d. near Naples; opera man- 
ager, first in Naples (San Carlo), then 
Vienna ( Karnthnerthor and an der 
Wien) also Milan (Scala), during the 
brilliant Rossini-Donizetti epoch. 

BARBARINI, Manfrede Lupi (16th 
cent.) : composer of motets published 
under the popular pseudonym of 

BARBEDETTE, Hippolyte la Ro- 
helle (1827-1901) : b. Poitiers, d. Paris; 
composed pieces for the piano and en- 
sembles; musical biographer; contribu- 
tor to Menestrel; author of works on 
Beethoven, Schubert, Heller, Chopin, 
Mendelssohn, Gluck, etc. 

BABBELLA, Emanuele (1704-1773) : 
b. Naples, d. there; composer of cham- 
ber music and an opera, Elmira generosa 
(with Logroscino, 1753). Ref.: VII. 404. 


BARBEREAU. See Barbireau. 
BARBERINI, Cardinal. Ref.: IX. 
20, 22. 

BARBIER (1) Frederic-fitienne 

(1829-1889): b. Metz, d. Paris; teacher 
and leader, Paris Theatre International ; 
prod, more than 30 light operas (operas 
bouffes). (2) Jules-Paul (1825-1901): 
b. Paris, d. there; operatic librettist 
for Meyerbeer, Masse, Gounod, A. 
Thomas, etc., frequently in collabora- 
tion with M. Carre. Ref.: II. 205, 241; 
IX. 180, 184. 234, 238, 240, 246. (3) 
Pierre (1854- ): b. Paris; son of 
Jules; wrote librettos, he baiser de 
Suzon and Jehan de Saintre. 

BARBIERI (1) Carlo Emanuele di 
(1822-1867) ; b. Genoa, d. Pesth; studied 
with Mercadante and Crescentini; con- 
ductor of stage orchestras in Vienna, 
Berlin, Hamburg, Rio de Janeiro; pro- 
duced 5 operas, composed church mu- 
sic, songs in German and Italian. (2) 
Francisco Asenjo (1823-1894): b. 
Madrid, d. there; studied at Madrid 
Cons., clarinettist in a band, then a 
theatre orchestra, chorus leader of a 
Spanish opera troupe, then opera singer 
for a time; secretary of the zarzuela 
Theatre Company in Madrid, 1847, and 
music critic of Illustracion, also teach- 
er. He prod, his first zarzuela in 1850 
and rapidly became the favorite zar- 
zuela composer in Spain (he wrote 77 
in all). Also distinguished as con- 
ductor (founded Concerts spirituels, 
1859, classic concerts, 1866), historian 
(pub. Cancionero musical collection of 
15th-16th cent. Spanish polyphonic mu- 
sic, wrote 3 historical studies, etc.) and 
professor of harmony and musical his- 
tory at Madrid Cons. He also wrote 
many orch. works, hymns, motets, etc., 
also chansons. 

BARBIREAU, Jacques (14[?]> 
1491) : d. Antwerp, where he was choir 
master at the Notre Dame; composer 
of whose works are preserved 3 masses, 
motets and chansons in MS. 

BARBLAN, Otto (1860- ): b. 

Scanfs, Switzerland; studied at the 
Stuttgart Cons., organist of the cathe- 
dral at Geneva, professor of organ and 
composition at the Cons, and conductor 
of the Societe du Chant Sacre, since 
1887; composer for organ and chorus. 

BARBOT, Joseph - Theodore - De- 
sire (1824-1897) : b. Toulouse, d. Paris ; 
studied at the Conservatoire; operatic 
tenor at the Paris Opera, at the Theatre 
Lyrique and in Italy; in 1875 professor 
at the Conservatoire. 

BARCEWICZ, Stanislaus (1858-) : 
b. Warsaw; studied at Moscow Cons, 
with Tschaikowsky, Hfimaly and 
Laub; became professor of violin at 
Warsaw Cons., 1885, and second opera 
conductor at Warsaw, 1893; director 
of the Imperial Musical Institute, Mos- 
cow, since 1911. 

BARDI, Giovanni, Conte del Vernio 
(16th cent.) : Florentine patron of let- 
ters and music; member of the came- 


Bar dm 

rata who produced the earliest ora- 
torio and the first attempt at opera. 
Ref.: I. 329ff. 

BARDIN, Edward. Ref.: IV. 65. 

BAREZZI (1) Margarita. Ref.: II. 
482. (2) Antonio: patron of Verdi. 
Ref.: II. 481. 

BARGAGLIA, Scipione (16th cent.) : 
Neapolitan composer; in 1587 he used 
for the first time the word concerto. 

BARGE, Johann Heinrich Wilhelm 
(1836- ): b. Wulffahl, near Dan- 
nenberg; performer on flute in a Hano- 
verian regiment, then in the orchestra 
of the Detmold court and 1867-95 at 
the Gewandhaus; in 1899 teacher at the 
Cons, of Leipzig. He wrote a method 
for the flute, studies for orchestra and 
flute, arrangements of well-known com- 
positions for the flute and piano, etc. 

BARGHEER (1) Karl Louis (1831- 
1902) : b. Biickeburg, d. Hamburg; stud- 
ied with Spohr, David and Joachim; 
concert violinist; court conductor at 
Detmold court, and Hamburg Philhar- 
monic. (2) Adolf (1840-1901) : b. 
Biickeburg, brother to Karl Louis; vio- 
linist at the Detmold court, professor 
of the violin at the Basel School of 

BARGIEL, Woldemar (1828-1897): 
b. Berlin, d. there; studied in Leipzig 
Cons. (Gade, Hauptmann, Moscheles, 
Bietz) ; teacher in Berlin, at Cologne 
Cons, and the Berlin Boyal High 
School; director of the music school 
and concert conductor for the Amster- 
dam Society for the Promotion of Mu- 
sic; member of various academies, 
president of the Meisterschule fur 
musikalische Komposition; composed 3 
overtures, 3 orchestral dances, a sym- 
phony, an orchestral intermezzo, a 
sonata for piano and violin, psalms for 
chorus and orchestra, 4 string quartets, 
the 96th Psalm for double chorus a 
cappella, etc. Ref: III. 14; VIII. 249. 

BARILLA, A. (1826-1876) : d. Na- 
ples; half brother to Adelina Patti. 

BARKER, Charles Spackmann 
(1806-1879): b. Bath, d. Maidstone, 
London, England; maker of organs; in- 
vented pneumatic lever and the electric 
action; worked in the factory of Dau- 
blaine & Callinet (q. v.) at Paris from 
1837-1860; then founded the firm of 
Barker & Verschneider. Ref.: VI. 407. 
BARM ANN (1) Heinricb Joseph 
(1784-1847): b. Potsdam, d. Munich; 
concert virtuoso on clarinet; toured 
widely, then settled in Munich as first 
clarinettist in the court orchestra; 
composed about 90 works for the clari- 
net, and was a friend of Weber and 
Mendelssohn, who both wrote for him. 
(2) Karl (1782-1842) : brother of Hein- 
rich; noted performer on bassoon. (3) 
Karl (1820-1885): b. Munich, d. there; 
son of HeinricIT; pupil and successor 
of his father; composer of pieces for 
the clarinet and author of a method. 
(4) (or Baermann) Carl (1839-1913): 
b. Munich, d. Boston; son of Karl (3); 


studied with Wanner, Wohlmuth, Lach- 
ner and Liszt; teacher in Munich Cons.; 
from 1881 teacher and pianist of note 
in Boston. His compositions for the 
pianoforte have been pub. in Offen- 
bach. Ref.: IV. 250. 

BARNABEE, Henry Clay (1833- 
[?]): b. Portsmouth, N. H.; American 
comic opera baritone, famous for his 
association with the 'Bostonians,' com- 
edy star in operettas by Sullivan and 
de Koven. Ref.: IV. 175, 177. 

BARNARD, nee Alington, Mrs. 
Charles (1830-1869) : writer of songs 
of great popularity in Victorian Eng- 
land (under the pseudonym, 'Claribel'). 
Besides these better known pieces, she 
published compositions for the piano, 
duets, trios, quartets for the voice. 

BARNBY (1) [Sir] Joseph (1838- 
1896): b. York, d. London; an infant 
prodigy; at 10 teacher of the boys in 
York Minster; two years later organist; 
at 15 music teacher in a school. Studied 
in the London Royal Academy; London 
organist, founder of a choral society 
(1864), conductor in London, Cardiff 
and elsewhere; in 1875 precentor and 
music director at Eton, 1892 principal 
of the Guildhall School and knighted 
the same year. His compositions include 
an oratorio, 'Rebecca,' organ pieces, 
Magnificat, hymn tunes, Nunc dimittis, 
anthems, etc. Ref.: VI. 208. (2) Rob- 
ert (1821-1875): b. York, d. London; 
altoist, lay vicar at Westminster, gen- 
tleman of the Chapel Royal. 

BARNES, Robt. (1760-1800): Lon- 
don violin maker. 

BARNETT (1) John (1802-1890): 
b. Bedford, d. Cheltenham; studied 
with Horn, Price, Ries, in Paris and 
Frankfort; composed 2 string quartets, 
part-songs, duets, about 4,000 songs; 
produced 1 operetta and 3 operas, com- 
posed 3 others and died before the 
completion of 2 oratorios and a sym- 
phony. (2) John Francis (1837- ) : 
b. London; nephew of John; twice win- 
ner of Queen's Scholarship at the Lon- 
don Royal Academy; (1856-9) studied 
at Leipzig Cons. Pianist in the New 
Philharmonic Concerts (1853), in those 
of the Gewandhaus (1860) ; professor 
at the London Royal College of Music, 
1883. He composed an oratorio, 6 can- 
tatas, a symphony, a symphonic over- 
ture, trio, quartet and quintet for 
strings, piano concerto and piano 
pieces, part-songs, etc. Ref.: III. 91. 
(3) Joseph Alfred (1810-1898) : b. Lon- 
don; brother of John, tenor singer, 
vocal teacher and composer of sacred 
vocal music (songs, quartets, etc.). 

BARON, Ernst Gottlieb (1696- 
1760) : b. Breslau, d. Berlin ; lutenist 
at the court of Gotha, 1727, theorbist 
to Frederick the Great as crown prince, 
1734; writer on the theory and practice 
of his instruments and composer of 
unpublished concertos, trios, sonatas, 

BARRfi (1) (or Barra), Leonard 



(16th cent.): b. Limoges; studied with 
Willaert, papal singer (1537), papal 
envoy to Council of Trent (1545). His 
motets and madrigals are preserved. 
(2) Antoine (16th cent.) : alto singer 
at St. Peter's, Rome, 1552, madrigalist 
and publisher in Rome (1555) and Mi- 
lan (1564), pub. collections of madri- 
gals and motets, including some by B. 

BARRftUE, George : contemporary 
French flutist resident in New York. 
Ref.: IV. 205. 

BARRET, Apollon Marie Rose 
(1804-1879): d. London; studied at the 
Paris Cons.; performer on oboe and 
writer of a standard text book, 'Com- 
plete Method for the Oboe.' 

BARRETT (1) John (1674-1735): d. 
London; studied with Dr. Blow; Lon- 
don organist and teacher. Composed 
scenic music, overtures and songs. (2) 
William Alexander (1836-1891): b. 
London, d. there; Mus. Bac. Oxon., 
1870; editor of newspapers and musi- 
cal journals, collaborated with Stainer, 
organist, critic, on a 'Dictionary of Mu- 
sical Terms ;' wrote on English glee and 
madrigal composers and a life of Balfe 
and composed one oratorio, anthems 
and madrigals. (3) S. A. Ref.: (cited 
on 'Dream Dance') X. 39. 

BARRIE, J. M. Ref.: III. 432. 

BARRINGTON, Daines (1727- 

1800): b. London, d. there; writer of 
musical essays; published 'Experiments 
and Observations on the Singing of 
Birds' (London, 1773) ; described the 
crwth and pib-corn of early Wales. 

BARRY (1) Marie, Comtesse du: 
court favorite of Louis XV.; opponent 
of Gluck. Ref.: II. 33. (2) Charles 
Ainslie (1830-1915): b. London, d. 
there; studied with Walmisley and at 
the Cons, of Cologne and Leipzig; 
editor of the 'Monthly Musical Record'; 
composed hymns, songs, piano pieces, 
2 overtures, a symphony, a string quar- 
tet, cantatas, etc. 

BARSANTI, Francesco (ca. 1690- 
after 1750): b. Lucca, d. London(?); 
performer on flute, oboe and viola ; pub- 
lished a collection of old Scots Tunes 
for 'cello and harpsichord with bass; 
composed 12 violin concertos, 6 anti- 
phones, 6 sonatas for 2 violins with 

BARSOTTI, Tommaso Gasparo 
Fortnnato (1786-1868): b. Florence, 
d. Marseilles; founder and director of 
the Free School of Music; published 
a Mcthode (1828), piano pieces and 
vocal nocturnes, also a Domine salvum 
fac regem. 

BARTAY (1) Andreas (1798-1856) : 
b. Szeplak, Hungary, d. Mayence; di- 
rector of National Theatre at Budapest; 
concert performer in Paris and Ham- 
burg; composed 3 operas, an oratorio, 
masses, ballets, etc. (2) Ede (1825- 
1901): son of Andreas (1); b. Buda- 

B;st, d. there; directed the National 
usical Academy; composed an over- 
ture, etc. 


BARTH (1) Christian Samuel 

(1735-1809) : b. Glauchau, Saxony, d. 
Copenhagen; studied with J. S. Bach at 
the Thomasschule ; oboist in orchestras 
at Rudolstadt, Weimar, Hanover, Cas- 
sel and Copenhagen; composed oboe 
pieces. (2) P. Philipp Karl Anton 
(1773-[?]): b. Cassel, son of C. S. 
(1) ; composer of concerto for flute and 
of collections of Danish and German 
songs. (3) Joseph Johann August 
(1781-[?]): b. Grosslippen, Bohemia; 
concert tenor and member of the , Im- 
perial choir at Vienna. (4) Gustav 
(1811-1897): b. Vienna, d. Frankfort; 
son of Joseph; pianist; conductor of 
the Men's Choral Union of Vienna and 
at the Wiesbaden court; teacher and 
critic in Frankfort; composer of songs 
and men's choruses. (5) Karl Heinrich 
(1847- ): b. Pillau, Prussia; studied 
with L. Steinmann, Billow, Bronsart, 
Taussig; concert pianist in England 
and Germany; teacher at Stern Cons, 
and the Berlin Royal High School; 
member of a highly esteemed trio (with 
de Ahna and Hausmann) ; conductor 
of the Hamburg Philharmonic Concerts 
as successor to Biilow. (6) Richard: 
contemporary (left-handed) violin vir- 
tuoso; Musikdirektor at Marburg Univ., 
conductor of Hamburg Philharmonic 
till 1904, also choral societies, and di- 
rector of Hamburg Cons, from 1908. 
He pub. 2 violin sonatas, a trio, a 
string quartet, a partita and a chaconne 
for violin alone. (7) and (8). See 

BARTHE, Grat-Norbert (1828- 
[?]): b. Bayonne, France; winner of 
the Grand prix de Rome at the Con- 
servatoire; composed 2 operas, an ora- 
torio, a cantata, etc. 

BARTHEL, Johann Christian 
(1776-1831): b. Plauen, Saxony, d. Al- 
tenburg; court organist at Altenburg; 
composed church and piano music. 

BARTHfiliftMON, Francois-Hippo- 
lyte (1741-1808) : b. Bordeaux, d. Dub- 
lin; violinist, opera conductor in Lon- 
don and Dublin; composed violin con- 
certos, 6 string quartets, 6 operas, etc. 
Ref.: VII. 410. 

BARTHOLOMEW, William (1793- 
1867): b. London, d. there; translator 
into English of French, German and 
Greek opera libretti. (Antigone, Lore- 
ley, Jessonda, etc.) Ref.: VI. 179, 284. 

BARTL.EMAN. Anglicized spelling 
of Barthelemon (q.v.). 

BARTLETT (1) J. (17th cent): 
English composer. (2) Homer New- 
ton (1846- ): b. Olive, N. Y.; in- 
fant prodigy; studied with Mills, 
Braun, Jacobsen, etc.; New York 
church organist; published a sextet for 
strings and flute, quartets, anthems, 
carols for mixed voices, 30 songs and 
about 600 works for the piano. Ref.: 
IV. 383f; VI. 499; musical ex., XIV. 

BARTMUSS, Richard (1859-1910): 
b. Bitterfeld, d. Dessau; organist and 



composer; studied in Berlin with Grell, 
Haupt and Ldschhorn; court organist 
at Dessau; Royal Prussian professor, 
1892, and Royal Musikdirektor, 1896; 
composed Kirchliche Festmusiken for 
organ, 2 organ concertos, 4 organ so- 
natas, 2 choral fantasias, an oratorio, 
cantatas, motets, choruses, songs, etc.; 
Liturgische Vespern, a contribution to 
the reform of the Lutheran musical 

BARTNANSKY. See Bortnianski. 

BARTOK, Bela (1881- ) : b. Nagy 
Szent Miklos, Hungary; composer; 
studied at the Academy of Music in 
Pesth; teacher of piano there since 
1906; composer of piano works, a piano 
quintet, a rhapsody with orchestra; 
has collected Hungarian, Slavic and 
Roumanian folk-songs; editor of musi- 
cal classics. Ref.: III. xxi, 198; mus. 
ex., XIV. 157. 

BARTOLI (1) Padre Erasmo 
(1606-1656): b. Gaeta, d. Naples; com- 
posed masses, psalms and motets pre- 
served in manuscript under his title 
of 'Padre Raimo.' (2) Danielo (1608- 
1685): b. Ferrara, d. Rome; learned 
Jesuit; author of a work on acoustics 

BARTOLINI (1) V. Italian male 
soprano in London, 1782. (2) Or* in 
Dio (17th cent.) Cathedral conductor at 
Udine, wrote motets, madrigals, can- 
zowets etc 

BARTOLO, Padre Daniele (1608- 
1685) : b. Ferrara, d. Rome; Jesuit 
theorist; wrote on sound and harmony 
(work pub. in Rome 1679-81 and at 
Bologna, 1680). 

BASELT, Fritz (Friedrich Gustav 
Otto) (1863- ): b. 61s, Silesia; stud- 
ied with Kohler and Bussler; musician, 
music-dealer and conductor in Breslau, 
Essen and Nuremberg, where he taught 
and composed; director (since 1894) 
of musical societies in Frankfort. His 
compositions include five operettas, 
two comic operas, two ballets. He 
also wrote more than one hundred 
popular male choruses, works for or- 
chestra, strings, violin and piano, ar- 
rangements an \ transcriptions, songs, 
duets etc. etc 

BASEVI, Abramo (1818-1885): b. 
Leghorn, d. Florence; composed 2 op- 
eras, indifferently successful ; aban- 
doned composition for criticism and 
founded a musical journal (1848?), also 
the 'Beethoven Matinees'; published a 
study of Verdi's operas, 2 books on 
harmony and an abridged musical his- 
tory (1865-6). 

[St.] BASIL the Great (329-379) : b. 
Caesarea, Cappadocia, d. there; Bishop 
to whom is attributed the introduction 
of the antiphonary into the Eastern 
Church. Ref.: I. 140. 

BASILI, Francesco (1766-1850) : 
b. Loreto, d. Rome; studied with his 
father Andrea and with Jannaconi; 
maestro di cappella in Italian cities; 
1827 censor at Milan Cons.; 1837 


maestro at St. Peter's, Rome; prod. 11 
operas, also dramatic oratorios (Rome, 
Milan, Florence, Naples, Venice) ; com- 
poser of symphonies, piano sonatas, 
and church music (psalms, motets, a 
Magnificat, a Miserere, etc.). 

BASIRON, Philippe (ca. 1500): 
Netherland composer of motets and 
masses (one each printed by Petrucci, 
others in MS.), also MS. chansons. 

BASSANI (1) Giovanni (16th cent.) : 
singer (1585) . and singing teacher 
(1595) at the seminary, concert-master 
of St. Mark's (1615), at Venice; instru- 
mental composer; published Fantasie 
for 3 voices (1585), Ricercare, Passaglie 
e Cadentie (1585); Motetti, Madrigali e 
Canzoni francese di diversi (1591), Mo- 
tetti per concerti ecclesiastici (2 vols.) 
and Canzonette (1 vol.). (2) Geronimo 
(late 17th cent.): native of Padua; 
studied with Lotti; contrapuntist, sing- 
er, teacher, composer of masses, motets, 
and 2 operas (prod., Venice, 1718 and 
1721). (3) Giovanni Battista (1657- 
1716) : b. Padua, d. Bergamo ; pupil of 
Castrovillari (Venice) ; organist (later 
chapel-master) of Accademia della 
morte, Ferrara; principe of the Ac- 
cademia filarmonica, Bologna, 1682-3. 
He is supposed to be Corelli's teacher, 
and at any rate foreshadows the lat- 
ter's style in his Balletti, Concerti, 
Gighe e Sarabande (1677), his violin 
sonatas (with figured bass), his 12 
Sonate da chiesa for 2 vlns. and fig- 
ured bass (1683), etc., etc. B. is also 
distinguished for his vocal composi- 
tions (a great number of solo cantatas 
with figured bass, etc.), and he wrote 
3 operas, oratorios, masses and other 
sacred works. Ref.: V. 160; VI. 109, 
425; VII. 389f, 480; IX. 53. 

BASSANO, Italian painter. Ref.: 
I. 327f. 

BASSELINI, Oliver. Ref.: IX. 69. 

BASSFORD, William Kipp (1839- 
1902): b. New York, d. there; studied 
with S. Jackson; concert pianist in 
U. S.; organist in New York City and 
Orange, N. J.; teacher and composer 
of one opera, a mass, pieces for the 
piano, songs, etc. 

BASSI (1) Luigi (1766-1825): b. 
Pesaro, d. Dresden; operatic baritone 
in Italy, Prague, Vienna; director of 
Dresden opera; created Don Giovanni. 
(2) Amadeo Vittorio (1876- ): 
operatic tenor; b. Florence; studied 
with Pavese Negri in Florence and 
made his debut there as the Duke in 
Rigoletto, 1889; sang in principal cities 
of Italy and South America; Covent 
Garden, 1907; Manhattan Opera House, 
New York, 1906-08; Chicago Opera Co., 
1910-12; repertoire of over 50 operas 
(chiefly Italian). 

BASSIRON, Philippe. See Basiron. 

BASTARD ELLA, La. See Agujari. 

BASTIAANS (1) J. G. (1812-1875): 
b. Wilp, d. Haarlem; studied with 
Schneider and Mendelssohn, church or- 
ganist and teacher in Amsterdam and 



Haarlem. (2) Johann (1854-1885): son 
and successor of J. G. (1) ; wrote a 
book of chorales, songs, etc. 

BASTON, Josquin (middle 16th 
cent.) : Netherlander, court composer, 
1552-3, to Sigimund August in Cracow; 
wrote motets, chansons, etc., printed at 
Antwerp, Louvain, and Augsburg. 

BATCHELDER, John C. (1852-) : 
b. Topsham, Vt. ; teacher; studied in 
Berlin (Haupt, Ehrlich, Loeschhorn) ; 
organist in Detroit, where he also 
teaches the organ and piano at a con- 

BATES (1) Joan (1741-1799): b. 
Halifax, d. London; conductor of the 
famous London festivals for the Han- 
del Commemoration given in 1784-5-6- 
7, '91, and one of the founders of the 
'Concerts of Ancient Music' (2) Wil- 
liam (1720-1790?): London composer; 
prod, comic operas, opera 'Pharnaces,' 
a musical prelude, canons, violin sona- 
tas, glees, catches, etc. (3) Arlo. Ref.: 
VI. 222. 

BATESON, Thomas (ca. 1575-1630) : 
cathedral organist in Chester and Dub- 
lin; published 3 sets of madrigals. 

BATHYLLUS, Roman dancer. Ref.: 
X. 73, 741. 

BATISTE (1) Antoine fidouard 
(1820-1876): b. Paris, d. there; church 
organist ; studied and taught at the Con- 
servatoire; composed music for organ, 
piano and voice; edited the 12 vol. 
edition of Solfeges du Conservatoire; 
wrote a Petit Solfege harmonique. 
Ref.: VI. 467f. (2) See also Baptiste. 

BATKA, Richard (1868- ): b. 
Prague; writer and editor; editor, with 
Teibler, of the Neue musikalische Rund- 
schau, 1896-98, and music critic of the 
Neue Revue and the Prager Tageblatt; 
founded the Durerbund, 1903-08; musi- 
cal editor since 1908 of the Wiener 
Fremdenblatt and lecturer on the his- 
tory of music at the Akademie der 
Tonkunst; also editor since 1897 of the 
Kunstwart and since 1909 (with R. 
Specht) of Der Merker; author of biog- 
raphies of Bach and Schumann, Aus 
der Musik- und Theaterwelt (1894), 
Martin Pliiddemann: Eine kritische 
Studie (1896), Die Musik der Griechen 
(1900), Die Mehrstimmige Kunstmusik 
des Mittelatters (1901), Die Lieder Mil- 
lions von Prag (1905), Die Musik in Roh- 
men (1906), Geschichte der Musik in 
Rohmen (1906-), Allgemeine Geschichte 
der Musik (2 vols., 1909-11), Richard 
Wagner (1912); author of librettos for 
Leo Blech and other German opera com- 
posers; editor of Runte Ruhne (1902 
et seq.), Mozarts Gesammelte Poesien 
(1906) and Hausmusik (1907); con- 
tributor of analytical essays to Schle- 
singer's Musikfuhrer. 

BATON (1) Henri (1710-C?]) : b. 
Paris; player of the musette. (2) 
Charles ('Baton le jeune') : player of 
the vielle, composer for musette and 
vielle; wrote Memoire sur la vielle en 
D la re. 


BATTA (1) Pierre (1795-1876): b. 
Maastricht, d. Brussels; 'cellist, teacher 
of solfege at Brussels Cons. (2) Alex- 
andre (1816-1902): studied with Platel 
in Brussels Cons.; concert 'cellist of 
European reputation; wrote transcrip- 
tion for 'cello accompanied by piano. 
(3) Jean-Laurent (1817-1880) : b. 
Maastricht, d. Nancy; won 1st prize 
at Brussels Cons.; piano teacher in 
Paris and Nancy. (4) Joseph (1824-) : 
b. Maastricht; 'cellist; winner of 2nd 
grand prix, Brussels Cons.; 'cellist in 
Paris Opera Comique; composed sym- 
phonies, contatas, overtures, etc. 

BATTAILLE, Charles Aimable 
(1822-1872): b. Nantes, d. Paris; dra- 
matic bass (1848-57) at the Paris Opera 
Comique; in 1851 professor of singing 
at the Conservatoire; author of exten- 
sive vocal method. 

BATTANCHON, Felix (1814-1893): 
b. Paris, d. there; studied at the Con- 
servatoire; 'cellist at Paris Op6ra; 
inventor of diminutive 'cello, called 
'baryton,' which met with no success. 

BATTELL, Bobbins: founder of the 
music professorship in Yale Univ. 
Ref.: IV. 224. 

BATTEN (1) Adrian (ca. 1585-1637) : 
vicar choral of Westminster, vicar 
choral and organist of St. Paul's, Lon- 
don; composer of church services and 
anthems, etc. (2) Robert, English 
song- writer. Ref.: III. 443. 

BATTISHILL, Jonathan (1738- 
1801): b. London, d. Islington; chor- 
ister at St. Paul's, deputy-organist at 
Chapel Royal; church organist in Lon- 
don and conductor there at Covent 
Garden; composed one opera, one pan- 
tomime, glees, catches, anthems, songs, 
etc. Ref.: VI. 472. 

BATTISTA, Vincenzo (1823-1873) : 
b. Naples, d. there; studied at Naples 
Cons.; operatic composer with ephem- 
eral fame in Naples, where he prod. 11 
of his thirteen operas. 

BATTISTINI, Mat tia (1857- ) : 

b. Rome [?]; operatic baritone, has sung 
throughout Italy, in Spain, Portugal, 
London, Berlin, St. Petersburg, etc. 

BATTMANN, Jacques Louis (1818- 
1886) : b. Maasmiinster, Alsace, d. 
Dijon; organist at Belfort and Vesoul; 
composed etudes for piano and for 
organ, choral works, masses, motets; 
wrote a 'method' for harmonium (for 
which he also composed), a piano 
method and a brochure on harmony. 

BATTON, Desire Alexandre (1797- 
1855): b. Paris, d. there; studied with 
Cherubini at the Conservatoire, where 
he took the grand prix de Rome, 1816, 
with a cantata; composer of indifferent 
operas, inspector of branch schools of 
the Conservatoire, where (1849) he con- 
ducted a vocal class. 

BATTU, Pantaleon (1799-1870): b. 
Paris, d. there; studied at the Conser- 
vatoire; violinist at the court and at 
the Paris Opera, where he was second 
chef d'orchestre (1846-1859). He com- 



posed 2 concertos for the violin, a 
Theme varU for violin with orchestra, 
romances for violin with piano, etc. 

BAUDIOT, Charles Nicolas (1773- 
1849): b. Nancy, d. Paris; 'cellist in 
royal orch.; studied with Janson Value. 
at the Conservatoire, where he later 
became professor of the 'cello. He 
published chamber music, 2 concertos, 
2 concertinos; wrote a 'cello method 
and a book on 'cello composition. 

BAUER (1) Harold (1873- ): b. 
London; pianist, studied piano with 
his father and in 1892 with Paderewski, 
violin with Pollitzer; has toured Eu- 
rope and America with great success 
since 1893; contributed to 'The Art of 
Music' (2) Clara: founder of Cincin- 
nati Conservatory, 1867. Ref.: IV. 

BXUERL, Paul. See Peurl. 

BAULDEWIJN, also Baulduin, 
Baldewin, Balduin, Baudoin, or Bau- 
douyn, No61 or Natalis ([?]-1529): 
d. Antwerp, where he was maestro di 
cappella. Motets and masses by him 
are extant; two of the former printed 
by Petrucci, 1519. 

BAUMBACH (1) Frledrich August 
(1753-1813): d. Leipzig; conductor of 
Hamburg opera; composer in Leipzig 
for harpsichord, piano, 'cello, violin, 
guitar, where he contributed to the 
musical section of Kurz gefasstes 
Handworterbuch iiber die schonen 
Kiinste (1794). (2) Adolph (1830[?]- 
1880) : b. Germany, d. Chicago ; settled 
in Boston, 1855, as teacher and com- 
poser; collected solo sacred quartets 
and didactic piano pieces. 

BAUMPELDEB, Friedrich (1836-) : 
b. Dresden; studied with Julius Otto, 
then at Leipzig Cons.; pianist and com- 
poser of salon music, etudes, suite and 
sonata for the piano. 

BAUMGART, Expedit Friedrich 
(1817-1871) : b. Glogau, d. Bad Warm- 
brunn; music director of Breslau 
Univ., teacher in Royal Institute for 
Church Music; editor of C. P. E. Bach's 

BAUM GARTEN (1) Gotthilf von 
(1741-1813) : b. Berlin, d. Gross- 
Strehlitz, Silesia; composed 3 operas 
prod, in Breslau. (2) Karl Friedrich 
(ca. 1740-1824): b. Liibeck, d. London; 
was organist at Savoy chapel and con- 
cert-master at Covent Garden; dramatic 
composer, prod. 'Robin Hood' (Lon- 
don, 1786), 'Blue Beard,' pantomime 
(1792), and, with Shields, 'Netley Ab- 
bey' (1794). 


(1814-1862): b. Munich, d. there; choir- 
master in Munich; author of mono- 
graphs on 'musical shorthand'; com- 
poser of an instrumental mass, a 
Requiem, choruses,- etc. (2) Wilhelm, 
or Guillaume (1820-1867): b. Ror- 
schach, d. Zurich; teacher in St. Gall; 
Musikdirektor in Zurich Univ. 

BAIMKER, Wilhelm (1842-1905): 
b. Elberfeld, d. lturicli; chaplain and 


inspector of schools at Niederkruchten; 
author of a history of the German 
Catholic Church song (4 vols., 1862, 
1883, 1891, 1911 [posth.]), and books 
on Palestrina, Lasso, German musical 
history, etc., pub. 15th cent. Netherland 
and German sacred melodies. 

BAUSCH (1) Ludwig Christian 
August (1805-1871) : b. Naumberg, d. 
Leipzig; maker of violins and bows; 
worked successively in Dresden, Des- 
sau, Leipzig, Wiesbaden and again 
Leipzig. (2) Ludwig (1829-1871): b. 
Dessau, d. Leipzig; son of L. C. A. (1) ; 
lived in New York, then in Leipzig, 
where he worked first alone, then with 
his father. (3) Otto (1841-1874): son 
of L. C. A. and successor to his busi- 
ness. The firm is now in the hands of 
A. Paulus of Markneukirchen. 

BAX, Arnold (1883- ) : b. Lon- 
don, studied at Royal Academy of Mu- 
sic; composer of symphonic poems, two 
works for chorus and orchestra, a bal- 
let, a song cycle, chamber-music, piano 
pieces and songs. Ref.: III. 441. 

BAYER (1) Aloys (1802-1863): b. 
Sulzbach (Upper Palatinate), d. Gra- 
benstadt (on Chiemsee) ; operatic 
tenor; made debut in 'Joseph,' Munich 
Hoftheater, where he remained as first 
tenor; also distinguished as lieder 
singer. (2) Josef (1852-1913): Aus- 
trian violinist; 2nd violin at the Vi- 
enna Court Opera, where he became 
ballet conductor (1882). He composed 
numerous operettas, ballets, panto- 
mimes, etc., prod, in Munich, Briinn, 
Hanover, Berlin and Vienna. 

BAZIN, Francois-£manuel-Joseph 
(1816-1878): b. Marseilles, d. Paris; 
winner of the prix de Rome (1840) at 
the Conservatoire; professor of singing 
(1844), harmony and composition 
(1871) at Paris Cons.; member of the 
Academie, 1872; composed 9 operas and 
wrote a practical and theoretical har- 

BAZZINI (1) (Bazzino), Natale 
([?]-1639): composer of masses, mo- 
tets, psalms. (2) (Bazzino), Fran- 
cesco Maria (1593-1660) : b. Lovero, d. 
Bergamo; brother of (1); composer for 
the theorbo, on which he was a virtu- 
oso. He also wrote an oratorio, can- 
zonette, etc. (3) Antonio (1818-1897): 
b. Brescia, d. Milan; violinist; studied 
with Faustino Camisoni (Milan) ; 
played before Paganini, 1836, and upon 
the latter's advice travelled to Ger- 
many, where he came to admire Ger- 
man music, esp. Bach and Beethoven; 
toured Spain, Italy and France, settled 
in Paris, later in Brescia as composer. 
Became professor and director (1882) 
of Milan Cons. Composed a symphonic 
poem, overtures to 'Lear' and Alfieri's 
'Saul,' a cantata, a symphonic cantata, 
5 quartets and one string quintet, con- 
certos for violin and orchestra, etc. 
Ref.: II. 503 (footnote). 

BEACH (1) Mrs. H. H. A., nee Amy 
Marcy Cheney (1867- ) : b. Henniker, 



N. H., pianist, pupil of E. Perabo, com- 
poser of a 'Gaelic' symphony, 2 piano 
concertos, violin concerto, violin so- 
nata, piano pieces, many songs, etc., 
also mass, large choral works with 
orchestra ('Chambered Nautilus,' etc.) 
and considerable church music. Ref.: 
IV. 342; VI. 222; VII. 340. (2) John 
(1877- ): b. Gloversville, N. Y.; 
American composer. Ref.: IV. 390f. 

BEALE (1) William (1784-1854): b. 
Landrake, Cornwall, d. London; stud- 
ied with Arnold and Cooke; composer 
of glees and madrigals, London music 
teacher. (2) Thomas Willert (1828-) : 
b. London; composer; gave up law for 
the study of music; joint founder of 
the New Philharmonic; composed 2 
operettas, part-songs and piano music. 
(3) Frederick Fleming (1876- ): 
b. Troy, Kans.; teacher and composer. 
Ref.: IV. 401. 

BEATON, Isabella (1870- ): b. 

Grinnell, Iowa; pianist; studied at 
Iowa Cons., and with Emma Koch, 
Moszkowski, and Boise in Berlin and 
Paris; history of music with Beller- 
mann and Friedlander at Univ. of Ber- 
lin; instructor of piano at Iowa Col- 
lege, 1892-93, in Berlin, 1893-97; taught 
piano, history and composition at 
Cleveland School of Music; established 
the Beaton School of Music; composer 
of a string quartet, a scherzo for or- 
chestra, piano pieces, songs, etc. 

BEATJCHAMPS, Pierre-Francois- 
Godard de (1689-1761): b. Paris, d. 
there; author of 2 books on the French 
stage, partly of musical interest. 

BEAUGRAND, Leontine, ballerina. 
Ref.: X. 159f. 

BEAUJOYEULX (or Baltazarini), 
(16th cent.): Italian violinist; inten- 
dant of music and valet de chambre 
at the court of Catherine de' Medicis; 
first to introduce Italian dances and 
establish ballet in Paris; MSS. of his 
ballets are in the Bibliotheque Na- 
tionale. Ref.: I. 401ff; VII. 376f; IX. 
4; mus. ex., XIII. 49. 

BEAULIETJ (correct name, Martin), 
Marie Desire Sieur de (1791-1863) : b. 
Paris, d. Niort; founder of the Paris 
Society for Classical Music, patron of 
the 'Musical Association of the West.' 
His compositions were varied and nu- 
merous — masses, hymns, orchestral 
works, violin fantasias, 2 operas, 2 
lyric scenes, 3 oratorios, songs, etc. 
He published 5 books on rhythm, 
church music, origin of music, etc. 

BEAUMARCHAIS, Pierre Angus- 
tin Caron de (1732-1799) : b. Paris, d. 
there; dramatist; wrote Le Barbier de 
Seville, and Mariage de Figaro, sources 
of librettos for Bossini and Mozart. 
Ref.: II. 182; IX. 88, 139. 

BEAUQ,UIER, Charles (ca. 1830-) : 
music critic, librettist of Lalo's 
Fiesque, author of books on musical 
subjects; and of articles for the Revue 
et Gazette Musicale. 

BEAZLEY, James Charles (1850-) : 


b. Byde, Isle of Wight; composer; stud- 
ied at Boyal Academy of Music, Lon- 
don; his compositions include cantatas, 
songs, part-songs, pieces tor violin and 
piano and for piano solo, etc.; au- 
thor of 'Aids to the Violinist: A Short 
Treatise in Beference to Bow-marks.' 

BECCARI, Luis. Ref.: I. 328. 

BE CCATELLI, Giovanni ([?]-1734): 
conductor at Prato; Florentine writer 
of musical papers. 

BECHER (1) Alfred Julius (1803- 
1848): b. Manchester, d. Vienna: stud- 
ied in Berlin and Heidelberg, teacher 
of harmony at the London Boyal 
Academy; edited in Vienna Der Radi- 
kale, a revolutionary paper, and was 
executed by order of the government. 
He composed string quartets, a sym- 
phony, songs and pianoforte composi- 
tions; wrote a biography of Jenny Lind 
(1846), etc. (2) Joseph (1821-1888): 
b. Neukirchen, Bavaria, d. Mintraching; 
composed a great deal of church music, 
including more than sixty masses. 

BECHGAARD, Julius (1843- ): 

b. Copenhagen; composer; studied at 
Leipzig Cons, and with Gade at Co- 
penhagen; composed the operas Frode 
(1894) and Frau Inge (1894), both pro- 
duced at Prague, a concert overture for 
orchestra, 2 cycles for baritone solo 
with piano, piano pieces, part-songs, 
songs for solo, etc. 

BECHSTEIN, [Friedrich Wilhelm] 
Karl (1826-1900): b. Gotha, d. Ber- 
lin; piano-maker; worked in German 
factories and with Pape and Kriigel- 
stein in London; established his own 
factory in Berlin, 1856, now one of the 
largest in Europe. 

BECK (1) David (late 16th cent.): 
organ builder at Halberstadt, Ger- 
many, ca. 1590; built the organs at 
Griiningen and in St. Martin's Church, 
Halberstadt. (2) Franz (1730-1809): 
b. Mannheim, d. Bordeaux; violinist, 
favorite of the Prince Palatine; a fatal 
duel caused his flight to Paris, whence 
he went to Bordeaux in 1777 and be- 
came concert conductor in 1780. Of 
his compositions 19 symphonies, 2 
divertimenti and piano pieces are pre- 
served. Ref.: VIII. 145. (3) Hans; 
Danish ballet dancer. Ref.: X. 164. 
(4) Johann Heinrich (1856- ): b. 
Cleveland, O.; conductor; studied with 
Beinecke, Jadassohn, A. Bichter, Paul, 
Hermann and Schradieck at Leipzig 
Cons.; founded Schubert String Quar- 
tet, Cleveland; conductor of the De- 
troit Symphony Orchestra since 1895 
and of Cleveland Symphony Orchestra 
from 1899; also director of Pilgrim 
Orchestral Club, 1904-10, and Elyria 
Orchestra, 1905-07; examiner for vio- 
lin at the American College of Musi- 
cians; composer of a string quartet, 
a string sextet, a cantata, works for 
orchestra, songs, etc. (5) Johann Bap- 
tist (1881- ): b. Gebweiler, Alsace; 
organ pupil of Brumpt; edited Die 
Melodien der Troubadours (1908), com- 



piled from all extant MSS., with a study 
of the development of notation, etc.; 
author of La musique des Troubadours; 
itude critique, illustrde de douze re- 
productions hors texte (1910), Der Takt 
in den Musikaufzeichnungen des XII. 
u. XIII. Jahrh. in the Riemann Fest- 

BECKE, .loh. inn Baptist (1743- 
[?]) : b. Nuremberg; flutist at the court 
at Munich and composer of concertos 
for the flute. 

BECKEL, James Cox (1811-[?]) : 
b. Philadelphia; organist in Lancaster 
and Philadelphia; music publisher, 
managing editor of 'The Musical Clip- 
per' and composer of several cantatas, 
piano compositions, etc. 

BECKER (1) Diedrich (d. 1679): 
composed Sonaten filr eine Violine, eine 
Viola di Gamba, und Generalbass fiber 
Chorallieder (Hamburg, 1668), and 
Musikalische Friihlingsfruchte (instr. 
pieces, 3-5 parts and continuo). Ref.: 
I. 373; VII. 473. (2) Joliann (1726- 
1803): b. Helsa, n. Kassel; court or- 
ganist at Kassel. Pub. a book of 
chorales. (3) Karl Ferdinand (1804- 
1877): b. Leipzig, d. there; organist at 
St. Peter's, Leipzig (1825), St. Nicholas' 
(1837) ; organ-teacher at the Conser- 
vatory (1843) ; revised ForkePs Syste- 
matisch-chronologische Darstellung d. 
Musiklitteratur (1836; suppl. 1839); 
wrote Die Hausmusik in Deutschland 
im 16., 17. u. 18. Jahrh. (1840), Die 
Tonwerke des 16. u. 17. Jahrh., etc.; 
composed piano and organ pieces, and 
choral works; gave his library, con- 
taining valuable theoretical works, to 
the city of Leipzig (Beckers Stiftung). 
(4) Konstantin Julius (1811-1859) : b. 
Freiberg, Saxony, d. Oberlossnitz; pu- 
pil of Anacker (singing) and Karl Ferd. 
Becker (comp.) ; editor of the Neue 
Zeitschrift f. Musik, 1837-46; also 
teacher in Dresden; composed an opera, 
Ersturmung von Relgrad (Leipzig, 
1848), a symphony, a rhapsody, duets, 
songs, etc.; wrote a Mdnnergesangschule 
(1845), and Harmonielehre /fir Dilet- 
tanten (1844). (5) Valentin Eduard 
(1814-90): b. Wurzburg, d. Vienna; 
composed popular male choruses, 2 op- 
eras, masses, and instrumental works. 
(6) Georg (1834- ) : b. Franken- 
thal, Palatinate; pianist, composer and 
writer; pupil of Kuhn and Prudent; has 
written works on musical history; ed- 
itor of the Questionnaire de VAssocia- 
tion internationale des Musiciens- 
Ecrivains; also composed songs. (7_) 
Jean (1833-84) : b. Mannheim, d. 
there; violinist pupil of Kettenus, and 
Vincenz Lachner; leader in Mannheim 
orch. ; made concert-tours; settled 
(1866) in Florence, and established the 
Florentine Quartet, dissolved in 1880; 
later made successful tours with his 
children; Jeanne (pianist), Hans (vio- 
linist) and Hugo (cellist). (8) Albert 
Ernst Anton (1834-99) : b. Quedlin- 
burg, d. Berlin; studied at Quedlin- 


burg under Bonicke, and at Berlin un- 
der Dehn (1853-6) ; teacher of composi- 
tion at Scharwenka's Conservatory, 
1881; conductor of Berlin cathedral 
choir; composed a symphony, grand 
mass, oratorio, sacred cantata, opera, 
songs, miscellaneous works for organ, 
orchestra and voice. Ref.: III. 212. 
(9) Reinhold (1842- ) : b. Adorf ; 
violinist and composer; has composed 
operas, Frauenlob (Dresden, 1892) and 
Rathbold (Mayence, 1896; 1 act), sym- 
phonic poem, many large male cho- 
ruses, 2 violin concertos, a symphony, 
a string quartet, a violin sonata, and 
many popular songs. (10) Karl 
(1853- ): b. Kirrweiler, n. Trier; 
music-teacher; has pub. the Rheinischer 
Volksliederborn (1892), and school 
song-books. (11) Rene (1882- ): 
American organist and composer. Ref.: 
IV. 501. 

£a] BECKET, Thomas (19th cent.) : 
English actor, author of words and 
music of 'Columbia the Gem of the 
Ocean' (Phila., 1843). 

BECKMANN, Johann Friedrieh 
Gottlieb (1737-1792): d. at Celle; or- 
ganist, performer on the harpsichord, 
and composer of sonatas, concertos and 
solos for clavier, and one opera pro- 
duced in Hamburg, 1782. 

BECKWITH, John Christmas 
(1750-1809): b. Norwich, d. there; 
studied with P. Hayes; Mus. Bac. and 
Mus. Doc, Oxon; organist at the Nor- 
wich Cathedral and in Mancroft; com- 
poser of anthems, glees, songs, etc., and 
concertos for the organ. He pub. in 
London, 1808, 'The first verse of every 
psalm of David with an ancient or 
modern chant in score, etc' Ref.: VI. 

BECauIfi (1) Jean-Marie (1797- 
1876): b. Toulouse, d. Paris; brother 
of A. (2) ; violinist who studied 
with Bodolphe Kreutzer at the Con- 
servatoire and performed in the Thea- 
tre ltalien Orchestra; composed a vio- 
lin and pianoforte fantasia, and other 
pieces for strings, etc. (2) A. (ca. 1800- 
1825): b. Toulouse, d. Paris; flutist, 
who studied at the Conservatoire and 
was a member of the orchestra at the 
Opera Comique; composer of fantasias, 
rondeaus, etc., for the flute and a 
Grande fantaisie et variations for or- 
chestra and flute. 

BECVAftOVSKY, Anton Felix 
(1754-1823) : b. Jungbunzlau, Bohemia, 
d. Berlin; organist in Prague, Bruns- 
wick, Bamberg and Berlin; composed 
concertos and sonatas for the piano, 
and songs with piano accompaniment. 
BEDFORD, Mrs. H. See Lehmann, 

BEECHAM, Godfrey Thomas 
(1879- ): b. near Liverpool; English 
impresario and conductor; first con- 
ducted a private orchestra and later 
a travelling opera company; established 
the New Symphony Orchestra, Lon- 
don, 1906, and Beecham Symphony Or- 



chestra, 1908; conductor London Phil- 
harmonic Society, 1916- ; has given no- 
table seasons of opera in London since 
1910. Ref.: III. 422, 424, 443. 

BEECKE (Becke), Ignaz von (1733- 
1803) : b. Wimpfen im Tal, d. Waller- 
stein; army officer, pensioned as major 
in 1792. He was an able pianist, 
friend of Gluck, Jommelli and Mozart; 
composed 10 piano sonatas, one for 3 
pianos, other piano pieces, piano trio, 
6 8-part symphonies, quartets with 
flute, 3 Singspiele, an oratorio, cantatas, 
and songs. 

BEER (1) Josef (1744-1811): b. 
Griinwald, Bohemia, d. Potsdam; cham- 
ber musician, clarinettist and improver 
of his instrument by the addition of 
a fifth key. His compositions consist 
of concertos, duets, etc., for the clarinet. 
(2) Jacob Liebmann. Birth name of 
Giacomo Meyerbeer (q. v.). (3) Jules 
(1833- ) : nephew to Meyerbeer, Pa- 
risian musical dilettante; composer of 
five comic operas. (4) Max Josef 
(1851- ): b. Vienna; studied with 
Dessoff; pianist and composer of four 
operas, an operetta, a cantata, a suite 
and lyric pieces for the piano. 

BEBR-WALBRUNN, Anton (1864-) : 
b. Kohlberg, Upper Palatinate; stud- 
ied with Rheinberger, Bussmeyer and 
Abel at the Akademie der Tonkunst, 
Munich; instructor of piano and com- 
position there since 1901 (prof, since 
1908). His works include the operas 
Siihne (1894), Don Quixote (1908) and 
Das Ungeheuer; a piano quartet, a 
string quartet, a sonata for 'cello and 
piano, an organ sonata, a sonata for 
violin and piano, a symphony and 
other orchestral works, choruses, with 
and without orchestra, songs with or- 
chestra and with piano, etc. 

BEETH, Lola (1864- ) : b. Cra- 
cow; studied with Frau Dustmann, 
Mme. Viardot-Garcia, Desiree Artot; 
operatic soprano at the Berlin Court 
Opera, at the Vienna Court Theatre, at 
the Paris OpeYa, at New York, Monte 
Carlo and Budapest. 

BEETHOVEN, Ludwig? van (1770- 
1827) : b. Bonn, d. Vienna. He was the 
son of Johann van B. (ca. 1740-1792), 
a tenor singer in the Ducal chapel at 
Bonn, and grandson of Ludwig van B. 
(1718-73), a native of Antwerp, church 
singer in Louvain (1731), in Bonn 
(1733), and later (1761) Ducal Kapell- 
meister in Bonn (1761). Ludwig was 
taught first by his father, then by the 
oboist Pfeiffer, later by the court or- 
ganist van den Eeden (q. v.) and finally 
the latter's successor Christian Gottlieb 
Neefe. His first employment was at the 
age of 13 as cembalist in the Ducal 
chapel, and his improvisational powers 
already then aroused attention. His 
general education, far from complete, 
was supplemented by intercourse with 
educated musicians (Reicha, the Rom- 
bergs, etc.), and cultured families such 
as the Breunings, in which he was at 


first employed as piano teacher. He 
was sent, by advice of his teacher 
Neefe, to Vienna to study with Mozart, 
but returned shortly because of his 
mother's death. At home he now came 
under the patronage of Count Wald- 
stein, an accomplished amateur. This 
secured him acceptance in the best 
houses of the nobility of Vienna, when 
he returned thither in 1792, to remain 
for the rest of his life. Haydn was 
now to become his teacher (since Mo- 
zart had died), but their association 
was hardly successful. Secretly B. 
studied with Johann Schenk (q. v.), 
and after Haydn's second departure 
for London (1794) he studied counter- 
point with Albrechtsberger. Besides, 
during 1792-1802, Salieri was probably 
B.'s preceptor in dramatic composi- 
tion. B. had arrived in Vienna with 
numerous manuscripts completed in 
Bonn and, adding to these in Vienna, he 
published an extraordinary number of 
compositions during his first Vienna 
decade. In these the influence of the 
Mannheim school is easily recognized, 
though the stamp of individuality is 
everywhere present. His chief occu- 
pation during this time was as pianist 
in the houses of noble patrons and his 
genius as virtuoso and improvisator 
secured him exceptional treatment 
everywhere. During 1794-96 he lived 
in the house of Prince Lichnowsky, 
and in 1809 he was a companion in the 
house of Countess Erdody. He was 
an intimate friend also of Count Franz 
von Brunswick and his sister Therese 
(now generally considered to be the 
'immortal beloved' of B.'s letter), and 
Ignaz von Gleichenstein, and was on 
terms of close acquaintanceship with 
Count Moritz Lichnowsky, his brother, 
court-secretary Nikolaus von Zmeskall, 
and the musicians Ignaz Schuppanzigh, 
E. A. Forster and Ferdinand Ries 
(formerly of Bonn), whom B. taught 
during 1801-9. Stephan von Breuning 
and B.'s two brothers also removed 
to Vienna. B. was fairly prosperous, 
his compositions were well paid, and 
he received 600 florins annually from 
Count Lichnowsky. Archduke Rudolph 
of Austria, Prince Lobkowitz and Prince 
Kinsky combined in guaranteeing him 
an income of 4000 florins in order to 
keep him in Vienna when he threat- 
ened to accept a post in Cassel (1809). 
In spite of all this patronage B.'s in- 
dependence and arrogant democracy are 
notorious. The death of B.'s brother 
Karl saddled upon him the responsi- 
bility of his nephew Karl, whose vaga- 
ries and ingratitude were the cause 
of much of the master's griefs. The 
most serious trouble, however, was the 
tragic circumstance of his deafness, 
symptoms of which began in 1800 and 
which became total by 1819. B.'s last 
and greatest works were therefore 
created with reliance only upon his 
marvellous mental hearing; his physi- 



cal ears never perceived them. Among 
the trusted friends of this sad period 
were Franz Oliva (1809-19), Anton 
Schindler (q. v.) and Karl Holz (q. v.). 
In 1825 chronic liver trouble added 
to his misery, and a severe cold con- 
tracted in 1826 resulted in pneumonia 
and pleurisy. Four operations were 
made, but were without success. He 
died Mar. 26, 1827, in the late afternoon. 
B., generally esteemed the greatest 
master of instrumental music and one 
of the greatest figures in musical his- 
tory, is especially noted as the culmi- 
nator of the ideal of classic beauty and 
the inaugurator of romanticism through 
the introduction into his works of an 
intense subjectivity. His works may 
be summarized briefly as follows: 

Orchestral (incl. concertos) : 9 sym- 
phonies (No. 1, C maj., op. 21; No. 2; 
D maj., op. 36; No. 3, E maj., 'Eroica,' 
op. 55; No. 4, B-flat maj., op. 60; No. 
5, C min., op. 67; No. 6, F maj., 'Pas- 
toral,' op. 68; No. 7, A maj., op. 92; 
No. 8, F maj., op. 93; No. 9, D min., 
'Choral,' op. 125) ; incidental music to 
'Prometheus,' 'Egmont,' 'Ruins of Ath- 
ens' (with chorus), 7 overtures; 1 vio- 
lin concerto (D maj.) ; 5 piano con- 
certos; a triple concerto for piano, 
violin, 'cello and orchestra; op. 56; a 
fantasy for piano, orchestra and cho- 
rus, op. 80, smaller works for violin 
and orch. and piano and orch., also 

2 marches, 12 minuets, 12 German 
dances and 12 contre-dances for orch. 

Vocal: The opera Fidelio, 2 masses 
(C maj., op. 86 and Missa solemnis in 
D maj., op. 23), 1 oratorio, Christus am 
olberge, a number of cantatas, 66 songs, 
1 duet, 18 canons and 7 vols. English, 
Scotch, Irish and Welsh songs with 
piano, violin and 'cello. 

For piano: 38 sonatas, 21 sets of va- 
riations, 4 Rondos, 3 vols. Bagatelles, 

3 Preludes, 7 Minuets, 13 Landler, 1 
Andante (F maj.), 1 fantasy (G min.), 

1 polonaise for piano solo; 1 sonata, 

2 variations, etc., for piano four hands. 
Chamber music: 10 sonatas, 1 rondo, 

and 1 variations for vln. and piano; 
5 sonatas, 3 vols, variations for 'cello 
and piano; 7 vols, variations for flute 
and piano, 1 sonata for horn and piano, 

3 duos for clarinet and bassoon, 8 trios 
(piano, vln. and 'cello), 2 variations for 
trio, 1 trio for piano, clarinet and 'cello, 
1 trio for flute, vln. and viola, 1 trio 
for 2 oboes and English horn, 5 string 
trios, 16 string quartets, 2 string quin- 
tets, 4 piano quartets, one quintet for 
piano and wind instr., 2 octets and 1 
sextet for wind instr.; 1 sextet and 1 
septet for strings and wind; 2 quar- 
tets for trombones, fugues, for string 
quartet and string quintet. 

The complete works of Beethoven 
were published by Breitkopf and Har- 
tel (1864-67, Suppl. 1888). 

Re/.; For life and work see II. 128ff; 
for solo vocal works, V. 154f, 184; 
choral works, VI. 144ff, 264f, 335f; 


piano works, VII. 159ff, 168ff, 173; 
violin music, VII. 451ff; string quartets, 
etc., 509ff; miscel. chamber music, 
575ff, 592f, 599f; orchestral works, 
VIII. 170ff; opera, IX. 122fT; mus. ex., 
XIII. 191, 193, 197, 296; portraits, II. 
frontispiece, 150; VIII. 198; (caricature) 
II. 170; birthplace, illus., II. 132; fac- 
simile page from his will, II. 158; his 
pianoforte, illus., VII. 166. For gen- 
eral references see individual indexes. 

Abel (1757-1811): b. Laon, d. Paris; 
wrote text and music of dramatic 
works, of which only two, Nicodeme 
dans la lune (1790) and Nicodeme aux 
enfers (1791) were successful and were 
forbidden as revolutionary. He also 
wrote songs (Les soirees chantees, 3 
parts, 1803) ; used pseudonym Cousin 

BEHAIM, Michel (1416-1474): an 
early representative of the Meistersinger. 

BEHNKE, Emil (1836-1892): b. 
Stettin, d. Ostende; authority on voice- 
training; lecturer on physiology of the 
voice. Pub. 'The Mechanism of the 
Human Voice' (London, 1880) ; 'Voice, 
Song and Speech' (with Lennox 
Browne) (1883) ; 'Voice-training Exer- 
cises' (1884), and w. Dr. C. W. Pearce, 
'The Child's Voice' (1885). Ref.: V. 28. 

BEHR, Franz (1837-1898): b. Liib- 
theen, Mecklenburg, d. Dresden; com- 
poser of salon music of popular char- 
acter, which he pub. under various 
pseudonyms, among them 'William 
Copper,' 'Charles Morley,' and 'Fran- 
cesco d'Orso.' 

BEHREND, William (1861- ): 

b. Copenhagen; writer; studied with 
Amberg, Axel Gade and Matthisson- 
Hansen; for several years music critic 
of Politiken and the Illustrierte Zei- 
tung; now on staff of Tilskueren and 
contributor to Die Musik, Die Signaie, 
and the Musikalisches Wochenblatt; a 
founder of the Danish Richard Wag- 
ner- Verein; author of a biography of 
J. P. E. Hartmann (1895), vol. 2 of the 
Illustreret Musikhistorie (1905), and 
the biographies of musicians in Sal- 
monsen's Konversationslexikon. 

BEHRENS, Johan Didrik (1820- 
1890): b. Bergen, d. Christiania; foun- 
der of the first Norwegian male chorus 
there in 1842, also the Student's Choral 
Society, 1845, the Commercial Choral 
Society, 1847; conducted the Work- 
men's Choral Society, 1848-54, and or- 
ganized large male choral festivals. He 
edited several collections of male cho- 
ruses, also people's and school song 
books. Ref.: HI. 88. 

BEKKER, Paul (1882- ) : b. Ber- 
lin; first violinist in the Berlin Phil- 
harmonic Orch., then conductor in 
Aschaffenburg and Gorlitz; since 1906 
musical litterateur; editor of Berlin 
Philharmonic Program books, critic 
Berliner Neueste Nachrichten, then Ber- 
liner Allg. Zeitung, and from 1911 the 
Frankfurter Zeitung; author of Beet- 



hoven (1911, de luxe ed. 1912) and 
other bookis. 

BELAIEFF, Mitrofan Petrovitch 

(1836-1904): b. St. Petersburg, d. there; 
music publisher; established his busi- 
ness to publish solely the works of 
young Russian composers. About 3000 
numbers have been issued by the 
house. In his will he constituted the 
business a foundation to be conducted 
by a committee of Russian composers 
(Rimsky-Karsakoff, Glazounoff and Lia- 
doff). His will also provides for at 
least 10 symphony concerts and 4 quar- 
tet evenings each season, besides other 
chamber-music performances; and for 
prizes for the best compositions and a 
pension fund for needy musicians and 
their families. 

BELASCO, David (1859- ) : b. 
San Francisco; dramatist and manager; 
author 'The Girl of the Golden West,' 
from which was adapted the libretto 
of Puccini's opera. Ref.: IX. 494, 495. 

BELCE. See Reuss-Belce. 

BELCHER, William Thomas ([?]- 
1905): d. Birmingham, Eng.; music di- 
rector and organist. 

BELCKE, Christian Gottlieb (1796- 
1875): b. Lucka, d. there; performer 
on the flute in the Gewandhaus orches- 
tra and at Altenburg; composer of con- 
certos and fantasias for his instrument. 
Friedrich August (1795-1874): b. 
Lucka, Altenberg, d. there; performer 
on trombone in the Gewandhaus orches- 
tra; the first virtuoso on the trombone, 
chamber musician at Berlin and com- 
poser of concertos and etudes. 

BELDEMANDIS (or Beldomandis, 
or Beldemando), Prosdocimus de 
(ca. 1375-[?]): theoretician at Padua 
and author of dissertations in oppo- 
sition to the theories on measured mu- 
sic promulgated by Marchettus. 

BELICZAY, Julius von (1835-1893) : 
b. Komorn, Hungary, d. Pesth; com- 
poser; studied with Joachim, Hoffmann 
and Franz Krenn; professor of theory 
at the National Academy of Music, 
Pesth; composed a symphony, a mass, 
serenade for strings, andante for string 
orchestra, Ave Maria for soprano solo, 
chorus and orchestra, a string trio, a 
string quartet, piano pieces, songs, etc.; 
author of a 'Method of Composition' 

BELIN (1) Guillaume ([?]-1568): 
singer in the Chapelle Royale at Paris, 
where he composed cantiques and chan- 
sons. (2) Julien (ca. 1530-[?]) : b. Le 
Mans; lutenist and composer of mo- 
tets, chansons and fantasias, all written 
in lute-tablature. 

BELL, William Henry (1873- ) : 
b. St. Albans, London; student, then 
professor of harmony at the Royal 
Academy of Music; composer of 2 sym- 
phonies, symphonic poems, 2 'mood 
pictures,' symphonic preludes, etc., 2 
string quartets, a viola sonata, vocal 
works with orch. and songs. Ref.: 
IH. 441. ' 


BELLA (1) Domenico della (early 
18th cent.) : Venetian 'cellist; composer 
of 12 trio sonatas, a 'cello sonata, 
masses, psalms, motets, etc. (2) Jo- 
hann Leopold (1843- ) : b. Lipto- 
Szent Miklos, Upper Hungary; cantor 
and musical director at Hermannstadt ; 
composer of much church music, or- 
chestral works, national choruses, etc., 

BELLAMY (1) Richard (ca. 1743- 
1813) : d. London, choirmaster of the 
Royal Chapel, pub. church music. (2) 
Ludford (1770-1843) : b. London, d. 
there; son of (1), famous bass in 
church, theatre and concert. 

BELLANDA, Ludovico (early 17th 
cent.) : b. Verona, one of the first 
monodists; pub. Musiche for 1-4 v. 
and continuo (1607, 1610), etc. 

BELLASIO, Paolo (late 16th cent.) : 
b. Verona; pub. 6 books of madrigals 
(1578-90), villanelles (1592), etc. 

BELL'AVERE, Vincenzo (ca. 1530- 
1588[?]): b. Venice; pupil of A. Ga- 
brieli, 2nd organist at St. Mark's, 
1588; madrigal composer of repute 
(only 1 book [1574] preserved), also 
wrote church music. 

BELLAZZI, Francesco (17th cent.) : 
church maestro in Milan, ca. 1623, pub. 
psalms, motets, mass, etc., in Venice, 

BELLERE, Bellerus, or Beelaerts 

(1) Jean (d. ca. 1595) : seller of books 
and publisher of music at Antwerp. 
Associated with Phalese from 1572. 

(2) Balthaser (17th cent.) : son and 
successor of Jean (1). He transferred 
the firm to Douai, where a catalogue 
of the works he published was discov- 
ered by Coussemaker. 

BELLERMANN (1) [Johann] Fried- 
rich (1795-1874): b. Erfurt, d. Ber- 
lin; music historian; director of the 
Gymnasium Zum Grauen Kloster, Ber- 
lin, 1847-1868; author of Tonleitern u. 
Musiknoten der Griechen (1847), Die 
Hymnen des Dionysios u. Mesomedes 
(1840), Anonymi scriptio de musica, 
Bacchii senioris introductio, etc. (1841). 
(2) [Johann Gottfried] Heinrich (1832- 
1903): b. Berlin, d. Potsdam; son of 
(1) ; theorist; studied at the Royal 
Institute for Church Music and with 
E. A. Grell; succeeded Marx as pro- 
fessor of music at Berlin Univ.; au- 
thor of Die Mensuralnoten und Takt- 
zeichen im 15. u. 16. Jahrh. (1858), Der 
Kontrapunkt (1862), Die Grosse d. mus. 
Intervalle als Grundlage d. Harmonie 
(1873) and a biography of E. A. Grell; 
also articles in the Allgemeine musika- 
lische Zeitung; composer of vocal 

Caroline de (1808-1880) : b. Landshut, 
d. Munich; studied with Czerny, became 
a concert pianist and composer; mar- 
ried the violinist Oury. 

BELL'HAVER, Vincenzo. See 

BELLI (1) Girolamo (1552-[?]) : 



chapel singer at the Mantuan court; 
composer of motets, madrigals, canzo- 
nets, sacrae, psalms, and 
magnificats. (2) Giulio (1560-[?]): b. 
Longiano; choir master at Padua; 
maestro di cappella at Imola cathedral; 
published masses, madrigals, canzo- 
nette, psalms, motets, litanies, etc. (3) 
Doinenico (17th cent.) : musician at 
the court of the Duke of Parma; pub. 
arie per sonare (1616) ; prod. 2 operas. 

BELLIN. See Belin. 

BELLINI, Vincenzo (1801-1835) : b. 
Catania, Sicily, d. Puteaux, n. Paris; 
composer; first taught by his father, 
an organist, and subsequently studied 
at Naples Cons, under Zingarelli. 
His student-compositions were a ro- 
mance, an aria, a symphony for full 
orchestra, two masses, several psalms, 
and a cantata. His first opera, Adelson 
e Salvini, was performed successfully 
by Conservatory pupils on Jan. 12, 1825. 
Bianca e Fernando was enthusiastically 
received at the San Carlo, Naples, in 
1826; followed in 1827 by II Pirata, 
and in 1829 by La Straniera, both in 
Milan. For the Teatro Nuovo, Parma, 
he wrote Zaira (1829), which was a 
failure. For La Fenice Theatre, Ven- 
ice, he composed in forty days the 
opera / Capuleti e Montecchi (1830), 
which was very successful. La Son- 
nambula was produced at the Teatro 
Carcano, Milan (1831) and Norma at 
La Scala on Dec. 26, 1831. Norma, 
which B. himself considered his great- 
est work, was coldly received at first; 
but the warmth of its reception in 
other cities, notably in Paris (1835), 
justified its author's verdict. His Be- 
atrice di Tenda (Venice, 1833) failed 
of popular appreciation. In 1833 B. 
settled in Paris, and in 1834 was in- 
vited to write an opera for the Theatre 
Italien. He responded with / Puritani, 
successfully produced in 1835. His 
untimely death in the same year put 
an end to all further efforts. He was 
held in very high esteem by his col- 
leagues. Ref.: II. 195f; VII. 286; IX. 
xii, 137, 144f, 152ff; portrait, II. 200. 

BELLINGER, Franz (1867- ): 

b. Bemagen-on-Bhine ; studied at Co- 
logne Cons, and at Milan, Leipzig and 
London; cond. the chorus Eintracht at 
Siegen, 1891, the Indianapolis Manner- 
chor, 1897, director of the Festival Cho- 
rus there, 1898, judge of the singing 
contest at the Northeastern Saengerfest, 
Newark, 1906, festival director of the 
North American Saengerbund, 1906; 
Ph. D., Columbia University, 1910; 
taught in Philadelphia, 1892-97, director 
of music dept., College of Saint Eliza- 
beth, New Jersey, 1910; contributor 
to 'The Art of Music.' 

BELLMAN, Carl Mikael (1740- 
1795): b. Stockholm, d. there; com- 
poser of music to his own poetry, called 
popular scenes. 

BELLMANN (1) Carl Gottfried 
(1760-1816) : b. Schellenberg, Saxony, d. 


Dresden; maker of pianos and player 
on the bassoon. (2) Karl Gottlieb 
(1772-1862): b. Luskau, d. Schleswig; 
organist and composer; wrote the pa- 
triotic song 'Schleswig-Holstein, meer- 

BELLO, Johann Leopold (1843- ) : 
b. St. Nicolan, upper Hungary; priest, 
canon, and composer of church music, 
orchestral compositions and patriotic 
choruses for male and mixed voices. 

BELLOC, Teresa (1784-1855): b. 
San Begnino, Canavese, d. San Giorgio; 
operatic mezzo-soprano in Italy, Paris 
and London from 1804 to 1827. Her 
repertoire included prominent parts in 
about eighty operas; her favorite roles 
were from Bossini. Ref.: II. 185. 

BELLOLI (1) Lnigi (1770-1817): b. 
Castelfranco, Bologna, d. Milan; vir- 
tuoso on the horn and professor of 
his instrument at the Milan Cons. His 
compositions consist of operas and bal- 
lets for La Scala, horn-concertos, and 
a method for the horn. (2) Agostino 
(early 19th cent.) : b. Bologna, vir- 
tuoso on the horn at La Scala and 
composer of eight ballets, some operas 
and compositions for the horn. 

BEMETZRIEDER, Anton (1743-ca. 
1816) : b. Alsace, d. London ; Benedictine 
monk who abandoned his order, pro- 
tege of Diderot in Paris; then lived for 
many years in London. He wrote a 
number of text-books. 

BENDA (1) Franz (1709-1786) : b. 
Alt-Benatek, Bohemia, d. Potsdam; vio- 
linist and teacher; wandering musician, 
became violin virtuoso, from 1833 mem- 
ber of the band of the Prussian crown 
prince (later Frederick the Great). In 
1771 he became Boyal concert-master. 
He pub. 6 trio sonatas, 2 violin con- 
certos, 6 sonatas for violin (flute), 
and (posth.) violin etudes; many solo 
sonatas, some symphonies and con- 
certos are MSS. Ref.: II. 758; VII. 413, 
414f, 417, 420, 428; VIII. 140. (2) Johann 
(1713-1752): brother of (1), b. Alt- 
fienatek, d. Potsdam; violinist; comp. 
3 violin concertos. Ref.: VII. 414. (3) 
Georgr (1722-1795) : brother of (1) & (2) ; 
b. Jungbunzlau, Bohemia, d. Kostritz; 
chamber-musician at Berlin, then Gotha, 
court Kapellmeister there, 1748-88. He 
wrote about 10 operas, operettas, melo- 
dramas (notably Ariadne auf Naxos, 
Medea, Almansor, Nadine). Other 
works (church-music, symphonies, con- 
certos, sonatas, etc.) are in MS. in the 
Berlin library. He was the originator 
of the pure melodrama, i.e. music with 
spoken words. Ref.: II. 58. 168; III. 
168; VII. 414; IX. 82f, 115. (4) Joseph 
(1724-1804): d. Berlin; violinist, pupil 
and youngest brother of Franz, whose 
successor in Frederick's service he be- 
came. Ref.: VII. 414. (5) Friedrich 
Wilhelm Heinrich (1745-1814) : b. 
Potsdam, d. there; violinist; eldest son 
and pupil of Franz (1) ; royal cham- 
ber-mus., pianist and composer. Wrote 
2 operas, Alceste (1786) and Orpheus 



(1789) ; an operetta, Das Blumenmad- 
chen; 2 oratorios, and a cantata, Pyg- 
malion, violin and flute concertos and 
chamber-music. (6) Karl Hermann 
Heinrieh (1748-1836): b. Potsdam; son 
of Franz (1); violinist and composer 
of chamber music; concert-master at 
Berlin opera, teacher of King Fried- 
rich Wilhelm III and Rungenhagen. 
Ref.: VII. 416. (7) Friedrich Ludwig 
(1746-1783): b. Gotha, d. Konigsberg, 
violinist in opera troupes, opera con- 
ductor in Hamburg, concert director in 
Konigsberg; composed violin concertos 
and 2 operas. 

BENDEL,, Franz (1833-1874): b. 
Schonlinde, near Rumburg, d. Berlin; 
studied with Proksch, Liszt and taught 
in Kullak's Academy; composed piano- 
forte salon-pieces, a concerto, and a 
trio for the piano, nocturnes, romances, 
symphonies, masses, songs, etc. 

BENDELER, Johann Philipp (ca. 
(1660-ca. 1712) : b. Riethnordhausen, 
near Erfurt, d. Quedlinburg; cantor, 
performer on clavecin and organ and 
author of Melopoeia praclica (1686), 
Organopoeia (2nd ed. 1690), etc. 

BENDER (1) Jean Valentin (1801- 
1873) : b. Bechtheim, n. Worms, d. Brus- 
sels; virtuoso on clarinet, bandmaster 
and composer of military music; direc- 
tor of music to the Royal House of 
Belgium. (2) Jakob (1798-1844): b. 
Bechtheim, d. Antwerp; brother of J. 
V. (1), director of the Antwerp *Har- 
monie' (after his brother) ; clarinettist 
and composer of band music. 

BENDIX (1) Otto (1850-1904): b. 
Copenhagen; studied with Ree, Gade, 
Kullak, Liszt; oboist and pianoforte 
teacher in Copenhagen and at the New 
England Cons., U. S., composer for the 
pianoforte and successful concert-giv- 
er in Europe and America. (2) Victor 
E. (1851- ) : b. Copenhagen, studied 
with Gade; virtuoso on violin, pianist, 
teacher, and conductor, and composer 
of 4 symphonies, orch. serenade, piano 
concerto, choral works, trio, piano 
pieces, songs, etc. Ref.: III. 76. (3) 
Max (1866- ): b. Detroit, Mich.; 
conductor; studied in New York, 
Cincinnati and Berlin; concert-master 
Metropolitan Opera House, 1886, Theo- 
dore Thomas Orchestra, 1886-96; Met- 
ropolitan Opera House, 1905; assist- 
ant conductor there, 1909; conductor at 
Manhattan Opera House, 1907; National 
Symphony Orchestra, Chicago, 1914-15; 
also conducted at Chicago and St. Louis 
World's Fairs, and light opera in 
United States and England (now for 
H. W. Savage); teacher and recitalist; 
composer of a violin concerto, a theme 
with variations for 'cello and orches- 
tra, a ballad for soprano and orchestra, 
a valse caprice for orchestra, inci- 
dental music and numerous songs. 

BENDL, Karl (1838-1897): b. 
Prague, d. there; composer; studied 
with Blazok and Pietsch; chorus- 
master of the German Opera, Amster- 


dam, 1864; from 1866 conductor of 
the male choral society Hlahol, Prague; 
his compositions include the Czech na- 
tional operas Lejla (1868), 'Bretislav 
and Jitka' (1869), Cernahorci (1881), 
Karel Skreta (1883), Bite Tdbora (1892), 
'Mother Mila' (1895), all prod, at 
Prague; also a choral work 'The Bag- 
pipe,' besides a ballet, three masses, 
cantatas, an overture, a Slavonic Rhap- 
sody and other works for orchestra, a 
string quartet, piano pieces, about 200 
Czech songs and choruses. 

BENEDICT, [Sir] Julius (1804- 
1885): b. Stuttgart, d. London; son of 
a Jewish banker; pupil of Abeille, 
Hummel and Weber. Kapellmeister 
at the Karnthnerthor Theatre, Vienna, 
1823, at the San Carlo Theatre, Naples; 
there prod, the opera Giacinta ed Er- 
nesto (1829), followed by I Portoghesi 
in Goa (Stuttgart, 1830). He became 
a fashionable piano teacher and concert- 
giver in London and conductor of opera 
buffa at the Lyceum, and Drury Lane, 
where his 'The Gypsy's Warning' was 
produced (1838). He toured the U. S. 
with Jenny Lind, became conductor at 
Her Majesty's and Drury Lane thea- 
tres and in 1859 at Covent Garden; also 
the Monday Popular Concerts, Norwich 
Festivals, and the Liverpool Philhar- 
monic (1876-80). He was knighted in 
1871. Composed 11 operas (incl. 'The 
Rose of Erin'), 2 oratorios, 2 sympho- 
nies, 2 piano concertos, etc. Ref.: V. 
267; VI. 178f, 282. 

BENEDICTUS, Jacobus de: Fran- 
ciscan monk, reputed author of the 
Stabat Mater. Ref.: VI. 320. 

(16th cent.): b. Appenzell, Switzerland; 
choirmaster at Brussels and composer 
of a book of 4-part motets. Ref. : I. 297. 

BENEFfiY, Theodor (1809-1881) : b. 
Norton, near Gottingen; writer on the 
Orient and philology; contributor to 
the Neue Zeitschrift fur Musik. 

BENELLI (1) Alemanno. See Bot- 
trigari. (2) Antonio Peregrino 

(1771-1830) : b. Forli, d. Bornichen, 
Saxony; tenor in Naples, London, and 
Dresden Opera, teacher in the Berlin 
Royal Theatre School until 1829, pub. 
a method of singing, vocal exercises, 
and a few compositions for the piano. 

BENET, John (15th cent.) : English 
composer, who like his contemporary, 
Dunstable, applied the style of the 
Florentine ars nova to church music. 
MSS. preserved in Vienna, Oxford, Bo- 
logna, and other libraries. A Sanc- 
tus and an Agnes were printed in 
Wooldridge's 'Early English Harmony.' 

BENEVOLI, Orazio (1602-1672): b. 
Rome, d. there; composer; studied with 
V. Ugolini; maestro di cappella of sev- 
eral Roman churches, including the 
Vatican; composed masses in 12, 16, 24 
and 48 parts (including one for the 
Consecration of Salzburg Cathedral, 
1628), motets, psalms, offertories, etc.; 
master of the polychoric a cappella 



style; most of his works in MS. in the 
Vatican library. 

BENINCORI, Anselo Maria (1779- 
1821): b. Brescia, d. Paris; composer 
of a number of operas, only one of 
which was produced with success 
('Aladin,' begun by Isouard), also con- 
certante string quartets and piano trios. 
He was a violin virtuoso. 

BENNETT (1) [Sir] William Stern- 
dale (1816-1875): b. Sheffield, d. Lon- 
don; entered the choir of King's Col- 
lege Chapel at age of eight; studied at 
the Royal Academy of Music; studied 
in 1837 and 1841-1842 at Leipzig, where 
he was intimate with Schumann and 
Mendelssohn. From 1843-56 he gave 
a series of chamber concerts in Eng- 
land; founded the Bach Society in 1849; 
conducted the concerts of the Philhar- 
monic Society 1856-66, and the Leeds 
Mus. Festival in 1858. He was pro- 
fessor of music at Cambridge, 1856; 
chosen principal of the RA.M. in 1866, 
resigning the conductorship of the Phil- 
harmonic. A pianist of exceptional 
ability, he composed chiefly for piano: 
a sonata, four concertos, a sextet for 
piano and strings, a piano trio and 
miscellaneous pieces. He also wrote a 
'cello sonata, 4 overtures, a cantata, an 
oratorio, songs, etc. Endowed a schol- 
arship at the Royal Academy of Mu- 
sic. Ref.: II. 263 (footnote), 322, 348f; 
III. 414; VI. 183f, 282f; VII. 217; VIII. 
233, 474; portrait, VI. 176. (2) Theo- 
dore. See Ritter, Theodore. (3) 
Joseph (1831-1911): b. Berkeley, 
Gloucestershire, d. Purton, near Berke- 
ley; writer; precentor at Weigh 
House Chapel and organist of West- 
minster Chapel; music critic and con- 
tributor to 'Sunday Times,' 'Pall Mall 
Gazette,' 'Graphic,' 'Musical Times' 
and 'Daily Telegraph'; edited the 'Con- 
cordia,' 1875-1876, and 'The Lute,' 1883- 
1886; for many years annotated pro- 
grams of the Philharmonic Society and 
the Saturday and Monday Popular Con- 
certs; author of 'Letters from Bayreuth' 
(1877), 'The Musical Year' (1883), 'His- 
tory of the Leeds Musical Festivals, 
1859-89' (with F. R. Spark, 1892), 
'Story of Ten Hundred Concerts' (1887), 
'Forty Years of Music' (1908); also 
librettos. (4) George (1863- ): b. 
Andover, England; composer; studied 
at Royal Academy of Music, at the 
Royal Hochschule, Berlin, and with 
Bussmeyer and Rheinberger in Mu- 
nich; professor of harmony and com- 
position at Royal Academy, 1888; or- 
ganist of Lincoln Cathedral since 1895; 
conductor of Lincoln Musical Society 
and Orchestral Society; has composed 
2 overtures for orchestra, a mass for 
soli, chorus and orchestra, a suite for 
orchestra, church services for soli, cho- 
rus and orchestra, a piano trio, pieces 
for piano and for organ, songs, part- 
songs, anthems, etc. 

BENNEWITZ (1) Wilhelm (1832- 
1871) : b. Berlin, d. there; studied with 


Kiel, member of the Berlin Royal Or- 
chestra and composer for piano, 'cello, 
and of one opera. (2) Anton (1833-) : 
b. Pflvret, Bohemia; violinist and di- 
rector of the Cons, at Prague. 

BENOENUTI, Tommaso (1832- 
1906): b. Venice, d. Rome; produced 
5 operas and 1 opera buffa in cities 
of northern Italy. 

BENOIS, Marie (1861- ): b. St. 
Petersburg; pianist; pupil of Lesche- 
tizky at St. Petersburg Cons., and won 
gold medal (1876). For two years she 
made brilliant tours; married Wassily 
Benois, her cousin. Ref.: IX. 378; X. 
183, 226, 229, 230. 

BENOIST, Francois (1794-1878): b. 
Nantes, d. Paris; studied at the Con- 
servatoire, organist at the Royal Chapel, 
professor of the organ at the Con- 
servatoire. He was chef du chant at 
the Paris Opera from 1840 to 1872. 
Among his compositions are two operas, 
four ballets, compositions for the or- 
gan and a Requiem mass for the or- 
gan, a child's voice and three male 
voices. Ref.: VI. 466f. 

BENOIT, Pierre-Leonard-Leopold 
(1834-1901) : composer and writer; 
b. Harlebeke, d. Antwerp; studied 
Brussels Cons. 1851-55, prod, a small 
opera in the Park Theatre and became 
its conductor in 1856; won the Prix de 
Rome, 1857, with his cantata he Meurtre 
d'Abel; studied further in Leipzig, Dres- 
den, Munich and Berlin, and sent to 
the Brussels Academy an essay, L'ecole 
de musique flamande et son avenir. He 
was made a member of the Berlin 
Academy in 1882. His opera Le roi 
des aulnes was accepted by the Theatre 
Lyrique, Paris, 1861, but not given. 
B. has been director of the Antwerp 
Conservatory since 1867. He composed 
Messe solennelle (1862) : Te Deum 
(1863); Requiem (1863) ; the 2 Flem- 
ish operas Het dorp in't gebergte and 
/sa; 2 oratorios, 'Children's Oratorio'; 
a choral symphony, De Maaiers ('The 
Mowers') ; music to 'Charlotte Corday,' 
and to van Goethem's drama Willem 
de Zwijger (1876) ; cantatas, motets, 
songs, etc. He pub. Verhandeling over 
de nationale Toonkunde (2 vols., 1877- 
9), many historical and polemic writ- 
ings in Flemish and French, and many 
contributions to journals. Ref.: VI. 
301f, 392; portrait, VI. 300. 

BENSERADE. Ref.: X. 86. 

BENTLEY, John (18th cent.): 
American musical pioneer. Ref.: IV. 

BeRANGER, French poet. Ref.: 
V. 260f. 

BERARDI, Angelo (17th-18th cent.) : 
b. Sant' Agata, Bologna; maestro di 
cappella at Spoleto and in Trastevere, 
canon at Viterbo; professor of music 
and theorist. His compositions consist 
of a Requiem Mass, offertories, motets, 
psalms, etc. 

BERAT, Frederic (1800-1855) : b. 
Rouen, d. Paris; composer of chan- 



sonettes, romances, etc., also of set- 
tings to the poems of Beranger. 

BERBIGUIER, Benott Tranquille 

(1782-1838) : b. Caderousse, Vauclause, 
d. Pont-Levoy, n. Blois; virtuoso on 
flute and composer of duos for flutes, 
for flute and violin, concertos, sonatas, 
variations for flute with piano or or- 
chestra, trios, suites, fantasias, ro- 
mances, etc. 

BERCHEIU (or Berghem), Jacliet 
de (16th cent.) : b. probably Berchem, 
n. Antwerp; organist to the Duke of 
Ferrara, 1555; composer of 5-part 
madrigals (1546), 4-part do. (1555) and 
Libro l°-3° del Capriccio (1561), also 
masses (in Scoto Lib. I. and Gardano 
VI Missae, 1517), also probably other 
madrigals in collections, signed Jachet 
(cf. Jachet de Mantua). 

BERENS, Hermann (1826-1880) : b. 
Hamburg, d. Stockholm; studied with 
his father, Beissiger and Czerny; foun- 
der in Stockholm of the Quartet Soi- 
rees and theatre conductor, court con- 
ductor, professor at the academy and 
member of the academy. He com- 
posed operettas, an opera, chamber 
music, and pub. a well-known 'School 
of Velocity' for piano. 

BERETTA, Giovanni Battista 
(1819-1876): b. Verona, d. Milan; di- 
rected Conservatory at Bologna, wrote 
for Barbieri's lexicon of music. 

BEREZOWSKY, Maxim Sosonto- 
wich (1745-1777): b. Solochoff; pupil 
of Padre Martini; composed opera, 
Demofonte, and church music. Ref.: 
IX. 380. 

BERG (1) Johann de (16th cent.): 
music printer in Ghent and in Nurem- 
berg, where he became a partner of 
Ulrich Neuber. (2) Adam (16th cent.) : 
music printer, who pub. the Patrocin- 
ium Musicum at Munich in ten volumes. 
(3) Konrad Mathias (1785-1852): b. 
Kolmar (Alsace), d. Strassburg, where 
he was piano teacher from 1808; violin 
pupil of Franzl (Mannheim), then stu- 
dent at Paris Cons. He composed 3 
concertos, sonatas, variations for piano, 
10 piano trios and four-hand pieces for 
piano, also 4 string quartets; wrote an 
essay on teaching method (in German) 
in G. Weber's Cdcilia (1826) and a his- 
torical work pertaining to music in 
Strassburg (in French). 

BERGER (1) Ludwig; (1777-1839) : 
b. Berlin, d. there; studied with Giirr- 
lich, Clementi; teacher of Mendelssohn, 
Henselt, Taubert, etc., pianoforte teach- 
er in Stockholm, London and Berlin 
and composer of pianoforte studies, a 
toccata, a rondo, one opera, cantatas, 
songs, etc. (2) Francesco (1834- ) : 
b. London; studied with Bicci, Lickl, 
Hauptmann, Plaidy; professor at the 
Boyal Academy of Music and the Guild- 
hall School, director of the Philharmonic 
and composer of an opera, a mass, part 
songs, piano compositions, etc. (3) 
Wilhelm (1861-1911): b. Boston, d. 
Jena; studied in the Berlin Hochschule ; 


teacher at the Klindworth-Scharwenka 
Cons., court Kapellmeister in Meining- 
en since 1903, Boyal Prussian pro- 
fessor and member of the Akademie. 
He wrote songs, a piano sonata, trio, 
string quintet, many choral works, 2 
symphonies, orch. variations, 3 ballads 
for baritone and orch. Ref.: III. 209, 
211; VI. 357. 

BERGGBEEN, Andreas Peter 
(1801-1880): b. Copenhagen, d. there; 
abandoned the study of law for that 
of music, church organist, vocal pro- 
fessor and composer of an opera, inci- 
dental music, piano pieces and songs; 
edited Musikalisk Tidende, pub. a col- 
lection of folk-songs (international). 

BERGH, Arthur (1882- ) : b. New 
York; composer of 2 melodramas (with 
orchestra), songs, pieces for piano and 
for violin. Ref.: IV. 391ff; mus. ex., 
XIV. 327. 

BERGMANN, Carl (1821-1876): b. 
Ebersbach, Saxony, d. New York; stud- 
ied with Zimmermann, Hesse; conduc- 
tor of the 'Germania' Orchestra (travel- 
ling through U. S.), also of the Handel 
and Haydn Society, Boston, of the New 
York Philharmonic Orchestra and the 
'Arion' Society (New York) ; also 'cellist 
and pianist. Ref.: IV. 131f, 183, 185, 
189, 203, 208, 209. 

BERG1VER, Wilhelm (1837-1907) : 
b. Biga, d. there; organist, founder of 
the Bach Society, Cathedral Choir, etc., 
in Biga. Through his influence Bubin- 
stein's 'Moses' was first produced in 
1894 and the great cathedral organ was 
built by Walcker. 

BERGONZI, CARLO (18th cent.) : 
Cremonese maker of violins, who 
learned his art under the great Stradi- 
vari. His son, Michelangelo, and his 
nephews, Nicolo and Carlo, were less 

BERGSON, Michael (1820-1898): b. 
Warsaw, d. London; composer; stud- 
ied with Schneider, Bungenhagen and 
Taubert; for some time first piano 
teacher at and director of Geneva 
Cons.; later private teacher in Lon- 
don. His compositions include the op- 
era Luisa di Montfort (1847), the oper- 
etta Qui va d la chasse, perd sa place 
(1859), a Concerto symphonie for pi- 
ano, a piano trio, a sonata for piano 
and flute, duos for piano and violin, 
technical studies and other pieces for 

BERGT. Christian Gottlob August 
(1772-1837): b. oderan, Saxony, d. 
Bautzen; organist and music teacher, 
conductor of singing society and com- 
poser of sacred music, operas, piano- 
forte and violin sonatas, symphonies, 

BERINGER (1) Oscar (1844- ): 
b. Furtwangen; studied at Leipzig Cons, 
and at Berlin; piano teacher at the 
Boyal Academy of Music in London. 
He published a book of Technical Ex- 
ercises of unusual value. Besides 
these, he has pub. sonatinas and other 



pianoforte music. (2) Robert (1841-) : 
b. Furtwangen, Baden; brother of Os- 
car; concert pianist in England and 
conductor of choral societies and com- 
poser of pianoforte music and orches- 
tral music. (3) Karl (1866- ) : b. 
Lauffen a.N., studied at the Stuttgart 
Cons, in Italy and Paris, garrison or- 
ganist in Ulm, where he established 
historical concerts; recognized espe- 
cially as Reger interpreter. 

BfiRIOT, Charles [-Auguste] de 
(1802-1870) : b. Louvain, d. Brussels ; 
famous violinist; sometimes called the 
pupil of Viotti and Baillot, though he 
owed his technical foundation to the 
careful instruction of his guardian, 
Tiby, a provincial teacher. At 9 he 
played a concerto by Viotti in public; 
made a triumphant debut in Paris, 
1821, when he played for Viotti and 
for a short time became a pupil of 
Baillot at the Conservatoire. He 
toured on the continent and in Eng- 
land; became chamber-violinist to the 
King of France; later solo violinist to 
the King of the Netherlands (1826-30), 
but lost his position and salary through 
the Revolution; toured Europe, 1830-35, 
also with Mme. Garcia-Malibran, whom 
he married in 1836, not long before her 
death. B. was professor of violin at 
Brussels Cons.. 1843-52. He wrote 10 vio- 
lin concertos, 4 piano trios, several duos 
brilliants for piano and violin, 12 sets 
of variations for violin, also a Premier 
guide des violinistes, and his best work, 
Methode de Violon (3 parts; Paris, 
1858), studies (itcole trans cendentale 
de Violon) and several sonatas for 

Eiano and violin (with Osborne, Thai- 
erg and others), etc. Ref.: VII. 446, 
448; portrait, VII. 448. 

BERLIN, Johann Daniel (1710- 
1737) : b. Memel, d. Drontheim, Nor- 
way; wrote 'Elements of Music' and 
'Guide for Calculations in Tempera- 

BERLIJN, or Berlyn, Anton (1817- 
1870): b. Amsterdam, d. there; studied 
with Erk, Koch and Fink; conductor at 
the Amsterdam Royal Theatre and com- 
poser of dramatic music (operas, bal- 
lets, an oratorio, a symphonic can- 
tata), symphonies, overtures, and cham- 
ber music. 

BERLIOZ, Hector [-Louis] (1817- 
1869) : b. Cote-Saint-Andre, near Gren- 
oble, France, d. Paris. He abandoned 
his father's profession, medicine, for 
music, in defiance of parental au- 
thority. He entered the Paris Con- 
servatoire and for a livelihood sang 
in the chorus of the Gymnase drama- 
tique. Chafing under Reicha's rigid 
system of instruction, he left the Cons, 
and devoted himself heart and soul 
to the cause of the 'romanticists.' His 
first composition, an orchestral Mass 
given at St.-Roch in 1825, unintelligible 
to executants and hearers, made him an 
object of ridicule, but he persevered 
and became an outspoken exponent of 


'program-music' His two overtures, 
'Waverley' and Les Francs-Juges, and a 
symphonie phantastique, Episode de la 
vie d'un artiste appeared in 1828, and 
was produced together with his 'Con- 
certs des Sylphes, 3 which was accom- 
panied by an elaborate 'program,' in 
1829. B. re-entered the Conservatoire 
in order to compete for prizes, in 
1826, taking a course in free composi- 
tion with Lesueur. Despite Cherubini's 
long opposition he took the Grand Prix 
de Rome with his cantata, Sardanapale 
in 1830, and while in Italy composed 
the overture to 'King Lear,' and Lelio, 
ou le retour d la vie. His growing in- 
fluence, by virtue of his brilliant writ- 
ings in the Journal des Debats and the 
Gazette Musicale, insured his works re- 
spectful hearings from now on; never- 
theless his opera, Renvenuto Cellini 
(Opera, 1838), was a failure in Paris 
and London, though it increased his 
prestige in Germany, especially Wei- 
mar, where Liszt was his champion. 
B. became Conservator of the Conserva- 
tory in 1839, and in 1852 librarian, an 
appointment he held until death. His 
first concert-giving tour in Germany, 
etc., in 1843, which he recorded in his 
Voyage musical en Allemagne et en 
Italie (1844, 2 vols.), was successful; 
also other journeys in Austria, Hun- 
gary, Bohemia and Silesia (1845), and 
Russia (1847). In London (1852) he 
conducted the first series of the 'New 
Philharm. Concerts'; in 1853 his Ren- 
venuto Cellini was performed at Co- 
vent Garden under his direction, as was 
Reatrice et Rentdict, a comic opera, at 
Baden-Baden in 1862. He became a 
member of the Academie in 1856; and 
was decorated with the cross of the 
Legion of Honor. He also travelled 
to St. Petersburg, to bring out his 
Damnation de Faust. The failure of 
his opera, Les Troyens a Carthage 
(1863), embittered his last years. Ber- 
lioz, indeed, was better appreciated in 
Germany than in France. The first 
complete production, under Mottl's di- 
rection, of the opera Les Troyens (in 
two parts: La prise de Troie, 3 acts, 
and Les Troyens a Carthage, in 5 acts) 
was at Karlsruhe in 1897. His 'oratorio,' 
La Damnation de Faust (1846) perhaps 
marks the culmination of B.'s striv- 
ing after the purely fantastic; but his 
passion for unprecedented orchestral 
combinations and gigantic mass-effects 
was unsated, and he certainly carried 
the science of orchestration to wonder- 
ful perfection. Berlioz's prose style 
is both forceful and polished; in verse 
he penned the, words to his VEnfance 
du Christ (see below), also to the op- 
eras Reatrice et Renidict and Les Troy- 
ens. The symphony 'Harold in Italy,' 
the dramatic symphony 'Romeo and 
Juliet,' the Carnaval Romain overture, 
the Messe des Morts, the sacred trilogy 
VEnfance du Christ (Part I Le songe 
d'H erode; II. La fuite en Egypte; III. 



L'Arrivee a Sais) ; a Te Deum, the 
Requiem, the Grande symphonic funebre 
et triomphale (full military band, with 
strings and chorus ad lib.) overture to 
Le Corsaire; Le Cinq Mai, for bass solo, 
chorus and orch. (for the anniversary 
of Napoleon's death) ; together with 
other instrumental and choral works, 
songs, transcriptions, complete the list 
of Berlioz's works. One of his great- 
est services to the art was his perfec- 
tion of the science of orchestration, 
which has given him the title of 'father 
of the modern orchestra.' His Traite 
d' instrumentation has long been the 
authority on the subject and has latterly 
in German translation been supple- 
mented by Dr. Richard Strauss. He 
also wrote Soirees d'orchestre (1853), 
Grotesques de la musique (1859), A 
travers chants (1862) and Memoires 
(1870). Ref.: for life and work see 
II. 253ff, 348, 352 ff, 382ff ; for vocal solo 
works, V. 262ff; for choral works, VI. 
1561T; chamber music, VII. 207, 342, 
(transcriptions) 306; orchestral works, 
VIII. 268ff; operas, IX. 183ff; mus. ex., 
XIII. 319, 322; portrait, II. 342. For 
general references see individual in- 

BERMUDO, Juan (early 16th cent.) : 
Spanish writer on musical instruments. 

BERNABEf, Giuseppe Ercole (ca. 
1620-1687) : b. Caprarola, Papal States, 
d. Munich; studied with O. Benevoli; 
maestro at the Vatican and court Kap- 
ellmeister at Munich. His compositions 
include five operas, two books of mad- 
rigals, motets, church music, etc. 

BERNACCHI, Antonio (1690-1756): 
b. Bologna, d. there; studied with 
Pistocchi; sopranist in the Handel Op- 
era in London and founder of a vocal 
school at Bologna. His special char- 
acteristic was the use of vocal em- 
bellishments known as 'Roulades.' 

BERNARD (1) J. C, the libret- 
tist of Spohr's 'Faust'. Ref.: IX. 209. 
(2) limile (1843-1902): b. Marseilles, 
d. Paris; composer; studied at the 
Conservatoire with Reber, Benoist, and 
Marmontel; organist of Notre Dame 
des Champs; composed a violin con- 
certo, a Konzertstiick and a Fantasie 
for piano and orchestra, orchestral 
suites, a Divertissement for wind in- 
struments, 2 suites for organ, an 
overture, a piano quartet, a piano 
trio, a sonata for piano and 'cello and 
one for piano and violin, much other 
chamber and piano music, and 2 

cent, writer). Ref.: VI. 315. 


See Bernhard. 

BERNARDI (1) Bartolomeo ([?]- 
1730) f b. 3ologna, d. Copenhagen; vio- 
linist and composer; wrote trio-sona- 
tas and other instrumental works, and 
an opera, Libussa. Ref.: VII. 390. (2) 
Steffano (17th cent.): b. Verona; 
maestro di cappella at the cathedral 


there and later at Salzburg; composed 
masses, motets, psalms, madrigals and 
instrumental pieces. (3) Francesco. 
See Senesino. (4) Enrico (1838-1900): 
b. Milan, d. there; conductor and or- 
chestral director; composer of suc- 
cessful light operas and ballets, also 
of popular dance music. 

BERNARDINI, Marcello (1762- 
[?]) : b. Capua; dramatic composer and 
author of his own librettos. His operas 
were successful on the Venetian stage. 

BERNASCONI (1) Andrea (1712- 
1784): b. Marseilles, d. Munich; court 
conductor and composer of sacred 
and dramatic music. Fourteen of 
his operas were written for Munich, 
seven others for Munich, Venice, etc. 

(2) Anton in, daughter of (1), opera 
singer; created role of Alceste in 
Gluck's opera (Vienna, 1764) and Aspa- 
sia in Mozart's Mitridate (Milan, 1770). 

(3) Pietro (d. Barese, 1895) : organ- 
builder of renown in Italy. 

BERN AY, Mile, (ballerina). Ref.: 
X. 159. 

BERNELINUS (early 11th cent.): 
Benedictine monk and theoretician at 
Paris; wrote on the division of the 
monochord (publ. by Gerbert). 

BERNER, Friedricb Wilhelm 
(1780-1827): b. Breslau, d. there; or- 
ganist; teacher of music, director of 
the Royal Inst, for Church Music; com- 
poser of church music. 

[Saint] (1091-1153) : b. Fontaines, Bur- 
gundy, d. Clairvaux; abbot there and 
author of an introductory letter De 
correctione antiphonarii to the Prefatio 
seu tractatus in Antiphonarium Cis- 
terciense, written under his authority. 

BERNHARD, Chris toph (1627- 
1692): b. Danzig, d. Dresden; com- 
poser; studied with H. Schiitz and in 
Italy; successively 2nd and 1st Kapell- 
meister in Dresden; pub. Geistliche 
Harmonica (1665) and Prudentia pru- 
dentiana (1669) ; author of treatises on 
composition and counterpoint. 

(15th cent.) : organist at St. Mark's and 
probable inventor of organ-pedals, 
which he introduced into Italy. He 
was known as 'Bernardo di Steflfanino 

BERNICAT, Firmin (1841-1883): d. 
Paris; dramatic composer; produced 
thirteen operettas for Paris theatres. 

abbot of Reichenau; author of treatises 
on music, included in Gerbert's Scrip- 
tores, vol. II. 

BERNOULLI (1) Joliann (1667- 
1747) : b. Basel, d. there as prof, of 
sciences; succeeded by his son. (2) 
Daniel (1700-1782): b. Groningen, d. 
Basel. His and his father's writings 
on acoustics are of value. Ref. : VIII. 
25. (3) £douard. See Addenda. 

BERNSDORF, Eduard (1825-1901 ) : 
b. Dessau, d. Leipzig; studied with 
Schneider and Marx; critic and com- 



poser; completed the writing of Schlade- 
bach's Universal-Lexikon der Ton- 
kunst (3 vols., 1856-61; suppl., 1865). 

BERNUTH, Julius von (1830-1902) : 
b. Rees, Rhine Province, d. Hamburg; 
studied the law and music, founder 
and conductor in Leipzig of several 
music societies; conductor in Ham- 
burg of the Philharmonic and the 
Singakademie, and director of a con- 
servatory founded by himself. 

BERR, Friedrich (1794-1838): b. 
Mannheim, d. Paris; bandmaster and 
clarinettist; professor at the Conserva- 
toire and director of the New School of 
Military Music. He composed for the 
clarinet, bassoon, etc., writing some five 
hundred pieces of military music. He 
published in 1836 Traite Complet de la 
Clarinette a Ik clefs. 

BERR£, Ferdinand (1843- ) : b. 
Ganshoren, near Rrussels; composer of 
operas and over 50 songs. 

BERSELLI, Matteo (18th cent.) : 
male soprano; sang in London, 1720- 
1721. Ref.: I. 434. 

BERTALI, Antonio (1605-1669) : b. 
Verona, d. Vienna; court conductor and 
composer of cantatas, oratorios and 
ten operas, produced in Mantua, Vien- 
na, etc. 

BERTATI, Giovanni (1735-1815) : 
b. Martellago, d. Venice; operatic li- 
brettist, wrote Cimarosa's II Matri- 
monio Segreto. 

BERTfi, Heinrich (1858- ) : b. 
Galgocz, Hungary; composer of the 
ballets Das Mdrchenbuch (1890), Amor 
auf Reisen (1895), Der Karneval in 
Venedig (1900) and Automatenzauber 
(1901), and the operettas Die Schnee- 
flocke (1896), Der neue Biirgermeister 
(1904), Die Millionenbraut (1905), Der 
schone Gardist (1907), Der kleine Cheva- 
lier (1907), Der Gliicksnarr (1909), 
Kreolenblut (1911) and Der Marchen- 
prinz (1914). 

BERTELMANN, Jan Gcorjr (1782- 
1854) : b. Amsterdam, d. there ; studied 
with D. Brachthuijzer; professor at 
the Amsterdam Royal School of Music 
and composer of a mass, a string quar- 
tet, violin and pianoforte pieces, etc. 
Cantatas, concertos, etc., remained un- 

(1811-1861): b. Giitersloh, Westphalia, 
d. Amsterdam; studied with Rinck; di- 
rector of singing society at Amsterdam 
and composer of choruses for men and 
for mixed voices, also of songs with 
pianoforte accompaniment and compo- 
sitions for the organ and for the 

BERTHAUME, Isidore (1752-1802) : 
b. Paris, d. St. Petersburg; violinist 
and conductor in Paris (1774-1783), 
solo-violinist in Imperial Orchestra at 
St. Petersburg; composed sonatas, a 
symphonie concertante for two violins, 
violin solos, duos, and a concerto. Ref. : 
VII. 410. 

UERTHELIER, Henri: violinist at 


the Paris Opera and Paris Cons.: pro- 
fessor of violin there since 1894. 

BERTHOLD, Karl Friedrich Theo- 
dor (1815-1882): b. Dresden, d. there; 
studied with Otto and Schneider; court 
organist; composer of a symphony, 
overtures, church music and an ora- 
torio. He wrote a brochure on musical 
instrument making in Vogtland. 

BERTI, M. A. (1721-1740) : b. Vienna, 
d. there; baritone player. 

BERTIN, Louise Angelique (1805- 
1877) : b. Roches, d. Paris ; studied with 
Fetis; pianist and operatic composer. 
She wrote also smaller works, among 
them 'Six Ballades.' 

BERTINI (1) Abbate Giuseppe 
(1756-1849): b. Palermo, d. there; con- 
ductor to Sicilian court; wrote musical 
dictionary, pub. Palermo 1814. (2) Be- 
noit-Auguste : b. Lyons, 1780; pupil 
of Clementi and teacher of pianoforte 
in London and elsewhere; wrote on 
Stigmatographie (Paris, 1812) and a 
'Phonological System' for acquiring fa- 
cility in execution on instruments or 
with the voice (London, 1830). (3) 
Henri-Jerome (1798-1876) : b. London, 
d. Meylan: studied with his father and 
his brother (1) and (2) ; concert pian- 
ist who toured the Netherlands and 
Germany when twelve years of age; 
then studied in Paris and later lived 
in Great Britain and Paris. His com- 
positions consist of chamber music 
with piano, works for piano solo, and 
technical studies of great value (re- 
printed in editions by Riemann, Bu- 
onamici, etc.). (4) Domenico (1829- 
1890) : b. Lucca, d. Florence; studied 
with Pacini, maestro di cappella, critic 
and composer of chamber music, 
church music and 2 operas. He direct- 
ed the Cherubini Society in Florence. 

BERTON (1) Pierre-Montan (1727- 
1780) : b. Paris, d. there; singer, con- 
cert conductor, 1759 director of the 
Paris Opera; composed operas, rear- 
ranged others by Lully, etc. (2) Hen- 
ri-Montan (1767-1844): b. Paris, d. 
there; son of preceding; opera com- 
poser, pupil of Rey and Sacchini. 
He was violinist at the Opera, 
harmony professor at the Conserva- 
toire, conductor of the Opera buffa 
and professor of composition at the 
Conservatoire. He wrote 48 operas (in- 
cluding Montano et Stephanie, Le Delire, 
and Aline, reine de Golconde), also 5 
oratorios, 5 cantatas, and many 'ro- 
mances,' and pub. some curious rather 
than valuable theoretical works. Ref.: 
IX. 112, 118, 225. 

BERTONI, Ferdinando Giuseppe 
(1725-1813) : b. Island of Salo, near 
Venice, d. Desenzano; studied with 
Martini; organist and maestro di cap- 
pella, St. Mark's, Venice, composed 
44 operas, 12 oratorios, church and 
chamber music, sonatas, etc. 

BERTRAND, Jean-Gustave (1834- 
1880) : b. Vaugirard, near Paris, d. 
Paris; published 5 books on musical 



history and criticism; contributed to 
the Pougin supplement to Fetis. 

BERTUCCA, Signora. Ref.: IV. 

BERWALD (1) Johann Friedrich 
(1788-1861): b. Stockholm, d. there; 
travelled as violin virtuoso in youth; 
in 1814 became concert-master, court 
conductor in 1823 in Stockholm. (2) 
Franz (1796-1868): b. Stockholm, d. 
there; director of Cons.; composer of 
chamber music, symphonies and one 
opera, Estrella de Soria. Ref.: III. 78. 
(3) William (1864- ): b. Schwerin, 
Germany; composer; studied with 
Rheinberger and Faisst in Stuttgart; 
director of the Philharmonic Society, 
Libau, 1890; head of department of 
theory at Syracuse (N. Y.) Univ., since 
1892; conductor of choral societies; 
has composed a piano quintet, 2 can- 
tatas, 2 overtures, a sonata for violin 
and piano, songs, piano pieces, and 

BERWIN, Adolf (1847-1900): b. 
Schwersenz, near Posen, d. Rome; 
studied with Lechner, Frohlich, Rust, 
Dessoff ; director in Rome of the Royal 
Library and the Cecilia Academy; edi- 
tor and writer; author of a history of 
18th-cent. Italian dramatic music. 

BESARD (or Besardus), Jean-Bap- 
tiste (16th cent.): b. Resancon; lute- 
nist; published compositions and ar- 
rangements for the lute (1603, 1617). 

BESCHNITT, Johannes (1825- 

1880) : b. Rockau, Silesia, d. Stettin ; 
teacher, cantor and conductor of men's 
chorus there; composed male choruses. 

BESEKIRSKY, Vasili Vasilievitch 
(1836- ) : b. Moscow ; violin virtu- 
oso and composer; soloist in Rrussels, 
Paris, Madrid, Prague, etc.; composer 
of orchestral works, a violin concerto, 
numerous pieces for violin, cadenzas to 
the concertos of Reethoven, Rrahms and 
Paganini; has edited the violin so- 
natas of Rach, with a valuable pref- 
ace on the music of the violin from 
the 17th to the 20th centuries (1913). 

BESLER (1) Samuel (1574-1625) : 
b. Rrieg, d. Rreslau, where he was or- 
ganist at St. Rernhardin, composed 
church music. (2) Simon (early 17th 
cent.) : cantor at Rreslau and Liegnitz; 
composed part-songs. 

BESOZZI (1) Alessandro (ca. 1700- 
1775): b. Parma, d. Turin; oboist; 
member of court orchestra at Turin, 
and later chamber musician and di- 
rector general of instrumental music 
there; concertized with his brothers 
Girolamo and Antonio ; comp. 6 vio- 
lin sonatas with bass, numerous trio 
sonatas for flute with violin and 'cello 
(or harpsichord), 2 violins and 'cello, 
etc. (2) Carlo: son of Antonio, obo- 
ist at Dresden, 1755-72, composed oboe 
concertos, etc. (3) Louis-Desire (1814- 
1879): b. Versailles, d. Paris; studied 
at the Conservatoire, where he won the 
grand Prix de Rome; music teacher and 
composer in Paris. 


BESSAMS, Antoine (1809-1868) : b. 
Antwerp, d. there; violinist; composer 
of concerto, fantasies, duos, trios, etc., 
for the violin, also graduals, masses, 
motets, psalms; conductor of the 'So- 
ciete royale d'harmonie' at Antwerp. 

BESSON, Gustavo Augruste (1820- 
1875) : inventor of improved valves for 
wind instruments. 

BEST, William Thomas (1826- 
1897) : b. Carlisle, England, d. Liver- 
pool ; organ virtuoso ; pupil of cathedral 
organist Young; organist of Pembroke 
chapel, Liverpool; Church of the 
Rlind; the Philh. Society; the Panopti- 
con, London; St. Martin's, Lincoln's Inn 
chapel, London; and, 1855-94, of St. 
George's Hall, Liverpool, where his re- 
citals were a feature in local musical 
life; played concertos at many succes- 
sive Handel Festivals. He composed 
church services and anthems, sonatas, 
preludes and fugues, concert-fantasias, 
studies, etc., for organ; 2 overtures and 
a march for orchestra, and several 
piano pieces; wrote text-books of or- 
gan playing, compiled 'Handel Album' 
(20 vols.) ; and pub. many arrange- 
ments and transcriptions. Ref.: VI. 
447, 493. 

BESTANDIG, Otto (1835- ): b. 

Striegau, Silesia; composer; studied in 
Rreslau with Mettner, Freudenberg and 
Mosevius; founded a Konzertverein and 
a Cons, in Hamburg; also conducted 
the Musikgesellschaft at Wandsbek; 
composer of 2 oratorios, a quartet for 
violin, 'cello, piano and harmonium, 
piano pieces, etc.; author of Die unent- 
behrlichen Hilf swis sens chaf ten beim 
Klavierunterricht (1872). 

BETTI, Adolfo (1875- ): b. 

Lucca, Tuscany; violinist; studied with 
Cesar Thomson in Liege; soloist for 
four years in Vienna; 1900-03 in Rrus- 
sels, substituting for Thomson at the 
Cons, when latter was absent, and play- 
ing in the Cons, concerts under Gevaert; 
since 1903 leader of the Flonzaley 

BETTS, Thomas Percival Mil- 
bourne (1851-1904) : English critic. 

BETZ, Franz (1835-1900) : b. May- 
ence, d. Rerlin; dramatic baritone in 
German cities, including the Royal Op- 
era House at Rerlin; created Hans 
Sachs (1868) and Wotan (1876). 

BEVIGNANI [Cavaliere] Enrico 
(1841-1903): b. Naples, d. there; con- 
ductor in London, St. Petersburg, Mos- 
cow and the New York Metropolitan; 
Knight of the Order of St. Stanislas; 
prod, an opera in Naples (1863). 

BEVIN, Elway (1560 or '70-1640 
[?]) : Welsh composer, pupil of Tallis, 
etc.; abandoned position as Anglican 
organist and Gentleman Extraordinary 
in the Chapel Royal to enter the Roman 
Church; composed a Short Service, an- 
thems, etc.; wrote an 'Introduction to 
the Art of Musicke.' 

BEWERUNGE, Rev. Henry (1862-) : 
b. Letmathe, Westphalia, teacher and 



writer; studied at Wurzburg Cons, and 
the Institute for Church Music at Ratis- 
bon; professor of church music, St. 
Patrick's College, Maynooth, Ireland, 
1888-1914; then professor of music at 
the National University of Ireland; au- 
thor of Die vatikanische Choralausgabe 
(1906-07) ; edited Lyra Ecclesiastica, 
1891-93; contributor to Musica Sacra, 
Haberl's Handbuch der Kirchenmusik, 
'The Irish Ecclesiastical Record' and 
•The Catholic Encyclopedia'; translated 
into English Riemann's Katechismus 
der Musikdsthetik and Vereinfachte 

BEXFIELD, William Richard 
(1824-1853): b. Norwich, d. London; 
studied with Buck, organist, Mus. D., 
composer of oratorio, fugues for the 
organ, part-songs, etc. 

BEYER (1) Johann Samuel (1669- 
1744) : b. Gotha, d. Carlsbad ; cantor 
and director at Weissenfels and Frei- 
berg; wrote Primae lineae musicae vo- 
calis and published 2 collections of 
festival chorales in 1716 and 1724 
and concert arias, etc. (2) Rudolph 
(1828-1853) : b. Bautzen, d. Dresden ; 
composer and teacher; wrote songs, 
chamber music, etc. (3) Ferdinand 
(1805-1863): b. Querfurt, d. Mayence; 
composer of salon music. 

BEYLE, Marie Henri. See Sten- 

BEYSCHLAG, Adolf (1845- ) : b. 

Frankfort; studied with Lachner at 
Mannheim; Kapellmeister of theatres at 
Treves and Cologne; concert-master in 
Mayence and Frankfort; conductor of 
the Philharmonic Society, Belfast; dep- 
uty conductor for Halle in Manchester; 
conductor of the Leeds Philharmonic 
Society and subscription concerts; resi- 
dent in Berlin since 1902; author of 
Die Ornamentik der Musik (1908) ; 
composer of 4-hand dances for piano 
in canon form, songs and arrange- 

BEZZI, Giuseppe (b. 1874): Italian 
opera composer. Ref.: III. 383. 

BIAGGI, Giro Jn mo Alessandro 
(1819-1897) : b. Milan, d. Florence ; 
studied Milan Conservatory, and in 
Paris ; became music critic in Italy un- 
der the name of 'Ippolito d'Albano,' 
and teacher in the Royal Music Insti- 
tute of Florence. He wrote two books 
on church and dramatic music. 
~~BIAL, (1) Rudolf (1834-1881): b. 
Habelschwerdt, Silesia, d. New York; 
orchestral violinist in Breslau, toured 
Africa and Australia; conductor of the 
Kroll orchestra and the Wallner The- 
atre, Berlin; later conductor of Italian 
opera in Berlin, and, from 1878, con- 
cert-agent in New York; composed 
farces, operettas, etc. (2) Karl (1833- 
1892): b. Habelschwerdt, d. Steglitz; 
pianist; brother of Budolf; accom- 
panied him on his tours. 

BIANCHI (1) Giovanni (17th cent.) : 
b. Ferrara; composer who wrote trio- 
sonatas published in Modena and Am- 


sterdam. (2) Francesco (1752-1810) : b. 
Cremona, d. Hammersmith; 'cellist, 
conductor and organist in Paris, Milan, 
and Venice; conducted also in Lon- 
don; prolific composer of operas. (3) 
Eliodora: contemporary operatic com- 
poser; produced with success at Bari, 
1873 and later. (4) Valentine (1839- 
1884) : b. Vilna, d. Condau, Courland; 
studied at the Paris Conservatoire; 
operatic soprano; sang in Frankfort 
(debut, 1855), Berlin, Schwerin, Stettin, 
1865, and retired five years later. 
(5) Charitas Bianca, correctly Bertha 
Schwarz (1858- ): b. Heidelberg; 
studied with Wilczek and Viardot-Gar- 
cia; operatic soprano in Carlsruhe, 
London, Mannheim and Vienna; mar- 
ried Pollini in 1897 ; teacher at the Mu- 
nich Academy of Music. (6) Renzo (b. 
1887): Italian opera composer. Ref.: 
III. 383. 

BIANCHINI (1) Pietro (1828- ): 
b. Venice; violinist, composer, con- 
ductor and director in Trieste and in 
Venice. (2) Guido, contemp. Italian 
song composer. Ref.: III. 400. 

BIBER (1) Heinrich Ignaz Franz 
von (1644-1704): b. Wartenberg, d. 
Salzburg; violin virtuoso, 1684, con- 
ductor and steward to the archbishop 
of Salzburg; composed church and 
chamber sonatas, violin sonatas, ves- 
pers and litanies with instr. accom- 
paniment, 2 operas produced in Salz- 
burg. Ref.: VII. 391f, 412, 422. (2) 
Aloys (1804-1858) : b. Ellingen, d. Mu- 
nich; maker of pianofortes. 

BIBL (1) Andreas (1797-1878): Vi- 
ennese organist and composer. (2) 
Rudolf (1832-1902) : b. Vienna, d. 
there; son of Andreas, studied with 
his father and Sechter, court organ- 
ist and conductor; composer of or- 
gan pieces, fugues, sonatas, concertos, 

BICHI, Cardinal Alessandro. Ref.: 
IX. 22. 

BIDEZ, L. Aloys (1847- ): b. 
Brussels; teacher; composer of oper- 
etta, piano concerto, etc.; lived in the 
United States, 1876-1901, then returned 
to Brussels. 

BIE, Oskar (1864- ) : b. Breslau ; 
studied in Breslau, Leipzig and Berlin; 
taught in the Berlin High School, wrote 
Das Klavier und seine Meister, Intime 
Musik, Der Tanz, Die Oper, etc.; editor 
and music critic in Berlin; writer of 
arrangements, etc. Ref.: (quot. on op- 
era at Stuttgart) II. 13; (on Gluck) 
II. 17; (on Kreisleriana) II. 308ff; (on 
Viennese dilettante music) II. 312f; 
(on effect of Paganini on Liszt) II. 324; 
(cited) VII. 199, 322, 344; (cited on 
opera) IX. 9. 

BIEDERMANN (1) ■ — : 18th 

cent, virtuoso and inventor; improved 
the hurdy-gurdy. (2) Edward Julius 
(1849- ) : b. Milwaukee, Wis. ; stud- 
ied with father, A. Julius, in Germany; 
organist in New York; composed 2 
grand masses, anthems, duets, etc. 



BIEHL, Albert (1833- ): b. Ru- 
dolstadt, Germany; writer of methods 
for finger technique, etudes for the 
violin, etc. 

BIEHLE, Johannes (1870- ): b. 
Bautzen; studied at the Dresden Cons, 
and the Technische Hochschule; can- 
tor at the Bautzen Cathedral since 
1898; founded the Lausitzer Musikfeste, 
1905; appointed Kirchen musikdirektor, 
1908; author of Theorie titer pneuma- 
tischen Orgeltraktur u. die Stellung 
des Spieltisches (1911) and Theorie des vom Standpunkte des 
Kirchenmusikers u. des Redners . . . 
mit einer Glockenkunde (1913). 

BIEHR, Oscar (1851- ) : b. Dres- 
den; studied with David in Leipzig, 
violinist, member of the Munich court 
orchestra, also quartet player; editor 
of old violin music. 

BIERBAUM, Otto Julius, poet. 
Be/.; V. 331; IX. 428. 

BIEREY, Gottlob Benedikt (1772- 
1840) : b. Dresden, d. Breslau ; operatic 
director, produced one opera; con- 
ductor in Breslau and Weimar; com- 
posed singspiele, cantatas, a mass, etc., 
and wrote a harmony book, not pub. 

BIERNACKI, Michael Marian 
(1855- ) : b. Lublin ; studied in War- 
saw Conservatory, chorus director and 
composer for orchestra, violin, and pi- 
ano, also wrote songs and choruses. 

BIESE, Wilhelm (1822-1902) : b. 
Rathenow, d. Berlin; manufacturer of 
pianos in Berlin. 

BIFPI (17th-18th cent.) : Italian mu- 
sician; master of Domenico Alberti. 
Ref.: VII. 108. 

BIGAGLIA, Diogenio (18th cent.) : 
Benedictine monk in Venice, wrote so- 
natas, concerti and sacred songs. 

BIGNAMI (1) Carlo (1808-1848): b. 
Cremona, d. Voghera; conductor, vio- 
linist and director in Cremona; called 
by Paganini 'first violinist of Italy.' 
(2) Enrico (1842-1894) : d. Genoa; vio- 
linist and dramatic composer. 

BIGNIO, Louis von (1839-1907) : b. 
Pesth, d. Vienna; lyric and oper- 
atic tenor in Pesth, the National Hun- 
garian Theatre and the Vienna Court 

Kiene) (1786-1820) : b. Colmar, d. 
Paris; pianist in Vienna, where she 
was admired by Haydn and Beethoven; 
gave lessons to Mendelssohn in Paris; 
pub. piano pieces. 

BIHARI (1769-1827) : Hungarian 
composer. Ref.: III. 188. 

BILHON, Jean de (16th cent.) : 
singer and composer in the Papal 
chapel; motets and a mass preserved. 

BILLINGS, William (1749-1800): b. 
Boston, Mass., d. there; New England 
singing teacher, originally a tanner, 
next to Francis Hopkinson the earliest 
American composer. He wrote hymns 
and psalms, improved choir singing, 
etc.; pub. 'The New England Psalm 
Singer' (1770) and 'The Singing Mas- 



ter's Assistant' (1778). Ref.: IV. 39, 

Wff, 61. 

BILLINGTON (1) Theodore (18th 
cent.) : pianist, composer and harpist. 
(2) Elizabeth (ca. 1768-1818) : b. Lon- 
don, d. near Venice; studied with J. 
Chr. Bach, popular operatic soprano 
in London and Dublin, with a voice 
compassing 3 octaves. 

BILLON. See Bilhon. 

BILLROTH (1) Johann Gnstav 
Friedrich (1808-1836) : b. Halle, d. 
there; composer and writer; published 
collection of 16th and 17th chorales. 
(2) Theodor (1829-1894) : b. Bergen, 
Isle of Riigen, d. Abazzia; surgeon and 
musical amateur; friend of Brahms; 
wrote Wer ist musikalisch? (ed. by 
Hanslick, 1896). Ref.: II. 455. 

BILSE, Benjamin (1816-1902): b. 
Liegnitz, d. there; city musician and 
conductor of his own orchestra with 
which he toured and appeared at the 
Paris World's Fair. From 1868 he 
resided in Berlin, where the 'Bilse con- 
certs' stood in high repute. A section 
of the Bilse Orchestra became the nu- 
cleus of the Berlin Philharmonic So- 

BINCHOIS, Gilles (Gilles de 
Binche) (ca. 1400-1460): b. Binche 
(Bins) in Hainault, d. Lille; important 
composer of the first Netherland school ; 
of his works are preserved seven 
movements, 52 secular and 12 sacred 
chansons and 6 rondeaux; he was con- 
ductor at the court of Philip of Bur- 
gundy. Ref.: I. 244; mus. ex., XIII. 16. 

BINDER (1) Christlieb Siegmund 
(1724-1789): d. Dresden; organist at 
the Dresden court; composed clavier 
sonatas, some with violin or violin and 
'cello; also trio sonatas, organ preludes, 
etc.; in a style akin to that of C. P. E. 
Bach. (2) Karl (1816-1860): b. Vi- 
enna, d. there; conductor and dra- 
matic composer of note. (3) Fritz 
(1873- ): b. Baltimore; received his 
training from Leschetizky and at Co- 
logne Conservatory; infant prodigy 
who toured Europe as concert pianist 
at 7 years of age; directed the vocal 
academy at Danzig. 

BINI, Pasqualino (1720-[?]): b. 
Pesaro; violinist. Ref.: VII. 403. 

BIONDI, Giovanni Battista: 17th 
cent, composer of masses, motets and 
concertos; Minorite monk b. in Cesena. 

BIONI, Antonio (1698-[?]) : b. Ven- 
ice; director of Italian opera troupe 
at Breslau, court composer at May- 
ence, and composed later for Vienna; 
wrote successful Italian operas. 

BIRCHALL, Robert ([?]-1819) : Lon- 
don music publisher; founded the first 
circulating musical library. He pub. 
some of Beethoven's music, and man- 
aged the 'Concerts of Ancient Music' 
for a time. The firm of B. Lonsdale 
& Mills succeeded to his business. 

(1687-1733) : b. Alsfeld, Hesse, d. Eise- 
nach; studied with Fedeli, Volumier, 


Fiorelli, de Val; conductor of chapel 
and concert; composer of violin so- 
natas, 12 concertos, and a symphony 
with oboe and horns. 

BIRD (1) William. See Byrd. (2) 
Arthur (1856- ) : b. Cambridge, 
Mass.; studied with Haupt, Loschhorn, 
Rohde, Urban and Liszt; organist, 
teacher and founder of male chorus 
at Halifax, N. S.; resident in Berlin; 
comp. a symphony, a 'Carneval Scene' 
for orch., 2 decimets for wind instr., 
pieces for organ, piano, etc., also an 
opera as well as a ballet. Ref. : IV. 
402; VI. 460. (3) Henry Richard 
(1842-1915): b. Walthamstow, d. Lon- 
don; studied with Turle; London 
church and concert organist, teacher at 
the Royal Academy of Music. 

BIRKLER, Georg Wilhelm (1820- 
1877) : b. Buchau, Wurttemberg, d. 
Ehingen; composer of church music 
and writer for Catholic publications. 

BIRNBACH (1) Karl Joseph (1751- 
1805): b. Kopernick, Silesia, d. War- 
saw ; conductor of German theatre there, 
composer, pub. piano concertos and 
violin sonatas. (2) Joseph Benjamin 
Heinrich (1795-1879): b. Breslau, d. 
Berlin; composer of instrumental 
works and author of Der vollkommene 

BIRNSTIEL, Friedrich Wilhelm: 
18th cent, compiler of Music of the 
Berlin School, published the collection 
called Oden und Melodien (2 parts, 

BISACCIA, Giovanni (1815-1897) : 
d. Naples; studied with Crescentini, 
Raimondi, Donizetti; dramatic singer 
in Naples where he taught singing, was 
maestro di cappella and produced an 
opera buffa, two musical farces, etc. 

BISACdlANTI, Eliza (1824-1896) : 
b. Boston, Mass.; concert and operatic 
singer appearing in America and Eu- 
rope; married the Marquis B. and be- 
came a singing teacher in Rome. 

BISCHOFF (1) Georg Friedrich 
(1780-1841) : b. Ellrich am Harz, d. 
Hildesheim; cantor and school teacher 
at Frankenhausen, where he arranged 
the first Thuringian Musical Festival 
(under Spohr, 1810) ; published 3 school 
song books. (2) Ludwig Friedrich 
Christian (1794-1867) : b. Dessau, d. 
Cologne; director of the Wesel gym- 
nasium ; published and edited the Rhen- 
ish and Lower Rhenish musical jour- 
nals. (3) Kaspar Jakob (1823-1893) : 
b. Ansbach, d. Munich; studied in Mu- 
nich and Leipzig; vocal teacher and 
founder of Protestant singing societies; 
wrote a harmony method, symphonies 
and church music. (4) Marie. See 
Brandt, Marianne. (5) Hans (1852- 
1889) : b. Berlin, d. Niederschonhausen, 
near there; studied with Kullak and 
Wuerst, also philosophy and modern 
languages; pianist, leader and teacher 
in Berlin; edited Kullak's Xsthetik des 
Klavierspiels, works of Handel, Bach 
and Schumann. 


BISHOP (1) John (1665-1737): b. 
Cheltenham, Gloucestershire, d. Win- 
chester; organist at Cheltenham and 
Blackburn. Some of his compositions 
are preserved in Barnard's Church 
Music. (2) [Sir] Henry Rowley 
(1786-1855): b. London, d. there; pupil 
of Francesco Bianchi; composer and 
director of Covent Garden, 1810; di- 
rector of the newly founded Philhar- 
monic Soc, 1813, conductor of the ora- 
torio concerts in Covent Garden, 1819, 
musical director at Vauxhall, 1830, pro- 
fessor of music at Edinburgh, 1841-42, 
at Oxford, 1848, Mus. Doc, 1853; also 
conducted the Antient Concerts, 1840- 
48. He prod. 110 stage works, an ora- 
torio, cantata, triumphal ode, etc.; pub. 
a vol. Melodies of Various Nations, 8 
vols. Irish melodies with words by 
Thos. Moore. Ref.: V. 105, 172, 267. (3) 
Anne or Anna (nee Riviere) (1814- 
1884): b. London, d. New York; so- 
prano; second wife of Sir Henry; made 
concert tours in Europe, America and 
Australia, accompanied by the harpist 
Boscha (q.v.), and, after his death, 
married an American, Schulz, and again 
made world tours. 

BISPHAM, David [Scull] (1857-) : 
b. Philadelphia; baritone; studied with 
Vannuccini and Lamperti; concert and 
operatic baritone; made his debut hi 
London in 1891; has sung leading 
roles in French, Italian and German 
opera at Covent Garden and the Metro- 
politan, New York; distinguished as 
singer, reader and teacher (New York). 
Ref.: TV. 147; portrait, V. 364. 

BITTER, Karl Hermann (1813- 
1885): b. Schwedt-on-Oder, d. Berlin; 
pub. J. S. Rach (2 vols., 1865; 4 vols., 
1881), K. Ph. E. u. W. F. Rach und 
deren Rriider (2 vols., 1868), etc. 

BITTI, Martino (18th cent.): com- 
poser of flute sonatas w. continuo, trio 
sonatas, violin concerto. 

BITTNER, Julius (1874- ): 
wrote 4 operas produced in Vienna, one 
not prod., a ballet-opera, choruses and 
songs. Ref.: IK. 424f. 

BITTONI, Bernardo (1755-1829): b. 
Fabriano, d. there; city conductor at 
Rieti, cathedral conductor at Fabriano, 
composer of sacred music. 

BIZET, [Alexandre Cesar Leopold] 
Georges (1838-1875) : b. Paris, d. Bou- 
gival; son of a singing teacher. He en- 
tered the Paris Conservatoire at the 
age of 9, and studied there for 10 years, 
winning numerous prizes. His teachers 
were Marmontel (piano), Benoist (or- 
gan), Zimmermann (harmony) and 
Halevy (composition). In 1857 he won 
the grand Prix de Rome, soon after he 
had written an operetta, Le Docteur 
Miracle, for a competition set by Of- 
fenbach. From Italy he sent an Italian 
opera, Don Procopio (found in 1895; 
prod, at Monte Carlo, 1906), two move- 
ments of a symphony, an overture, and 
a comic opera, La guzla de I' emir. Af- 
ter his return from Italy he prod, the 



operas Les pecheurs de perles (1863), 
La jolie fdle de Perth (1862) and 
Djamileh (1 act, 1873) ; also wrote inci- 
dental music to Daudet's drama, 
L'Arlesienne, familiar as a concert 
suite; 3 other suites, L'Arlesienne II, 
Roma and Jeux d'enfance, an overture, 
Patrie, and 3 symphonies, of which 
single movements were first performed 
by Pasdeloup. In 1875 appeared Car- 
men, his most famous work (libretto 
by Ludovie Halevy from the story of 
Prosper Merimee). B. finished Halevy's 
opera, Vanina d'Ornano. His wife, 
Genevieve, was Halevy's daughter. 
Ref.: II. 53, 390ff; III. 7, 278, 283; V. 
315; VII. 462; orchestral works, VIII. 
Miff; opera, IX. xiii, 223, 238, 247/f, 
442, 443; mus. ex., XIII. 270; portrait, 

IX. 248. 

BJORNSON, Bjornstjerne. Ref. : 
III. 87, 89; VIII. 350; X. 104. 

BLACHE (ballet composer). Ref.: 

X. 102. 

BLACK, Andrew (1859- ): b. 

Glasgow; organist, who after studying 
with Randegger and Scafati, sang in 
oratorio in England and America; 
instructor in the Royal College of Mu- 
sic, Manchester. 

BLACKBURN, Vernon (1867-1907) : 
d. Paddington, London; London music 
critic on Westminster Gazette; wrote 
'The Fringe of an Art.' 

BLAES (1) Arnold Joseph (1814- 
1892) : b. Brussels, d. there ; studied 
with Bachmann, whom he succeeded 
in the Royal Orch. and as teacher of the 
clarinet at the Conservatory of Brus- 
sels. (2) (nee Meerti), Elisa: wife of 
(1) ; coloratura singer. (3) Ealouard 
(1846- ): b. Ghent; after study at 
the Conservatories of Ghent and Brus- 
sels, he went to Benolt at Antwerp; 
church conductor and musical director 
at Ghent, where he taught the bassoon 
at the Conservatory and was solo per- 
former on the bassoon at the French 
theatre. He has conducted choral so- 
cieties with success, and composed 
choruses and songs. 

BLAGROVE (1) Henry Gamble 
(1811-1872): b. Nottingham, d. London; 
studied at the newly opened Royal 
Academy of Music, then with Francois 
Cramer, later with Spohr; violinist in 
the private orchestra of Queen Ade- 
laide, from 1834 in London orchestras. 
(2) Richard ([?]-1895) : b. Notting- 
ham, d. London; brother of Henry, 
viola player in quartet and orchestra in 
London; performer at the Three Choir 

BLAHAG, or Blahak, Joseph (1779- 
1846): b. Raggendorf, d. Vienna; tenor 
and church conductor in Vienna; com- 
posed church music, offertories, etc. 

BLAHETKA, Marie Leopoldine 
(1811-1887): b. Guntramsdorf, n. Vi- 
enna, d, Boulogne-sur-Mer ; studied 
with Czerny, Moscheles, Kalkbrenner, 
Sechter; pianist and composer of high 
standing; virtuoso on the physharmon- 


ica. Her compositions were for the 
piano (sonatas, rondos, and concert 
pieces) ; she also produced at the Kart- 
nerthor Theatre a little opera, Die 
Rauber und der Sanger (1830). 

BLAHOSLAV, Johannes ([?]-1571): 
bishop of the Bohemian Brother- 
hood, author of the earliest Bohemian 
theoretical work, Musica (1558) ; pub. 
(with Johann Czerny) the great Czech 
Cantionale, a collection of 744 songs 
with melodies (1561). 

BLAINVILLE, Charles Henri 
(1711-1769): b. near Tours, d. Paris; 
pub. Sonatas pour le Dessus de Viole 
avec la R.c., a symphony and cantatas, 
edited Tartini's sonatas as concerti 
grossi and wrote several theoretical 
works. He advocated the recognition 
of the pure minor mode as a 3rd mode 
(mode hellenique) , produced a sym- 
phony in this mode (concerts spirituels, 
1751) which aroused the admiration of 
Rousseau. Serre combatted B.'s theory 

BLAISE, Adolphe ([?]-1772): bas- 
soonist at the Paris Comedie Italienne; 
composed some of the first operas 
comiques to texts by Favart, also bal- 
lets for the Italian opera. 

BLAMONT, [Francois] Colin de 
(1690-1760): b. Versailles, d. there; 
composed operas, ballets, cantatas, 
songs, etc.; wrote an essay on music 
and held the position of superintendent 
of music to the King. 

BLANC (1) Adolphe (1828-1885) : b. 
Manosque, Lower Alps, d. Paris; stud- 
ied at the Conservatoire, then with 
Halevy; conducted Theatre Lyrique, 
composed chamber music (for which he 
received the Prix Chartier of the 
Academie, 1862), 2 operettas, a comic 
opera, songs, etc. (2) Claudius, or 
Clande (1854-1900): b. Lyons, d. there; 
studied in Paris Cons.; directed Mar- 
seilles music-school, chorus-master of 
the Paris Opera; wrote an orchestral 
piece and songs. 

BLANCHARD, Henri Louis 
(1778-1858): b. Bordeaux, d. Paris; 
studied with Kreutzer, Beck, Walter, 
Mehul, Reicha; theatre-conductor in 
Paris, composer of chamber music, 
operas, etc.; musical biographer and 

BLAND (1) ne'e Romanzini, Maria 
Theresa (1769-1838): popular Italian 
singer in England. (2) Charles: son 
of (1), tenor. (3) James (1798-1861): 

BLANGINI, Giuseppe Marco Maria 
Felice (1781-1841): b. Turin, d. Paris; 
choirboy at Turin cathedral; moved to 
Paris, where he gave concerts and be- 
came popular as an opera composer; 
appointed court Kapellmeister at Mu- 
nich, 1806, and director of music for 
the Princess Borghese; made general 
musical director at Cassel by King 
Jerome, 1809; superintendent of the 
King's music, composer to the Court 
and professor of singing at the Con- 



servatoire, Paris, 1814-30; composed 30 
operas, 4 masses with orchestra, 170 
notturnos for 2 voices and 174 ro- 
mances for one voice. 

BLANKENBURG (1) Quirin van 
(1654-1749) : b. Gouda, Holland, d. The 
Hague; organist and author of a book 
on the elements of music and Clavi- 
cembel en Orgelboek der gereformeerde 
psalmen en Kerkgezangen; also a meth- 
od for the cross flute, etc. (2) Chris- 
tian Friedrich von (1744-1796): b. 
Kolberg, Pomerania, d. Leipzig; Prus- 
sian officer, who, after retiring in 1777, 
pub. a supplement to Sulzer's Theorie 
der Schonen Kiinste (1792-4). 

BLARAMBERG, Paul Ivanovitch 
(1841- ) : b. Orenburg, Russia ; stud- 
ied with Balakireff; lawyer, statistician, 
journalist and editor in Moscow of the 
'Russian News'; composer of three 
operas, produced in St. Petersburg and 
Moscow, a cantata, and incidental mu- 
sic to Ostrowsky's Voievode, a sym- 
phony, symph. poems, orch. scherzo, 
songs, choruses, etc. Ref.: III. 135f; 
IX. 413. 

BLASI, Iiuca (16th cent.) : Italian 
organ builder. Ref.: VI. 405. 

BLASIUS, MatheieH-Frederic (1758- 
1829) : b. Lauterburg, Alsace, d. Ver- 
sailles; professor of wind instruments 
at the Paris Conservatoire, performer 
on violin, clarinet, flute, and bassoon; 
conductor at the Opera-Comique and 
composer of trios, quartets, etc., for 
wind instr., concertos for clarinet, bas- 
soon, etc., 3 violin concertos, 12 string 
quartets, etc., also 2 comic operas; also 
pub. a Clarinet Method (1796). 

BLATT, Franz ThaddUus (1793- 
[?]) : b. Prague; clarinettist; studied 
in Vienna and Prague; composer for 
clarinet, which he taught at the Prague 
Conservatory, and author of a Clarinet 
Method (1728) and a Vocal Method 

BLATJWAERT, Emil (1845-1891) : 
b. St. Nikolaas, Belgium, d. Brussels; 
studied at Brussels Cons., concert and 
dramatic bass-baritone; sang Gurne- 
manz in the Bayreuth performance of 

BLAZE. See Castil-Blaze. 

BLECH, Leo (1871- ) : b. Aachen, 
studied music with Bargiel and Rudorff 
in Berlin; was conductor during winter 
season at Aachen municipal theatre 
(1892-98), where his operas Aglaja 
(1893) and Cherubina (1894) were pro- 
duced; continued his studies during 
summers with Humperdinck; 1899 con- 
ductor at Landestheater, Prague; 1906 
conductor at Royal opera, Berlin, where 
since 1913 he is general musical di- 
rector. Among his compositions are 
songs, piano pieces, three symphonic 
poems for orchestra (Die Nonne, Trost 
in der Natur, Waldwanderung) ; and 
choruses. His one-act comic opera Das 
war ich (Dresden, 1902) was well re- 
ceived. B. has since written Aschen- 
brodel (Prague, 1905), and Versiegelt 


(Hamburg, 1908, later in New York). 
He married the singer Martha Frank. 
Ref.: III. 249; IX. 432. 

BLEICHMANN, Julius Ivanovitch 
(1868-1909): b. St. Petersburg, d. there; 
composer and conductor, pupil of the St. 
Petersburg conservatory (Solovjev and 
Rimsky-Korsakoff, also Reinecke and 
Jadassohn, Leipzig). In 1893-94 he 
established the St. Petersburg popular 
symphony concerts; and 1894-95 was 
conductor of the Philharmonic con- 
certs. B. has composed songs, piano 
pieces, some chamber and orchestra 
music, choral works and two operas. 
Ref.: III. 155. 

BLETZACHER, Joseph (1835-1895) t 
b. Schwoich, Tyrol, d. Hanover; bass 
in the Hanover Royal Theatre. 

BLEWITT, Jonathan (1782-1853) : 
b. London, d. there; studied with 
his father and Battishill; organist 
in London, the provinces, and Dublin; 
conductor in Dublin, music director in 
London, and composer of dramatic in- 
cidental music, pantomimes, popular 
songs, etc. He pub. 'The Vocal As- 

BLEYLE, Karl (1880- ) : b. Feld- 
kirch, Vorarlberg; composer; studied 
with Wehrle, Singer and de Lange in 
Stuttgart and Thuille in Munich; com- 
poser of a symphony, a concerto for 
violin and orchestra, Flagellantenzug 
and Gnomentanz for orchestra, Sie- 
gesouvertiire and the overture Reineke 
Fuchs for orchestra, An den Mistral 
and other excerpts from Nietzsche, 
for male chorus, Lernt lachen (after 
Nietzsche) for alto, baritone, mixed 
chorus and orch.; Mignons Rei- 
setzung for mixed chorus, boys' chorus 
and orch., Heilige Sendung for tenor 
and baritone, chorus and orch., Die 
Hollenfahrt Christi for baritone, men's 
chorus and orch., Chorus musticus 
(from Faust) for mixed chorus, piano 
and harmonium, Ein Harfenklang for 
alto, mixed chorus and orchestra, Pro- 
metheus for male chorus and orchestra, 
piano pieces, songs, etc. 

BLIED, Jakob (1844-1884) : b. 
Bruhl-on-Rhine, d. there; composer of 
motets, masses and studies for piano, 
violin and voice; pupil and teacher at 
the Seminary there. 

BLISS, Paul P. (1872- ): b. in 
Chicago; organist and editor; studied 
with Clarke and Zeckwer, Philadelphia, 
and Guilmant and Massenet, Paris; or- 
ganist at Oswego, N. Y., 1900-4; musi- 
cal editor with John Church Co., 1904- 
10, with Willis Music Co. since 1911; 
composer of operettas, cantatas, piano 
pieces, songs, etc. Ref.: IV. 245. 

BLITHEMAN, William (d. 1591): 
organist; teacher of John Bull. His 
organ and virginal compositions are 
among the earliest extant. He was the 
Master of Choristers at Christ Church, 
Oxford, then organist of the Chapel 
Royal, London. Ref.: VI. 448. 

BLOCH (1) Georg (1847-1910): b. 



Breslau, d. Berlin; studied with 
Hainsch, Schubert, Taubert, Geyer; 
founder of an Opera Society which he- 
directed in Berlin. His compositions 
include choral works with orchestra. 
(2) Josef (1862- ): b. Pesth; stud- 
ied with Hubay and Volkmann, and 
at the Paris Cons, with Dancla; mem- 
ber of the Hubay-Popper Quartet; 
violin teacher at the Hungarian 
National Cons., 1890-1900; has com- 
posed a Hungarian overture, a Hun- 
garian rhapsody, and 2 suites for or- 
chestra, 2 grand suites for strings, a 
violin concerto, a string quartet, pieces 
and etudes for violin; pub. a method 
for violin, in 5 parts (1904). (3) 
Ernest (1880- ): b. Geneva; stud- 
ied with Jaques-Dalcroze and Rey at 
the Brussels Cons., with Ysaye and 
Rasse, and at the Hoch Cons., Frank- 
fort, with Knorr; professor of compo- 
sition at the Geneva Cons, from 1915; 
composer of the opera Macbeth, 2 sym- 
phonic poems, Trois juifs for 
orchestra, settings of psalms 22, 114 
and 137 for soli and orchestra, Poemes 
d'Automne for mezzo-soprano with 
orchestra, string quartet, etc. 

BLOCKX, Jan (1851-1912): b. Ant- 
werp; studied with Callaerts, Benolt 
and Brassin; teacher of harmony at the 
Antwerp Cons.; mus. dir. of the Cercle 
artistique, etc.; composed 7 operas, 
a pantomime, a ballet, an orchestral 
overture, and two compositions for a 
double-chorus, soli and orchestra, etc. 
Re/.; VI. 392. 

BLODEK, Wilhelm (1834-1874) : 
student and teacher in Prague Cons., 
composer of a comic opera produced in 
Prague and Leipzig, an unfinished 
opera, a mass, an overture, male quar- 
tets, etc. Ref.: III. 180. 

BLON, Franz von (1861- ): b. 
Berlin; studied at the Stern Cons, and 
the Hochschule fur Musik; leader of 
the Hamburg Stadttheater Orchestra; 
conductor of the Berlin Philharmonic 
Blase-Orchester from 1898, and of the 
Berlin Tonkunstler Orchestra from 
1900; composer of the operettas Sub 
rosa (1887) and Die Amazone (1903), 
a ballet In Afrika (1899), orchestral and 
piano music, songs, etc. 

BLONDEAU, Pierre Auguste 
Louis (1784-1865): b. Paris, d. there; 
studied at the Conservatoire where he 
won the prix de Rome in 1808; violist 
at the Opera; composer of an opera, 
a ballet, a mass, overtures, church and 
chamber music, piano compositions 
and songs; pub. theoretical works. 

BLONDEL, mediaeval minstrel. Ref.: 
V. 137f. 

See Zeisler, Fanny Bloomfield. 

BLOW, John (1648-1708) : b. N. Col- 
lingham, Nottinghamshire, d. London; 
chorister at the Chapel Royal, pupil of 
John Hingeston and Dr. Chr. Gibbons; 
organist of Westminster Abbey, 1669, 
resigned in favor of Purcell in 1680 and 


was reappointed after the latter 's death 
(1695). Became gentleman of the 
Chapel Royal, succeeded Humphreys as 
Master of the Children; later organist 
and composer to the Chapel Royal. 
Mus. Doc. Oxon. He composed much 
church-music (services, anthems, odes 
for St. Cecilia's day and New Year's), 
also organ-music, pieces for harpsi- 
chord, and songs. Ref.: VI. 451, 475. 

BLUM, Karl Ludwig (1786-1844) : 
b. Berlin, d. there; studied with H. 
Grossi, F. A. Hiller and Salieri; was 
manager at the Berlin Opera, dramatic 
composer (thirty operas, ballets, vaude- 
villes, etc.) ; 'cellist, organist, singer, 
actor and poet; composer of music for 
voice and instruments. He translated 
Fetis' La musique mise a la portee de 
tout le monde (1830), etc., and wrote 
a guitar method. 

BLUMENFELD, Felix Michailo- 
vitch (1863- ) : b. Kovalevska, Rus- 
sia; studied at the St. Petersburg Cons, 
and since 1885 professor there; con- 
ductor of the Imp. Opera, 1898-1912. He 
composed songs, piano pieces, Allegro 
for piano and orch., symphony, string 
quartet, etc. Ref.: III. 145. 

BLUMENSCHEIN, William Leon- 
ard (1849-1916) : b. Brensbach, Ger- 
many, d. Dayton, O.; studied at the 
Leipzig Cons.; organist in Dayton from 
1897; director of the Dayton Philhar- 
monic Society from 1881; chorus mas- 
ter of the Cincinnati May Festival 
Assoc, 1891-1896, and conductor of sev- 
eral smaller societies; composer of 
piano pieces, anthems, sacred songs, 
secular songs and choruses. 

BLTJMENTHAL (1) Joseph von 
(1782-1850): b. Brussels, d. Vienna; 
studied with Abbe Vogler in Prague 
and Vienna; violinist, church choir- 
master and composer of an opera, a 
ballet, string quartets, violin music, 
and a violin method. (2) Jacob or 
Jacques (1829-1908) : b. Hamburg, d. 
London; studied with Grund, Bocklet, 
Sechter, Herz, Halevy; pianist to the 
Queen of England; teacher and com- 
poser of pianoforte salon-music, pieces 
for 'cello and violin, songs, etc. (3) 
Paul (1843- ): b. Steinau-on-Oder; 
organist and Royal Musikdirektor in 
Frankf ort-on-Oder ; composer of music 
for orchestra, masses, motets. 

BLLMNER, Martin (1827-1901): b. 
Furstenberg, Mecklenburg; studied in 
Berlin with Dehn; conductor of the 
Berlin Singakademie ; Royal Musikdi- 
rektor and professor; composer of two 
oratorios, cantatas, church music, etc. 

BLUTHNER, Julius Ferdinand 
(1824-1910) : b. Falkenhain, near Merse- 
burg, d. Leipzig; founder, 1853, of the 
piano manufacturing business which 
bears his name; obtained a patent for 
improvements in piano construction, 
1856; his firm rapidly became one of 
the largest of its kind in Europe and 
his instruments won the highest prizes 
at exhibitions all over the world. The 



Bliithner specialty is the so-called 
Aliquot flxigel, having a second set of 
strings for sympathetic vibration (1 
octave higher). B. pub. with Dr. Gret- 
schel a Lehrbuch des Piano fortebaues. 

BOBINSKI, Henry Antonovitch 
(1861- ): b. Warsaw; studied at 
Warsaw Cons, and Moscow Philhar- 
monic School where he later taught; 
pianist in Russia, Vienna, etc. ; teacher 
for the Imperial Russian Musical Soc, 
Kieff. His compositions include minor 
works for piano and a piano concerto, 
an overture, variations for string quar- 
tet, etc. 

BOCCACIO. Ref.: VII. 373. 

BOCCHERINI, Luigi (1743-1805) : 
b. Lucca. Italy, d. Madrid; studied with 
Vannucci, and in Rome; accomplished 
'cellist; toured with the violinist Man- 
fredi; celebrated as a composer of 
chamber music and one of the pioneers 
of the string quartet (cf. Haydn). B. 
became chamber-virtuoso to the In- 
fante Luis, at Madrid, and later to the 
King; he dedicated a work to Friedrich 
Wilhelm II. of .Prussia in 1787, and 
won the title of chamber-composer, 
with a salary which ceased at the 
King's death (1797); henceforth B. 
labored under the stress of poverty, 
though for a time under the patronage 
of Lucien Bonaparte. His works in- 
clude 2 octets, 16 sextets, 125 string 
quintets, 12 piano quintets, 18 quintets 
for strings and flute (or oboe), 91 string 
quartets, 54 string trios, 42 trios, sona- 
tas and duets for vln., etc.; besides 20 
symphonies, an opera, an orchestral 
suite, a 'cello concerto, and church 
music. Ref.: II. 2, 67, 68f, 70, 97; III. 
386; chamber music VII. 404, 487 ff, 
491, • 591 ; orchestral music, VIII. 167, 
169; mus. ex., XIII. Ill; portrait, VII. 


(1820-1879) : b. Frankfort-on-Main, d. 
Paris; singer in concerts of the Brus- 
sels Cons., then in the Paris Concerts 
de musique ancienne; sang also in Lon- 
don, Italy and Coburg, from 1856 taught 
in Paris, where she published songs 
and vocal exercises. 

BOCHSA (1) Karl (late 18th cent.- 
1821) : oboist in Lyons, later in Bor- 
deaux and Paris; in Paris he en- 
gaged in music-selling. He wrote meth- 
ods for clarinet and flute, quartets for 
violin, viola, clarinet and 'cello, 6 duos 
concertants for two oboes. (2) Robert 
Nicolas Charles (1789-1856) : b. Mont- 
medy, Meuse, d. Sydney, Australia ; 
studied at Bordeaux and at the Con- 
servatoire. He was court harpist to 
Napoleon and Louis XVIII, teacher of 
Parish-Alvars and of Chatterton in Lon- 
don, where he became professor of the 
harp at the Royal Academy of Music 
(1822-1827) ; he directed the Italian 
Opera at the King's Theatre and in 1837 
began a tour with Mrs. Bishop, during 
which he died in Australia. He pro- 
duced four ballets and an oratorio in 


England, seven comic operas at the 
Paris Opera and also wrote composi- 
tions and a method for the harp. 

BOCKELER, Heinrich (1836-1899): 
b. Cologne, d. Aachen; priest, cathedral 
choir director and leader of a school 
for church music in Aachen, where he 
edited the Gregoriusblatt and wrote 
church music. 

BOCKH, Philipp August (1785- 
1867): b. Carlsruhe, d. Berlin; philolo- 
gist and professor at Berlin University, 
author of De metris Pindari. 

BOOKLET, Karl Maria von (1801- 
1881): b. Prague, d. Vienna; studied 
with Zawora, Pixis and Dionys Weber; 
violinist in a Viennese theatre, then 
virtuoso and teacher of the piano. 
Beethoven and Schubert were his 
friends, and among his pupils he count- 
ed Kohler and Blumenthal. 

BOCKLIN, Arnold: German painter. 
Ref.: III. 152; VII. 420f, 463. 

BOCKMCHL, Robert Emil (1822- 
1881): b. Frankfort on Main, d. there; 
'cellist; wrote concerto and a method 
for 'cello. 

BOCKSHORN ( « Capricornus » ) 
Samuel (1629-1665) : b. Germany, d. 
Stuttgart; cantor, teacher at Reutlingen, 
Pressburg and Nuremburg; composed 
for voice and instruments, spiritual 
harmonies, concertos, songs, etc., also 
the oratorio Judicium Salomonis. 

BODANZKY, Artur (1877- ): b. 

Vienna; conductor; studied at the Vi- 
enna Cons.; first violinist at the Court 
Opera; conductor of operettas at the 
Stadttheater, Budweis, 1900, at the 
Karl Theatre, Vienna, 1901; repetitor 
and assistant to Mahler at the Vienna 
Court Opera, 1903; conductor at the 
Theater an der Wien, 1904; Lortzing 
Theatre, Berlin, 1905; Landestheater 
and symphony concerts, Prague, 1906-9; 
first conductor and operatic director at 
the Grand-Ducal Theatre, and conductor 
of symphony and oratorio concerts, 
Mannheim, 1909-14; conducted Parsifal 
at Covent Garden, 1914; conductor of 
German operas at the Metropolitan Op- 
era House, New York, since 1915. 

BODE, Johann Joachim Cliristoph 
(1730-1793) : b. Barum, Brunswick, d. 
Weimar; studied with Kroll in Bruns- 
wick; 1755 court-oboist at Celle, teacher 
at Hamburg, printer and publisher 
there; from 1788 lived in Weimar. He 
wrote symphonies, concertos for 'cello, 
violin and bassoon, solos for viola 
d'amour, songs, etc.; wrote Mehr No ten 
als Text (ca. 1790), translated and edit- 
ed Burney's reports on music in Ger- 

B5DECKER, Louis (1845-1899): b. 
Hamburg, d. there; studied with Marx- 
sen; teacher and critic in Hamburg, 
where he published songs and works 
for pianoforte. He died leaving un- 
published choral, orchestral and cham- 
ber music. 

BODENSCHATZ, Erhard (1576- 
1638) : b. Lichtenbergj d. Gross-Oster- 



hausen, near Querfurt; cantor at 
Schulpforta, pastor in Reyhausen and 
Gross-Osterhausen ; he wrote church 
music and collected the Florilegium 
Portense (1663) and the Florilegium 
selectissimorum hymnorum, (motets of 
contemporary composers), 1606. 

BODENSTEIN, Hermann (1823- 
1902): b. Gandersheim, d. Brunswick; 
organist and music teacher there. 

BODIN, Francois Etienne (1793- 
1862): b. Paris, d. there; professor of 
harmony at the Conservatoire; wrote 
a book on the elements of music. 

BODINUS, Sebastian (early 18th 
cent.) : violinist, composer and con- 
ductor, who lived in Altenburg and 
Wurttemburg and wrote sonatas, trios, 
'quattros,' etc., for strings. 

BOEHE, Ernst (1880- ) : b. Mu- 
nich; studied with Louis, Thuille and 
Schwartz; with Courvoisier conducted 
the popular symphony concerts in Mu- 
nich, 1907; became court Kapellmeister 
in Oldenburg in 1913. He composed 
Odysseus' Fahrten (4 parts) for orch., 
Taormina, Tragic Overture, Symphonic 
Epilogue, Comedy Overture and songs. 

BOEKELMANN, Bernardus (1838-) : 
b. Utrecht, Holland; pianist; studied 
with his father, at the Leipzig Cons. 
and with von Biilow, Kiel and Weitz- 
mann. In 1864 he became court pianist 
in Mexico, two years later went to New 
York, where he taught and founded 
the Soirees of the New York Trio 
Club. He directed the music at Miss 
Porter's School, Farmington (1883-97), 
then returned to New York. His com- 
positions are for orchestra, pianoforte 
and violin; he edited Bach's 'Well-Tem- 
pered Clavichord' (in colors). 

BOELLMANN, L$on (1862-1897): b. 
Ensisheim, Alsace, d. Paris; studied at 
the Niedermeyer School for Church Mu- 
sic; organist at St. Vincent de Paul in 
Paris, composed 68 works, including 
a prize symphony, a prize quartet and 
prize trio for piano, 100 minor pieces 
for the organ, an organ suite, a rhap- 
sody for piano, an organ and orchestral 
fantasia, etc. Ref.: VI. 486. 

BOELY, Alexandre Pierre Fran- 
cois (1785-1858): b. Versailles, d. 
Paris; studied at the Conservatoire; 
pianist and violinist, composer of sona- 
tas for piano, violin, etc. Ref.: VI. 466. 

BOERS, Joseph Karel (1812-1896) : 
b. Nymwegen, Holland, d. Delft; con- 
ductor and writer. 

BOESSET (1) Antoine, Sieur de 
Villedieu (ca. 1585-1643) : intendant of 
music to Louis XIII., composed ballets 
for court festivities, etc. (2) Jean- 
Baptiste (1612-1685): son of Antoine. 
Succeeded to his father's position in 
the Court of Louis XIV. (3) Claude- 
Jean-Baptiste (ca. 1636-[?]) : in 1667 
succeeded his father, Jean-Baptiste, as 
court composer. He published also 
duets under the title Fruits d'Anto- 
nine (1684). 

BOETIUS (or lioethius), Anlcius 


Manilas Torquatus Severinns (ca. 
475-524[6?]) : b. Borne, executed there, 
for alleged treason, by Theodoric; phil- 
osopher and mathematician; author of 
a Latin treatise on Greek music, De 
Musica, which was the chief source for 
medieval theorists. It has been several 
times reprinted and transl. into Ger- 
man by Oscar Paul (Leipzig, 1872). 
Ref.: I. 151. 

BGHE1M, Joseph Michael (1748- 
1811): b. Prague, d. Berlin; actor and 
singer, whose Freimaurerlieder mit 
Melodien (Songs of Free Masons, with 
Melodies), 1793-95, included composi- 
tions of Mozart, P. E. Bach, Haydn, 
Salieri, and many other composers. 

BOHLMANN (1) Georg Karl 
(1838- ) : b. Copenhagen ; organist, 
musical director in Copenhagen; com- 
poser of orchestral and vocal works. 
(2) Theodor Heinrich Friedrich 
(1865- ): b. Osterwieck am Harz; 
concert pianist, whose training was ac- 
quired in Leipzig and Berlin. After a 
successful German tour in 1890 he set- 
tled in Cincinnati as professor of piano 
at the Conservatory. 

BOHM (1) Georg (1651-1733): b. 
Hohenkirchen, d. Luneburg; composer 
whose clavier works count among the 
most important before Bach, whom he 
influenced (Prelude Fugue and Post- 
lude, French Suite, 3 little suites, 18 
chorale preludes, cantatas, etc., pre- 
served). He lived in Hamburg from 
1639 and was organist in Luneburg 
from 1698. Ref.: I. 451, 457; VII. 16. 
(2) Theobald (1794-1881): b. Munich, 
d. there; inventor of the 'Bohm flute'; 
flutist, composer for flute and member 
of the royal orchestra. His method 
constitutes a new departure in the con- 
struction of wood-wind instruments. 
He fixed the position and size of the 
holes so as to obtain purity and full- 
ness of tone rather than convenience 
in fingering, all holes being covered by 
keys. The bore also is modified, result- 
ing in a remarkable change of tone. 
Ref.: VIII. 29, 35, 104. (3) Joseph 
(1795-1876): b. Pesth, d. Vienna; vio- 
linist; made a concert-tour at age of 8 
to Poland and St. Petersburg, where 
he studied under P. Bode; made debut 
at Vienna (1815), where he became 
violin professor at the Cons. (1819) 
and played in the Imperial orchestra. 
Among his pupils are Joachim, Ernst, 
Auer, Hellmesberger (Sr.), Singer, Lud- 
wig, Strauss, Bappoldi, Hauser, etc. 
He composed concert pieces and quar- 
tets; also songs, duets, etc. Ref.: VII. 
445. (4) Joseph (1841-1893): b. Kiih- 
nitz, Moravia, d. Vienna; pupil of 
Bocklet and Krenn, Vienna; organist, 
choirmaster, Kapellmeister at the 
Hof pfarrkirche ; director of a school of 
church-music in Vienna. 

BOHM, Karl (1844- ): b. Berlin; 
pupil of Bischoff, Loschhorn, Beiss- 
mann and Geyer; resident in Berlin; 
has written much salon music, trios, 



etc., and songs which have become 
very popular. 

BOHME (1) Johann August (1766- 
[?]): b. Eisleben, d. Hamburg; found- 
er of a music-publishing firm at Ham- 
burg, 1794, in the management of 
which he was succeeded by his son, 
Justus Edward, in 1839, and the 
latter by a grandson, August Cranz. 

(2) Franz Magnus (1827-1898): 
b. Willerstedt, near Weimar, d. 
Dresden; studied with Topfer in 
Weimar and with Hauptmann and 
Rietz in Leipzig; music teacher in 
Dresden for 20 years; teacher of coun- 
terpoint and history of music at the 
Hoch Cons., Frankfort, 1878-85; author 
of Altdeutsches Liederbuch (1877), 
Aufgabenbuch zum Studium der Har- 
monie (1880), Kursus der Harmonie 
(1882), Geschichte des Tanzes in 
Deutschland (1886), Volkstumliche 
Lieder der Deutschen im 18. und 19. 
Jahrh. (1895), Deutsches Kinderlied und 
Kinder spiel (1897) ; edited Erk's 
Deutscher Liederhort (3 vols., 1893-94). 

BOHMER, Karl Hermann Ehr- 
fried (1799-1884): b. The Hague, d. 
Berlin; studied with Polledro; violinist 
in Berlin royal orchestra; composed 
operas, music for orchestra and for 
violin, etc. 

BOHN, Emil (1839-1909): b. Bielau; 
abandoned the study of philology for 
music, became an organist in Breslau 
and founder of the Bohn Choral So- 
ciety; he lived in Breslau as choral 
director, university lecturer and critic; 
composed part-songs and songs, edited 
the piano compositions of Mendels- 
sohn and Chopin, and compiled mu- 
sical bibliographies. 

BOHNER, [Johann] Lndwis (1787- 
1860): b. Tottelstedt, near Gotha; d. 
Gotha; conductor at the Nuremburg 
theatre in 1810, led a nomadic and 
precarious existence; he is supposedly 
the original of Hoffmann's 'Kapell- 
meister Kreisler.' He wrote an opera, 
concertos and sonatas for piano, or- 
chestral marches, dances, etc. 

BO II RE R (1) Johann Philipp (18th 
cent.) : violinist and violist in the 
Mannheim chapel. (2) Kaspar (1744- 
1809) : b. Mannheim, d. Munich ; 
trumpeter and double-bass player. 

(3) Anton (1783-1852): b. Munich, d. 
Hanover; violinist, pupil of R. Kreut- 
zer; composed chamber-music, con- 
certos and violin pieces; member of 
the Bavarian court orchestra; toured 
Austria, Poland, Russia, Scandinavia 
and England, France and Italy with 
his brother Max (4) ; became orchestra 
conductor at Hanover, 1834. (4) Max 
(1785-1867): b. Munich, d. Stuttga'rt; 
'cello virtuoso; toured with his brother 
(3) and in 1832 became first 'cellist in 
the Stuttgart orchestra. Toured U. S. 
1842-43. [(3) and (4) were sons of (2).] 

BOKELDIEU (1) Frangois-Adrien 
(1775-1834): b. Rouen, d. Jarcy, n. 
Grosbois; composer of opera-comique ; 


was apprenticed to cathedral organist 
Broche, a pupil of Padre Martini. At 
12 years of age B. ran away to Paris 
to escape his master's brutality, but 
was brought back, receiving no other 
instruction but Broche's till, much 
later, he studied counterpoint and was 
helped by Cherubini and Mehul. He 
successfully produced an opera, La 
fdle coupable (Rouen, 1793; libretto by 
his father), at the age of 18, and, at 
20, Rosalie et Myrza. He again went (on 
foot) to Paris, where he had to sup- 
port himself by piano tuning and 
teaching. He came to know of Mehul, 
Rode, Cherubini, and Garat the tenor, 
who sang the young composer's songs, 
thus procuring him recognition. In 
1796 he prod. La Dot de Suzette (1 
act) at the Comique, and in 1797 La 
Famille suisse at the Feydeau. Both 
were successful. He now pub. instr. 
music and became professor of piano 
at the Conservatoire. In 1802 he mar- 
ried Clotilde-Auguste Mafleurey, a 
ballet-dancer, and the conjugal misery 
that resulted caused him to leave 
France in 1803. He became conductor 
of the Imperial Opera at St. Petersburg 
and stayed in Russia 8 yrs, turning 
out 3 operas, etc., every year, under 
contract. B. returned to Paris in 1811, 
and in 1812 prod. Jean de Paris, which 
created the wildest enthusiasm. He 
succeeded Mehul as professor of com- 
position at the Conservatoire, 1817, was 
elected member of the Institut, and was 
made chevalier of the Legion of Honor. 
Le Petit Chaperon Rouge (1818) and 
La Dame blanche (1825) were immense 
successes, but his last opera, Les deux 
nuits (1829), was a failure. He re- 
married in 1827 and had a son, 
Adrien V. (2). After retirement from 
the Conservatoire with a pension, which 
was later revoked, he was reappointed 
under Louis Philippe, and received an 
annual grant of 6,000 francs. Among 
his pupils were Zimmerman, Fetis, 
Adam, and Labarre. Besides the op- 
eras mentioned, he wrote Zoraime et 
Zulnare (1798), Reniowski; Le Calif de 
Ragdad (1800), Ma tante Aurore (1803) 
and collaborated on others with Mehul, 
Kreutzer, Cherubini, Catel, and Nic- 
colo Isouard, Mme. Gail, Herold, Berton 
and Auber. Ref.: II. 209; III. 278; IX. 
73, 225f, 228, 230; mus. ex., XIV. 233; 
portrait, IX. 226. (2) Adrien-L.-V. 
(1816-1883): b. Paris, d. Quincy; son 
of (1) ; wrote several operas and oper- 
ettas, masses, cantatas. 

BOISDEFFRE, Charles Henri 
Rene de (1838-1906): b. Vesoul, Haute 
Savoie, d. Vezelise; composer; studied 
in Paris with Charles Wagner and 
Barbereau; his compositions include a 
symphony, Scenes champetres for or- 
chestra, a piano sextet, 2 piano quin- 
tets, a piano quartet, 2 piano trios, 2 
piano sonatas, Cantique des cantiques 
for soli, chorus and orchestra, Moise 
sauve des eaux, choruses, etc. 



BOISE, Otis Bardwell (1845-1912): 
b. Oberlin, 0.; d. Baltimore; teacher; 
studied at Leipzig Cons, and with Kul- 
lak in Berlin; organist and teacher in 
Cleveland, New York and Berlin; pro- 
fessor of theory and composition at the 
Peabody Institute, Baltimore; composer 
of symphonies and overtures for or- 
chestra, concertos and other works for 
piano; author of 'Harmony Made 
Practical' (1900). 

BOISSELOT, Jean Louis (ca. 1785- 
1847): b. Montpellier, d. Marseilles; 
maker of stringed instruments at 
Montpellier; later established a piano 
factory in Marseilles, now conducted by 
his grandson, Francois. 

BOITO, Arris o (1842- ): b. 

Padua; poet and composer; studied at 
Milan Cons.; travelled in Germany and 
Poland, and became a passionate ad- 
mirer and advocate of Wagner's music. 
He prod. 2 cantatas, then the opera Me- 

estofele at Milan in 1868, which failed, 
ut remodelled was successful at Bo- 
logna (1875), Hamburg (1880) and 
Milan (1881). An earlier opera, Ero e 
Leandro, is not yet produced, and a 
third, Nerone, is nearing completion. 
Besides the text for his own Meftstofele, 
B. wrote those of Ponchielli's Gioconda, 
Verdi's Otello and Falstaff, and 
others, besides excellent poetry, some- 
times written under the pen-name Tobio 
Gorria. He was made Inspector-Gen- 
eral of Technical Instruction in the 
Italian Conservatories and Lyceums in 
1892. Ref.: II. 440, 478, 493, 500ff, 503; 
HI. 93, 368f; opera, IX. 357. 

BOLCK, Oskar (1837-1888) : b. 
Hohenstein, d. Bremen; studied at 
Leipzig Cons.; taught in Leipzig, Vi- 
borg, Liverpool and Biga; Kapell- 
meister at Wurzburg and Aachen and 
chorus-master at Leipzig, Hamburg and 
Bremen; composed the operas Pierre 
und Robin (1876), Gudrun and Der 
Schmied von Gretna Green, piano 
pieces, songs, etc. 

BOLLINGER, Samuel (1871- ): 
b. Fort Smith, Ark.; pianist; studied at 
Leipzig Cons.; organist American 
Church. Leipzig, 1893-95; founded the 
Bollinger Cons., Fort Smith, 1896; sub- 
sequently taught in San Francisco, Chi- 
cago, and since 1907 in St. Louis; head 
of piano department Strassberger Cons.; 
composer of a dramatic overture, 
waltzes and fantasy suite for orches- 
tra, romantic fantasy for organ, sonata 
for piano and violin, many piano 

BOLSCHB, Franz (1869- ): b. 

Wegenstedt, near Magdeburg; studied at 
Berlin Hochschule; teacher of theory at 
Cologne Cons.; edited instrumental 
works of Melchior Franck for the 
Denkmdler deutscher Tonkunst; has 
composed an overture, chamber-music, 
piano pieces, songs, etc. 

BOLTE, Johannes: contemporary 
German writer; author of Die Singspiele 
der englischen Comodianten und ihrer 


Nachfolger in Deutschland, Holland 
und Scandinavien (1893). 

BOLTON, Duchess of. See Fen- 


BOMBET. See Stendhal. 

BONA, Valerio (ca. 1560-after 1619) : 
b. Brescia; maestro di cappella in 
Milan; author of Regole di Contrap- 
punto e Composizione (1595) and Es- 
empi delli Passaggi delle Consonanze e 
Dissonanze (1596) ; composed much 
sacred and secular vocal music. 

BONAPARTE (1) Jerome. Ref.: 
II. 82, 132. (2) Lucien. Ref.: VII. 
487. (3) Napoleon. See Napoleon. 

Saint (15th cent.) : Franciscan monk 
in Brescia, author of Regulae musicae 
planae (1500, etc., etc.). Ref.: VI. 320. 

BONAWITZ (or Bonewitz), Johann 
Heinrich (1839- ) : b. Diirkheim-on- 
Bhine; pianist; studied at Liege Cons.; 
concertized and taught in Wiesbaden, 
Paris and London; conducted Popular 
Symphony Concerts, New York, 1872- 
73, and toured as pianist; composed 
the operas 'The Bride of Messina' 
(1874) and 'Ostrolenka' (1875)— both 
produced in Philadelphia — other operas 
and piano music. 

BONCI, Alessandro (1870- ): b. 
Cesena, Bomagna; studied at Liceo Ros- 
sini, Pesaro; debut at Teatro Regio, 
Parma, 1896; subsequently sang in Leg- 
horn, Milan, St. Petersburg, Vienna, 
Berlin, Lisbon, Madrid, London, etc., 
and in South America and Australia; 
sang at Manhattan Opera House, New 
York, 1906-8, and at the Metropolitan, 
1908-9; also in Covent Garden, 1908; in 
concerts throughout the United States, 

BOND, Hugh (d. 1792) : organist in 

BONIVENTI (or Boneventi), Giu- 
seppe (ca. 1660-[?]): b. Venice; 
maestro di cappella to the Duke of 
Mantua and later to the court of Baden; 
composed 11 operas. 

BONNAL, Ermand: contemp. French 
organ composer. Ref.: VI. 486. 

BONNET (1) Jacques. See Bourde- 
lot, Pierre. (2) Joseph (1884- ): 
b. Bordeaux; was at 14 organist of St. 
Nicholas' Church in that city; later 
studied with Guilmant at Paris conser- 
vatory; at 22 won in competition the 
position of organist of St. Eustache, 
Paris. Concert tours have since made 
his name known throughout Europe. 
He composed 12 Pieces, Poemes d'au- 
tomne, Variations de concert, etc. Ref.: 
VI. 486. 


See Bourdelot. 

BONNO, Josef (1710-1788): b. Vi- 
enna, d. there; Royal court composer, 
and conductor; wrote 20 operas, 3 ora- 
torios, church music, etc. 

BONONCINI (1) Giovanni Maria 
(1640-1678): b. Modena, d. there; was 
in the service of Duke Francesco II; 
maestro di cappella in S. Giovanni in 



Monte, and S. Petronio, Bologna. Pub. 
instr. suites and Sonate da camera in 
diverse numbers of parts; 6-part madri- 
gals; chamber cantatas a voce sola; 
also a treatise on counterpoint (1673). 
Ref.: VII. 390, 478. (2) Giovanni 
Battista (1660-after 1750): b. Mo- 
dena, d. Venice (?); composer; stud- 
ied with his father and with Co- 
lonna and Don Giorgio Buoni in Bo- 
logna; court 'cellist at Vienna, 1690; 
went in 1694 to Bome, where he pro- 
duced his first operas. Beturning to 
Vienna in 1699, he lived there until 
1703, when he went to Berlin as court 
composer under the patronage of Queen 
Sophie Charlotte. After her death in 
1705 he lived in Vienna and in various 
Italian cities until 1716, when he was 
invited to London as conductor and 
composer for the new King's Theatre. 
Under the protection of the Duke of 
Marlborough he was put forward as the 
rival of Handel, and an operatic war- 
fare, resulting in the eventual defeat of 
B., was waged until about 1731. In 
that year B. was accused of having, 
some years previously, given out as a 
composition of his own a madrigal by 
A. Lotti. This completed his down- 
fall. A few years later he turned up 
in Paris, where he composed a motet 
for the Chapelle royale, playing the 
'cello accompaniment himself before 
the King. After the peace of Aix-la- 
Chapelle he was summoned to Vienna 
to compose the festival music in cele- 
bration of that event; later he was 
employed as theatre-composer in Venice 
until 1750, after which no traces of him 
are to be found. His works include 
the operas Tullo Ostilio (1694), Serse 
(1694), La Fede pubblica (1699), Gli 
Affetti piii grandi vinti dal piii gusto 
(1701), Polifemo (1703), Endimione 
(1706), Turno Aricino (1707), Maria 
fuggitivo (1708), 11 Sacrificio di Romola 
(1708), Abdolonimo (1709), Muzio 
Scevola (1710), Astarta (1720), Giro 
(1722), Crispo (1722), and Griselda 
(1722), Farnace (1723), Erminia (1723), 
Calpurnia (1724), Astianatte (1727), 
Alessandro in Sidone (1737), an ora- 
torio, Ezechia (1737) ; suites for harpsi- 
chord, Cantate e Duetti (1721), Diverti- 
menti, for harpsichord (1722), and '12 
sonatas or chamber airs for 2 violins 
and a bass' (1732). Ref. : I. 421, 434ff ; IX. 
20,33. (3) Marco Antonio (1675[?]- 
1726): b. Modena, d. there; brother of 
(2) ; travelled in Italy and Germany, 
and was maestro to the Duke of Mo- 
dena" from 1721; composed 19 operas, 
including Camilla regina de' Volsci 
(1692), Griselda (1700?), Andromeda, 
Arminio, Sesostri, II Turno Aricino 
(1704), Etearco (1707), La Regina 
creduta re (1707), Tigrane re d' Ar- 
menia, Cajo Gracco (1710), Astiniatte 
(1718) ; also an oratorio La Decollazione 
di S. Giovanni Battista (1709). 

BONTEMPI (Angelini), Giovanni 
Andrea (ca. 1624-1705): b. Perugia, d. 


Bruso, near Perugia; maestro in Bome, 
Venice, Berlin and Dresden; composer 
of the operas Paride (1662), Apollo e 
Dafne (1671) and Jupiter ed Io (1673), 
and the oratorio Martirio di S. Emili- 
ano; author of Nova quatuor vocibus 
componendi methodus . . . (1660), Tract, 
in quo demonstrantur occultae con- 
venientiae sonoris systematis partici- 
pati (1690), and Istoria musica, etc. 

BONVIN, Ludwig (1850- ): b. 
Siders, Switzerland; composer; mostly 
self-taught in music; entered Jesuit or- 
der in Holland, where he was organist 
and choirmaster; director of a chorus 
and orchestra at Ganisius College, Buf- 
falo, N. Y., 1887-1907; composer of 6 
masses and much other sacred music, 
a symphony and other works for full 
orchestra, several works for soli, cho- 
rus and orchestra; 'Christmas Night's 
Dream,' for string orchestra, organ 
pieces, songs, etc.; author of numerous 
articles on the Gregorian chant. 

BOOM, Jan van (1807-1872): b. 
Utrecht, d. Stockholm; pianist; pro- 
fessor at the Boyal Academy, Stock- 
holm, 1849-65; composer of operas, 
symphonies, overtures, string quartets, 
trios, a piano concerto and much other 
music for piano. 

BOORN, Eduard van den (1831- 
1898): d. Liege; pianist and critic. 

BORCHMANN, A. von: contempo- 
rary Russian composer. Ref.: III. 155. 

BOOSEY, Thomas: founder of the 
London music-publishing house of 
Boosey & Co., 1825, combined in 1874 
with the musical instrument factory 
of Henry Distin under the former 
name; publishers of cheap editions of 
standard works and English popular 

BOOTT, Francis (1813-1904): b. 
Boston, Mass., d. there; amateur and 
patron of music; graduated at Harvard 
and studied music with Picchanti in 
Florence; composed much sacred mu- 
sic, string quartets and songs; be- 
queathed to Harvard Univ. $10,000, the 
interest of which is to go as an annual 
prize for the best 4-part vocal composi- 
tion written by a Harvard man. 

BORCH, Gaston Louis Christopher 
(1871- ): b. Guines; pupil of Mas- 
senet and Delsart ('cello) ; conductor of 
the Philharmonic Society, Christiania, 
1896-98, the Central Theatre there, 1897, 
Musikforening, Bergen, 1898-99; 'cellist 
in the Theodore Thomas Orchestra, 
1899-1900, Pittsburgh Orchestra, 1903- 
06; conductor of the Lausanne Sym- 
phony Orchestra, 1906; visiting con- 
ductor in France, Belgium, Holland and 
Germany, 1894-96; composer of a one- 
act opera Silvio (1898), a symphony, 3 
symphonic poems, a piano concerto, a 
Bomanza and Elegy for violin and pi- 
ano, piano pieces, songs, sacred music, 
arrangements for orchestra, etc. 

BORCHERS, Gustav (1865-1913) : b. 
Woltwiesche, Brunswick, d. Leipzig; 



studied at Leipzig Cons, and conducted 
various choral societies until 1895; sub- 
sequently singing teacher at the Nikolai 
Gymnasium and (from 1901) cantor at 
the Peterskirche ; founded in 1898 a 
seminary for singing teachers, using 
the methods of Jaques-Dalcroze and 
Eitz; author of a monograph on the 
latter (1908). 

BORDES, Charles (1863-1909): b. 
Vouvray sur Loire, d. Paris; was a 
pupil of Cesar Franck; 1887-90, church 
choir director, Nogent-sur-Marne; after 
1890 choir director, St. Gervaise, Paris; 
studied (on behalf of the Ministry of 
Education) Basque folk-songs, 1889-90 
(Archives de la tradition Basque). 
His success with the concert revival 
of older church music led to the foun- 
dation of the Association des Chanteurs 
de St. Gervaise (1894) and that of the 
Schola Cantorum (1898). B. has edited 
the Anthologie des maitres religieux 
primitifs and the Tribune de St. Ger- 
vaise and has written Du sort de la mu- 
sique religieuse en France (1906). He 
composed for orchestra (a fantasy with 
obbligato trumpet, etc.) ; a fantasy on 
Basque themes for piano and orches- 
tra; songs and piano pieces. Ref.: 

III. 313. 

BORDIER, Jules (1846-1896): b. 
Angers, d. Paris; founder in Angers 
of the Association Artistiques con- 
certs; partner in the music publishing 
house of Baudoux et Cie, Paris, 1894; 
composer of symphonic pieces, four 
operas, and choral works, also songs, 

BORDOG1VI, Giulio Marco (1788- 
1856) : b. Gazzaniga, Bergamo; d. Paris; 
studied with Simon Mayr; tenor in 
Milan, the Theatre Italien, Paris; pro- 
fessor at the Conservatoire, where 
Sontag studied with him; composer of 
Vocalises, etc. 

BORDONI, Faustina. See Hasse, 

BOREK, Christoph (d. 1557): Po- 
lish church conductor of whose com- 
positions 2 masses are preserved. 

BORGHI, Luigi (18th cent.) : pupil 
of Pugnani; violinist in London; leader 
of the second violins in 1784 at the 
London Handel Commemoration; com- 
poser of music for the violin. 

BORI, L,ucrezia (1888- ): b. 
Valencia; soprano, sang in Italy, Paris, 
Buenos Ayres and Met. Opera House, 
New York; created leading role in Mon- 
temezzi's L'Amora dei tre re. Ref.: 

IV. 155. 

BORN, Bertram! de (1180-1195): 
Provencal Troubadour. Ref. : I. 211. 

BORNSCHEIN, Franz Karl (1879-) : 
b. Baltimore, Md.; violinist and com- 
poser; studied at the Peabody Cons., 
where he became teacher of violin and 
director of the junior orchestra; has 
directed the orchestra of the Baltimore 
Music School Settlement since 1913; 
music critic of the Baltimore 'Evening 
Sun,' 1910-13, and contributor to vari- 


ous musical publications; composer of 
a symphonic ballad for baritone and 
orchestra, a cantata for soprano, chorus 
and orchestra, an orchestral suite, 2 
symphonic poems, a string quartet, a 
string quintet, a piano quintet, a sextet 
for strings and flute, etc. 

BORODINE, Alexander Porphyrie- 
vitch (1834-1887) : b. St. Petersburg, 
d. there; studied and practised medi- 
cine and chemistry; army-surgeon; 
professor at the St. Petersburg medico- 
surgical institute; knight counsellor of 
state; president of the musical Soc. 
of Amateurs. He was a friend of 
Liszt in Weimar, and studied music 
on the suggestion of Balakireff. One 
of the most eminent representatives of 
the 'neo-Russian' school, he composed 
Prince Igor (posthumously finished by 
Rimsky-Korsakov) , prod, at Kieff with 
great success, 1891; also 3 symphonies, 
a symphonic poem 'In the Steppes of 
Central Asia,' a scherzo for orchestra, 
2 string quartets, a string trio, a piano 
quintet, also a piano suite, piano 
pieces, song, etc. Ref.: III. ix, xi, xiv, 
xvi, 38, 107, 109, 112ff ', 319; V. 128, 
365f; VII. 330, 353, 354/; VIII. 454ff; 
X. 171, 228, 256; mus. ex., XIII. 113; 
portrait, III. 122. 

BORONI, Antonio (1738-1792): b. 
Rome, d. there; studied with Martini 
and G. Abos; operatic composer in 
Venice, Prague and Dresden, kapell- 
meister at the Stuttgart court, and 
maestro di cappella at St. Peter's, 
Rome; produced in all about 16 

BOROWSKI, Felix (1872- ): b. 

Burton, England; studied in London 
and at Cologne Cons.; taught piano in 
Aberdeen, 1892 ; since 1897 prof, of the- 
ory and composition, and violin teacher 
at Chicago Musical College; critic of the 
Chicago 'Evening Post,' 1906-09, and 
'Herald' since 1909, correspondent of 
the 'Musical Courier,' 1905; author of 
program books of the Chicago Sym- 
phony Orchestra since 1908; composer 
of a symphonic poem, a piano concerto, 
several works for orchestra, a suite for 
organ, 2 organ sonatas, a piano sonata, 
a string quartet, piano pieces, etc. 

BORTKIEWICZ, Sergei Eduardo- 
vitch (1877- ) : b. Kharkoff ; pianist; 
studied with van Ark and Liadoff at 
the St. Petersburg Cons, and with 
Reisenauer, Jadassohn and Piutti at 
Leipzig; concert tours in Germany, Aus- 
tria, Hungary, France and Russia; pro- 
fessor at the Klindworth-Scharwenka 
Cons., Berlin, since 1904; composer of a 
symphonic poem, a piano concerto, a 
sonata and other works for piano. 

BORTNIANSKI, Dmitri Stepano- 
vitch (1751-1825) : b. Goluchov, d. St. 
Petersburg; studied with Galuppi at 
St. Petersburg, studied also in Venice, 
Bologna, Rome, Naples; director of the 
Imperial Chapel Choir at St. Peters- 
burg; composer of 2 operas (prod. Italy, 
1776, 1778) ; a Greek mass, psalms, 



concertos, etc. Ref.: III. 107, 143; IX. 

BORWICK, Leonard (1868- ): 
b. Walthamstow, England; pianist; 
studied with H. R. Bird and at the 
Frankfort Cons, with Clara Schumann, 
B. Scholtz and Iwan Knorr; debut with 
London Philharmonic Society 1890; 
made tours in England, Germany and 
the United States. 

BOS, Coenraad van (1875- ) : b. 
Leyden; pianist; studied with Rontgen 
at the Amsterdam Cons.; with J. van 
Veen and J. van Lier he formed the 
'Dutch Trio' in 1901; later accompanied 
Ludwig Wiillner on tour, and since 
then Julia Culp, etc. 

BOSCHOT, » Adolphe (1871- ) : 
b. Fontenay-sous-Bois, near Paris; 
musical critic since 1910 of the Echo 
de Paris and contributor to various 
journals; author of La Jeunesse d'un 
romantique : Hector Berlioz, 1803-31 
(1906), he Faust de Berlioz (1910), 
Cornet d'art (1911), etc. 

BOSENDORFER (1) Ignaz (1795- 
1859): b. Vienna, d. there; founder of 
a pianoforte factory in Vienna. (2) 
Ludwig (1835- ) : b. Vienna, son of 
Ignaz, and his successor as head of the 
firm, which makes a specialty of con- 
cert grand pianos. 

BOSSI, Marco Enrico (1861- ): 

b. Salo, Brescia, son and pupil of 
Pietro B., of Morbegno (1834-1896); 
studied in the Liceo Rossini, Bologna, 
and at Milan, under Ponchielli and 
others; maestro di cappella and organ- 
ist at Como Cathedral, professor at the 
Cons. San Pietro a Majella, Naples; 
director Liceo Benedetto Marcello, Ven- 
ice, Liceo musicale, Bologna, 1902-12; 
composed Paquita, 1-act opera (1881) ; 
II Veggente, 1-act opera seria (1890) ; 
L'Angelo della notte, 4-act melo- 
drama; Giovanna d'Arco, oratorio; 
also cantatas, masses, symphonic poem, 
overture, impromptu, etc., for orches- 
tra, organ music, chamber music, piano 
music, vocal romances, etc., author of 
Metodo di Studio per VOrgano moderno 
(with G. Tebaldini, 1893). Ref.: III. 
397; VI. 393. 

BOTE & BOCK: Berlin music pub- 
lishing house founded by Eduard Bote 
and Gustav Bock, 1838, who bought 
the music business of Frdhlich & West- 
phal. Bote left the firm and after 
Bock's death his brother Emil, then his 
son Hugo continued the business. G. 
Bock edited the Neue Berliner Musik- 

BOTSTIBER, Hugo (1875- ): 
b. Vienna; studied with Fuchs at the 
Vienna Cons., with von Zemlinsky and 
with Rietsch and Adler; assistant at 
the Cons, library, 1896; secretary of 
the Konzertverein, 1900, of the K. K. 
Akademie der Tonkunst, 1905; grand 
secretary of the Konzerthaus-Gesell- 
schaft, 1916; edited the Musikbuch 
aus osterreich, 1904-11; edited organ 
compositions of Pachelbel and piano 


works of the Vienna masters for the 
Denkmaler der Tonkunst in Osterreich; 
author of Joseph Haydn und das Haus 
Artaria (1908) and Geschichte der 
Ouverture (1913). 

BOTT, Jean Joseph (1826-1895): b. 
Cassel, d. New York; studied with his 
father, M. Hauptmann, and Spohr; vio- 
linist and court conductor at Meiningen 
and Hanover; teacher in Magdeburg, 
Hamburg, New York; composer of two 
operas, violin concertos, a symphony, 
pieces for violin and piano, etc. 

BOTTA (1) Bergonzio di. Ref.: X. 
81f. (2) Luca (1884- ): b. Amain, 
Italy; dramatic tenor; studied with 
Vergine; debut in Naples, 1911; has 
sung in Malta, Turin, Mantua, Verona, 
Barcelona, Buenos Ayres, Milan and 
Metropolitan Opera House, New York; 
Italian repertory. 

(1797-1850): b. Paris, d. there; aban- 
doned the study of law for music; 
'cellist, librarian at the Conservatoire 
and writer on the chanson in France, 
on Guido, and on musical instruments 
of the Middle Ages. 

BOTTESINI, Giovanni (1821-1889): 
b. Crema, Lombardy, d. Parma; studied 
with Rossi, Vaccai, Piantanida, Ray; 
virtuoso on double-bass in Italy, Ha- 
vana, the United States, and at Paris; 
founder of a quartet in Florence, op- 
era conductor at Paris, London, etc.; 
composer of eight operas (prod, in 
Havana, Paris, Milan, Palermo, Lon- 
don, Turin) ; an oratorio, overtures, 
symphonies, compositions for double 
bass, quartet and songs. Ref.: IV. 127. 

BOTTICELLI. Ref.: X. 45. 

BOTTRIGARI, Ercole (1531-1612) : 
b. Bologna, d. S. Alberto; author of 
treatises on musical theory pub. in 
Bologna and Ferrara under the pseu- 
donym Alemanno Benelli. Transla- 
tions, etc., by B. remained MS. 

BOUCHER, Alexandre-Jean (1778- 
1861) : b. Paris, d. there; virtuoso on 
the violin at the Concerts Spirituels at 
the age of six; soloist at the Spanish 
court (1787-1805) ; toured Holland, Ger- 
many, England, etc., composed two con- 
certos for the violin. 

BOUCHERON, Raimondo (1800- 
1876): b. Turin, d. Milan; author of 
several theoretical works and composer 
of church music; maestro at Milan 
cathedral. Ref.: II. 503 (footnote). 

BOUDOUSQUIE (19th cent.): man- 
ager of the New Orleans opera. Ref.: 
IV. 161ff. 

BOUHY, Jacques Joseph Andre 
(1848- ): b. Pepinster, Belgium; 
dramatic baritone; studied at Cons, of 
Liege and Paris; debut at Grand 
Opera, Paris, 1871 ; also sang at Covent 
Garden; created title-role in Massenet's 
Don Cesar de Bazan (1872), Escamillo 
in Carmen and the High Priest in Sam- 
son et Dalila; director of the New York 
Cons., 1885-89; since 1907 singing 
teacher in Paris. 



BOURDELOT (correctly Michon), 
Pierre (1610-1685) : b. Sens, d. Abbey 
Mace; physician to the King, gathered 
material for a history of music, begun 
with his nephew Pierre Bonnet (1638- 
1708). The latter's brother Jacques (d. 
1724) finished it (Paris, 1714, 2nd ed. 

BOUILLY, Jean Nicholas. Ref.: IX. 
115, 117, 123. 

is-Albert (1840-1910): b. Nantes, d. 
Paris; pupil of Ambroise Thomas at 
Paris Cons., won grand prix de Rome; 
professor of mus. history, Paris Cons., 
1878. He wrote Souvenirs d'une mis- 
sion musicale en Grece, 30 Melodies 
populaires de Grece et d'Orient, and 
fitudes sur la musique ecclesiastique 

Frecque, composed 2 operas, a fantasy 
or orchestra, other orchestral works, a 
symphonie for female chorus and soli, 
La Conjuration des Fleurs, and many 
songs; also pub. 30 Melodies populaires 
de la Rasse-Bretagne, with French 
translations. Ref.: VI. 392. 

BOURGEOIS, Loys (Louis) (1510- 
[?]): b. Paris; disciple of Calvin, 
with whom he lived at Geneva 1545-57; 
first to harmonize the melodies to the 
French version of the Psalms, and pub. 
3 collections in 4-6 parts at Lyons 
(1547) and Paris (1561). His treatise, 
Le droict chemin de musique, etc. 
(1550) proposed a reform, generally 
adopted in France, in the nomenclature 
of the tones according to the solmiza- 
tion-syllables. Ref.: I. 294. 

BOURGES, Jean-Maurice (1812- 
1881): b. Bordeaux, d. Paris; critic 
and editor on the Revue et Gazette 
musicale; composed an opera, sonatas 
and trios for the piano, a Stabat Mater, 
vocal romances, etc. 

BOURNOVILLE, Antoine August 
(19th cent.) : reformer of the Danish 
ballet. Ref.: X. 104, 151, 152, 162f, 
164f, 166, 168, 169. 

BOUSQUET, Georges (1818-1854) : 
b. Perpignan, d. St. Cloud; winner of 
the grand prix de Rome at the Con- 
servatoire in 1838. Chef d'orchestre at 
the Opera and the Thidtre Italien; 
critic on Paris journals, composer of 
church, chamber, and dramatic music. 

BO VERY, Jules (correct name An- 
toine Nicolas Joseph Bovy) (1808- 
1868): b. Liege, d. Paris; composer 
and conductor in theatres at Lille, 
Lyons, Amsterdam, Antwerp, Douai, 
Rouen, Ghent, Paris; composer of op- 
eras, ballets, etc. 

BO WEN, York (1884- ) : b. Lon- 
don; composer; fellow Royal Acad, of 
Music; has written 3 piano concertos, 
symphonic fantasy, a sonata and a 
concerto for viola, etc. Ref.: III. 441; 
VII. 598. 

BOWMAN, Edward Morris (1848- 
1913): b. Barnard, Vt., d. New York; 
organist; studied with William Mason 
and J. P. Morgan in New York, with 
Bendel, Rohde, Haupt and Weitzmann 


in Berlin, with Batiste in Paris, and 
with Bridge, Macfarren, Guilmant and 
Turpin in London; organist of vari- 
ous churches in St. Louis, Mo.; found- 
ed American College of Musicians, 
1884; organist Peddie Memorial Bap- 
tist Church, Newark, 1887-94; professor 
and director department of music, Vas- 
sar College, 1891-95; organized and 
conducted Temple Choir, Brooklyn, 
1895-1906, choir of Calvary Baptist 
Church, N. Y., 1906-13; author of 
'Weitzmann's Manual of Musical The- 
ory' (1877). 

BOYCE, William (1710-1779) : b. 
London, d. Kensington; pupil of 
Maurice Greene and Pepusch; organist 
St. Michael's, Cornhill; composer to the 
Chapel Royal and the king; conducted 
the festivals of the Three Choirs 
(Gloucester, Worcester, Hereford) in 
1737. He held various organ positions, 
which he resigned to devote himself to 
issuing Greene's collection of 'Cathedral 
Music' (1760-78) in 3 vols. He also 
pub. 'Lyra Britannica' (several books 
of songs, cantatas, and duets), and 
wrote anthems and services, an ora- 
torio, masques, dirges, odes, sympho- 
nies, a violin concerto, trio sonatas, 
etc. Ref.: VI. 472. 

BOYER, Louis - Joseph - Victor - 
Georges (1850- ): b. Paris; winner 
of the Prix Rossini; librettist for 
Chaumet, Massenet; critic for several 
Paris journals. 

BOYLE, George F. (1886- ): b. 
Sydney, N. S. W.; pianist and com- 
poser; studied with his parents and 
with Sydney Moss, later with Busoni 
in Berlin; toured Australia and New 
Zealand with Mark and Boris Ham- 
bourg, and Holland with Emma Ne- 
vada; recitals in England, Germany 
and Holland; professor of piano at 
Peabody Cons., Baltimore, from 1910; 
has composed 2 cantatas, a symphonic 
fantasy and other works for orches- 
tra, a piano concerto, a piano sonata, 
2 piano trios, a sonata for piano and 
'cello, pieces for 'cello and piano, 
violin and piano, piano solo, and 

BRADBURY, William Batchelder 
(1816-1868) : b. York, Me., d. Montclair, 
N. J.; studied with S. Hill, Lowell 
Mason, Moscheles, Bohme; teacher, con- 
ductor, piano manufacturer and editor 
of a large number of collections of mu- 
sic. He composed two cantatas. Ref.: 
IV. 222, 244f. 

BRADSKY, Wenzel Theodor (1833- 
1881): b. Rakovnik, Bohemia, d. there; 
studied with Caboun and Pischek; 
singing teacher and composer to the 
Prussian court. He wrote six operas, 
produced at Dessau, Prague and Berlin 
and part songs, songs, etc. Ref.: III. 

BRAGA, Gaetano (1829-1907): b. 
Giulianova, Abruzzi, d. Milan; studied 
in Naples Cons.; 'cellist in Florence, 
Vienna, Paris and London, also toured 



Europe; composer of eight op- 
eras, chamber music, 'cello composi- 
tions. He wrote a method for the 

BRAGANZA, Duke of. Ref.: II. 30. 

BRAHAM, John (1774-1856): b. 
London, d. there; studied with Leoni, 
Rauzzini, Isola; operatic tenor in Italy 
and London; composer of ballads and 
incidental dramatic music and creator 
of Hiion in Weber's Oberon (1826). 

BRAHMA. Ref.: X. 25. 

BRXHMIG, [Julius] Bernhard (1822- 
1872) : b. Hirschfeld, n. Liebenwerde, 
d. Detmold; music teacher, composer 
for organ and piano; pub. a Choral- 
buch and Ratgeber fur Musiker bei der 
Auswahl geeigneter Musikalien. 

BRAHMS, Johannes (1833-1897) : b. 
Hamburg, d. Vienna; son of a double- 
bass player in the Hamburg municipal 
theatre; studied with his father and 
Marxsen at Altona. He made his debut 
at Hamburg as pianist, made a con- 
cert-tour with Remenyi, the violinist, 
in 1853. Joachim, who heard him at 
Gottingen, sent him to Schumann, on 
whom B.'s talent made so deep an im- 
pression that he published an enthusi- 
astic article, Neue Bahnen, in the Neue 
Zeitschrift fur Musik, announcing B. 
as a new master. Hereupon 3 piano 
sonatas and 3 books of songs by B. 
were published. After a period as con- 
ductor of the orchestra of the Prince 

of Lippe-Detmold, he retired to Ham 
burg for further study. In 1862 he 
went to Vienna, and became conductor 
of the Singakademie (1863), spent the 
next five years in Hamburg, Zurich, 
Baden-Baden and elsewhere, and made 
concert-tours with his friend Stock- 
hausen, returning to Vienna in 1860. 
He conducted the grand orchestral con- 
certs of the Gesellschaft der Musik- 
freunde during 1871-74, then, after a 
sojourn near Heidelberg, made Vienna 
his home. B.'s honors include degrees 
of Mus. Doc. from Oxford, Dr. phil. 
from Breslau (1881), the Prussian or- 
der pour le me'rite and membership in 
the Berlin Academy. He also had con- 
ferred on him the freedom of the city 
of Hamburg. B. is regarded as the 
foremost modern representative of 
classic composition, the legitimate heir 
of Schumann and, beside Wagner, the 
greatest German composer of his gen- 
eration. Though in some respects the 
antithesis of Wagner, and as such 
championed by Hanslick, he was not 
personally hostile to him. He com- 
posed in every form except opera, and 
distinguished himself in every field. 
His works include the following: For 
orchestra (incl. concertos) : Serenade 
in D, op. 11; Serenade in A, for small 
orchestra, op. 16; variations on a theme 
by Haydn, op. 56; 4 symphonies (No. 1, 
C min., op. 68; No. 2, D, op. 73; No. 3, 
F, op. 90; No. 4, E, op. 98); Academic 
Festival Overture, op. 80; Tragic Over- 
ture, op. 81; Hungarian Dances for 


orch.; 2 piano concertos (D min., op. 
15, and B-flat, op. 85) ; violin concerto 
in D, op. 77; concerto for violin and 
'cello in C, op. 102. Chamber music: 
4 trios (piano, violin and 'cello), 1 
trio for piano, clarinet and 'cello, 1 
trio for piano, violin and horn, 3 piano 
quartets, 3 string quartets, 2 string 
quintets, 1 piano quintet, 1 quintet for 
clarinet and strings, 2 string sextets. 
For piano: 3 sonatas (op. 1, 2 & 5) ; 
3 sets of variations (op. 9, on a Schu- 
mann theme; op. 21, on an orig. and a 
Hungarian mel.; op. 24, on a Handel 
theme, w. fugue; op. 35, 28 var. or 
studies) ; 1 fantasy, op. 116, 6 sets of 
pieces (Intermezzi, Ballads, Romances, 
Rhapsodies, etc.) ; also 16 waltzes, op. 
39, and variations on a Schumann 
theme for 4 hands. For violin, 'cello, 
clarinet, etc.: 3 violin sonatas, 2 
'cello sonatas, 2 clarinet (or viola) 
sonatas. Choral works. Female: Ave 
Maria (w. orch.), 4 songs (w. 2 horns 
and harp), Psalm xiii (w. organ 
or piano), 3 sacred choruses, 12 songs 
and romances a cappella. Male: Ri- 
naldo, w. ten. solo and orch., Rhapsody, 
w. alto solo and orch. Mixed: Funeral 

Hymn (w. wind instr.), 7 Marienlieder 
(2 parts), sacred song for 4 solo voices 
and chorus (w. organ) ; 3 songs in 6 
parts a cappella; 'A German Requiem' 
(w. soli and orch.), 'Song of Destiny,' 
'Song of Triumph' (both w. orch.), 
12 songs (2 sets), 2 motets, Ndnie 
(Schiller), w. orch., Gesang der Parzen 
(w. orch.), 1 set of songs and ro- 
mances, Tafellied, and Deutsche Fest- 
und Gedenkspriiche (double chorus). 
Vocal ensembles: 13 canons, fem. 
voices (w. piano), 2 motets for 5 v., 
5 part-songs for 4 men's v., Liebes- 
lieder waltzes, 7 quartets w. piano (2 
sets), Neue Liebeslieder waltzes; 16 
duets (7 for S. & A., 4 for A. & Bar.), 
4 ballads and romances for 2 v. w. 
piano, 5 romances and songs (1 or 
2 v.), 3 motets, 4 & 8 voices, Gypsy 
Songs (w. piano). Vocal solos: 2 songs 
for alto w. viola & piano, Vier Ernste 
Gesdnge for bass vs. piano, a large 
number of songs for diverse compasses; 
also 15 Volks-Kinderlieder. For or- 
gan: Prelude and fugue in A min.; 
Fugue in A-flat min. Ref. : For life and 
work see II. 443ff; songs, V. 276ff; 
choral works, VI. 193ff, 292f; piano 
compositions, VII. 338ff; violin compo- 
sitions, VII. 459f; chamber music 
(strings only), VII. 543ff ; miscel. cham- 
ber music, VII. 578ff, 596ff ; orch. music, 
VIII. 253ff, 596ff; mus. ex., XIII. 372, 
375, 377; portrait, II. 450; caricature, 
VII. 238. For general references see 
individual indexes. 

BRAH-MtJLLER, Karl Friedrich 
Gustav (1839-1878) : b. Kritschen, near 
61s, Silesia, d. Berlin; studied with 
Geyer and Wiierst; teacher in Berlin; 
composer of several operettas, a string 
quartet, piano pieces, songs ; pub. an 
Organ School (in three parts), etc. 



BRAMBACH (1) Kaspar Joseph 

(1833-1902): b. Bonn, d. there; com- 
poser; studied with A. zur Nieden, at 
the Cologne Cons., and with Ferdinand 
Hiller at Frankfort; teacher at Co- 
logne Cons., 1858-61; musical director 
at Bonn, 1861-69; wrote a number of 
cantatas, choruses (with and without 
orchestra), an opera, a concert over- 
ture, a piano concerto, a piano sex- 
tet, a string sextet, 2 piano quartets, 
etc. (2) Wilhelm (1841- ): b. 
Bonn; philologist and prof, at Frei- 
burg Univ.; head-librarian at Karlsruhe 
and author of five books on the music 
of the Middle Ages. 

BRAMBILLA (1) Paolo (1786- 
1838) : b. Milan, d. there; operatic com- 
poser in Milan and Turin. (2) Mari- 
etta (1807-1875) : b. Cassona d'Adda, d. 
Milan; studied at Milan Cons.; singer 
and vocal teacher in Italy, Vienna, 
Paris and London; composer of songs. 
(3) Teresa (1813-1895): b. Cassona 
d'Adda, d. Milan; studied in Milan 
Cons., operatic singer in Milan, Naples, 
Spain, Paris and Venice. 

BRANCA, Guglielmo (1849- ): 

b. Bologna; operatic composer, success- 
ful in productions in Florence, Naples, 
and Cremona. 

BRANCACCIO, Antonio (1813- 
1846): b. Naples, d. there; studied at 
Naples Cons.; operatic comp.; pro- 
duced about ten operas in Naples. 

BRAND, Michael (19th cent.): 'cel- 
list, organizer of Cincinnati (Ohio) 
Music Festival (1894). Ref.: TV. 193f. 

BRANDEIS, Friedrich (1835-1899): 
b. Vienna, d. New York; composer; 
studied with Fischhoff, Karl Czerny 
and Rufinatscha, and with Wilhelm 
Meyerhofer in New York; toured with 
concert troupes in the United States 
as pianist and conductor; organist in 
several New York churches; composer 
of orchestral works, vocal works for 
soli and chorus with orchestra, a piano 
trio, several sextets for flute and 
strings, piano pieces, songs, etc. 

BRANDENBURG (1) Ferdinand 
(r?]-1850): b. Erfurt, d. Rudolstadt; 
violinist and dramatic composer in 
Leipzig. (2) Hans, German writer. 
Ref.: X. 202. (3) Margrave of. Ref.: 
VIII. 129. 

BRANDES (1) Emma (1854- ): 

b. near Schwerin; studied with Aloys, 
Schmitt; court pianist at Goltermann 
who became wife of Prof. Engelmann. 
(2) Friedrich (1864- ) : b. Aschers- 
leben; studied with Spitta, Beller- 
mann and Kretzschmar; became mu- 
sic critic of the Dresdner Anzeiger, 
1895, conductor of the Dresdner Lehrer- 
gesangverein, 1898, musical director at 
Leipzig Univ., 1909; editor of the Neue 
Zeitschrift fur Musik since 1911; com- 
poser of male choruses, songs and 
piano pieces. 

BRANDL (1) Johann (1760-1837): 
b. Kloster Rohr, near Ratisbon, d. 
Carlsruhe; court Musikdirektor at Ba- 


den; composer of 2 operas, oratorios, 
chamber music, etc. (2) Johann (19th 
cent.) ; Viennese composer of popular 

BRANDT (1) Marianne (stage name 
for Marie Bischof) (1842- ) : b. 
Vienna; operatic contralto; pupil of 
Frau Marschner (Vienna Cons.) and 
Mme. Viardot-Garcia. Sang at Graz, 
Berlin Royal Opera and New York. 
Alternated with Materna as Kundry in 
Rayreuth (1886). Ref.: TV. 138, 140. 
(2) Caroline: singer; wife of C. M. 
v. Weber. Ref.: IX. 191. 

BRANDTS-BUYS, Jan (1868- ): 

b. Zutphen; composer; studied with 
Schwarz and Urspruch at the Raff 
Cons., Frankfort; has composed the 
operas Das Veilchenfest (1909), Das 
Glockenspiel (1913) and Die drei 
Schneider von Schonau (1916), a piano 
concerto, chamber music and songs. 

BRANDUS, DUFOUR et Cie: music 
publishers in Paris. The firm was 
founded by Moritz Schlesinger in 1834 
and assumed by Louis and Gemmy 
Brandus in 1846. 

BRANSCOMBE, Gena (Mrs. John 
Tenney): b. Canada; contemp. Ameri- 
can composer. Ref.: TV. 438f. 

BRANT, Jobst vom (16th cent.) : 
composer of psalms, motets, sacred 
songs, etc., captain at Waldsachen, and 
governor at Liebenstein. 

BRASSIN (1) Louis (1840-1884): b. 
Aachen, d. St. Petersburg; studied with 
Moscheles; concert pianist who toured 
with his brothers and then taught in 
the Stern Cons., Berlin, and at St. 
Petersburg. He composed two oper- 
ettas, salon-pieces, songs, etc., also 
Ecole moderne du piano, twelve titudes 
de concert. (2) Leopold (1843-1890) : 
b. Strassburg, d. Constantinople; court 
pianist at Coburg; teacher at Berne, 
St. Petersburg and Constantinople, com- 
poser of concertos and works for piano 
solo. (3) Gerhard (1844- ): b. 
Aachen; violinist, concert-master in 
Gothenburg, teacher in Berlin, con- 
ductor in Breslau and St. Petersburg, 
composer of violin solo composi- 

BRATSCH, Johann Georg- (1815- 
1888): b. Zell, d. Aschaffenburg; mu- 
sical director at Wiirzburg and Aschal- 

BRATTLE, Thomas (17th-18th 
cent.) : introduced the organ in Amer- 
ica. Ref.: IV. 19; VI. 496. 

BRAUER, Max (1855- ): b. 

Mannheim; studied with Lachner, Hil- 
ler, Jensen and de Lange; dir. of mu- 
sic at Kaiserslautern and at Karlsruhe; 
composed works for piano, violin, 
'cello, and organ; also . two operas and 
a suite for string orchestra, etc. 

BRAUNFELS, Walter (1882- ): 

b. Frankf ort-a-M. ; composer; studied 
with Kwast in Frankfort, Leschetizky 
and Navratil in Vienna, Thuille in Mu- 
nich; has composed the operas Prin- 
zessin Brambilla (1909) and Ulenspie- 



gel (1913), variations for orchestra, 
Ariels Gesang and serenade for small 
orchestra, Offenbarung Johannis for 
tenor, chorus and orchestra, songs and 
piano pieces. 

BREBOS, Gilles (Maftre Gilles) 
(d. 1584) : famous organ builder at 
Louvain and Antwerp; built 4 organs 
for the 2 choirs of the Escurial. 

BRECHER, Gustav (1879- ): b. 

Eichwald, Bohemia; studied in Leip- 
zig with Jadassohn, Hofmann, etc.; 
debut as conductor at a Liszt-Verein 
concert there, 1897; became repetitor 
at the Municipal Theatre, Leipzig. 
1898, conductor at the Vienna Court 
Opera, 1901, first Kapellmeister of mu- 
nicipal theatres in Olmutz, 1902, Ham- 
burg, 1903; since 1911 of Cologne Op- 
era; composer of a symphonic poem, 
a symphonic fantasy and many songs; 
author of a monograph on Richard 
Strauss and other musical essays. 

BREE, Jean Bernhard van (1801- 
1857): b. Amsterdam, d. there; pupil 
of Bertelmann, artistic director of the 
'Felix meritis' Society, founder of the 
Cecilia Society and director of the mu- 
sic school of the Society for the Ad- 
vancement of Tonal Art; composer of 
an opera, Sappho, masses, cantatas, and 
instrumental music. 

BREIDENSTEI1V, Heinrich Karl 
(1796-1876) : b. Steinau, Hesse, d. Bonn; 
dir. of music at the Univ. of Bonn, 
composer of a cantata and chorales, 
and author of a singing method. 

of music publishers, founded in 
Leipzig by Bernhard Christoph 
Breitkopf (1695-1777) who set up a 
printing press in 1719 and began the 
publication of theological and histor- 
ical works. His son, Johann Gott- 
lob Immanuel B. (1719-1794) took 
over the business in 1745 and changed 
the name to B. C. Breitkopf & Sohn in 
1765. He introduced separate movable 
music types; published the composi- 
tions of C. P. E. Bach, Graun, Hiller, 
Leopold Mozart, issued catalogues of 
printed music in six parts, of MS. 
music in four parts, and a thematic 
catalogue of MS. music, in five parts, 
with sixteen supplements (1762-87). 
He was succeeded by his own son 
Christoph Gottlob B. (1750-1800), 
who after a year turned the business 
over to his friend Gottfried Christoph 
Hartel (1763-1827), who changed the 
firm name to Breitkopf & Hartel. H. 
published the works of Mozart (17 
vols.), Haydn (12 vols.), Clementi (13 
vols.), and Dussek (12 vols.); started 
the Allgemeine musikalische Zeitung 
(1798) and made a number of improve- 
ments in printing, including the sys- 
tem of engraving music on pewter 
plates. In 1805 he was associated with 
the inventor, Sennefelder, in the intro 


was carried on by his nephew Florenz 
Hartel until 1835, when it was taken 
over by his eldest son, Hermann H. 
(1803-1875) and a younger son, Ray- 
mond H. (1810-1888). These published 
works of Mendelssohn, Schumann, Cho- 
pin and others; brought out new edi- 
tions of Schubert, Weber and Hum- 
mel; began the issue of a series of 
cheap editions of classical works; fin- 
ished a complete critical edition in 
score and parts of the works of Bee- 
thoven (1866) and projected a similar 
edition of Mendelssohn; also published 
numerous historical, theoretical, crit- 
ical biographical and other works on 
music. After Hermann's death, Ray- 
mond continued the business in associa- 
tion With WlLHELM VOLKMANN (1837- 

96) and Dr. Georg Oscar Immanuel 
Hase, grandson of Gottfried Hartel 
(1846). After Wilhelm Volkmann's 
death, his son, Dr. Ludwig Volk- 
mann, became head of the house. 
In recent years the house has published 
a whole series of complete editions of 
the great masters. See Addenda. Ref.: 
II. 134, 146, 147; III. 11. 

BREMA, Marie (Minnie Fehrmann) 
(1856- ) : b. Liverpool ; mezzo-so- 
prano; studied with Henschel and 
others; operatic debut as Adrienne 
Lecouvreur, Oxford, 1891; sang Ortrud 
at Bayreuth, 1894; Wagner rdles with 
Damrosch company in the United 
States, 1895, and at Metropolitan Opera 
House, 1895-96; Fricka and Kundry at 
Bayreuth, 1896-97 ; varied roles in Brus- 
sels, Paris and London; well known 
also as oratorio and concert singer; 
professor of singing at Royal College 
of Music, Manchester. 

BREMNER (1) Robert (1720-1789): 
b. Scotland, d. London; pupil of Gem- 
iniani (violin) : violinist and music 
teacher in Edinburgh; later music 
dealer and publisher there and in Lon- 
don, where he was succeeded by John 
Preston; pub. in collaboration with Le 
Chevardiere of Paris and J. J. Hummel 
of Amsterdam; his publications in- 
clude 'Periodical Overtures in 8 Parts,* 
4-part church songs, 40 Scottish songs 
and duets (1757), Masopic Songs (1759), 
Scottish Reels, etc.; author of 'The 
Rudiments of Music' (1756). (2) James 
(18th cent.) : American musical pioneer. 
Ref.: IV. 69, 85. 

BRENDEL, Karl Franz (1811- 
1868): b. Stolberg, d. Leipzig; critic; 
studied with Wieck; editor from 1844 
of Schumann's Neue Zeitschrift fur 
Musik and editor of the Anregungen 
fur Kunst, Leben und Wissenschaft; 
professor of musical history at the 
Leipzig Cons., and a founder and for 
years president of the Allgemeiner 
deutscher Musikverein; author of 
Grundzuge der Geschichte d. Musik 
(1848), Geschichte der Musik in Italien, 
ductmn of lithography. He also started \ Deutschland und Frankreich von den 
the first piano factory in central Ger- ersten christlichen Zeiten, etc. (1852), 
many. After his death the business [ Die Musik der Gegenwart u. die Ge- 



sammtkunst der Zukunft (1854), Franz 
Liszt als Symphoniker (1859), Die Or- 
ganisation des Musikwesens durch den 
Staat (1865), Geist und Technik im 
Klavierunterricht (1867), besides many 
newspaper articles. 

BRENET, Michel (1858- ) : b. 

Luneville; author of Histoire de la 
symphonie a orchestre depuis ses origi- 
nes (prize-essay, 1882) ; Gretry, sa vie 
et ses ceuvres (1884) ; Deux pages de la 
vie de Berlioz (1889); Jean d'Okeghem 
(1893) ; La musique dans les proces- 
sions (1896) ; Sebastien de Brossard 
(1896) ; Les oratoires de Carissimi 
(1893) ; La musique dans les concerts 
de femmes (1898) ; Claude Goudimel 
(1898), Notes sur I'histoire du luth en 
France (1899) ; Les concerts en France 
sous Vancien regime (1900) ; Additions 
inidites de Don Jumilhac a son traite, 
etc. (1902) ; La jeunesse de Rameau 
(1903); Palestrina (1905); La plus an- 
cienne methode francaise de musique 
(1907) ; J. Haydn (1909) ; Notes sur Vin- 
troduction des instruments dans les 
eglises de France (1909) ; Les Musiciens 
de la Sainte Chapelle du Palais (1910) ; 
Musique et musiciens de la vieille 
France (1911); Handel (1913). Ref.: 
VIII. 285. 

BRENNER, L.udwig, Ritter von 
(1833-1902): b. Leipzig, d. there; stud- 
ied at Leipzig Cons., member of the St. 
Petersburg Imperial Orchestra; con- 
ductor of the Berlin symphony, and 
founder of the Neue Berliner Sym- 

Shoniekapelle, 1876; conductor of Mey- 
er's concert-orchestra at Breslau; com- 
poser of grand masses, overtures, sym- 
phonic poems, orchestral music, and 2 
Te Deums. 

BRENTANO (1) Bettina: friend of 
Beethoven. Ref.: II. 139f, 145. (2) 
Maximilian, friend of Beethoven. 
Ref.: VII. 575. 

ballerina. Ref.: X. 183, 185, 188. 

(1875-1912) : b. Geneva, d. there; mezzo- 
soprano; student at the Geneva Cons. 
and with Sangiovanni, Giacosa and 
Ronconi at the Milan Cons.; operatic 
debut at Geneva in Samson et Dalila; 
later sang in Milan, Brussels, Bor- 
deaux, Lyons, at the Opera Comique, 
Paris, where she made a sensation as 
Carmen; was with the San Carlos 
company in New Orleans and New 
York, at the Manhattan Opera House, 
1906-08, at the Metropolitan Opera 
House, 1909-10, and with the Philadel- 
phia-Chicago Opera Co., 1910-13; cre- 
ated several roles in modern French 

BRETHAL, Bertha Pierson- 
(1861- ) : operatic soprano in Ger- 
many, U. S. and Italy; Wagner roles. 

BRETON [y Hernandez], Tomfis 
(1850-) : b. Salamanca; Spanish opera 
composer, who wrote the operas Los 
Amantes de Tarnel (1889), Garin, 
Raquel and Farinelli, also a number 


of zarzuelas and orchestral pieces 
(Andaluzas, funeral march for Alfonso 
XII, polonaise, scherzo, etc.). Ref.: IX. 

BRETZNER, C. F.: librettist of 
Mozart's Entfuhrung. Ref.: IX. 87. 

BREUNING, Stephan (1774-1827) : 
b. Bonn, d. Vienna; boyhood friend of 
Beethoven; his son, Moritz Gerhard von 
B., wrote Aus dem Schwarzspanier- 
hause, which is a mine of information 
on the last days of Beethoven. Ref.: 
II. 133, 139, 142, 144. 

BRfiVAL (1) Jean -Bap tiNte (1756- 
1825) : b. department of the Aisne, 
France, d. Chamomile, near Laon; 'cel- 
list in the Paris Grand Opera, and pro- 
fessor at the Conservatoire; composer 
of operas, symphonies, chamber music, 
'cello concertos, etc.; author of a 
'cello method. (2) Lucienne [Bertha 
Brennwald] (1870- ) : b. Manne- 
dorf, Switzerland; studied at Paris 
Cons.; debut at the Opera as Selika 
in VAfricaine, 1892, and since then 
principal dramatic soprano there; sang 
in United States, 1900-01 and 1901-02, 
and at Covent Garden; created chief 
soprano roles in Wagner dramas at the 
Opera; also created leading roles in 
Holmes' La Montagne noire, Giraud's 
Fredegonde, VidaPs Burgonde, Mas- 
senet's Griselidis, Erlanger's Fils de 
Vetoile, Dukas' Ariane et Barbe-Bleue, 
Massenet's Bacchus and Bloch's Mac- 

BRfiVILLE, Pierre (Onfroy) de 
(1861- ): b. Bar-le-Duc; composer; 
studied at Conservatoire with Dubois 
and Cesar Franck; since 1889 professor 
of counterpoint at the Schola Can- 
torum; member of the examining com- 
mittee for chamber music and compo- 
sition at the Conservatoire; critic for 
La France, La Revue internationale de 
Musique and the Mercure de France; 
his compositions include the opera 
Eros Vainqueur (1910), Sainte Rose de 
Lima, for chorus, soli and orchestra, 
a 3-part mass with organ, string or- 
chestra and harp, motets, sacred choral 
works, 2 suites for orchestra, line ou- 
verture pour un drame and overture to 
Maeterlinck's La Princesse Maleine, in- 
cidental music to Maeterlinck's Sept 
Princesses and Kalidasa's Sakuntala, 
choral works, an organ suite, piano 
pieces, etc.; with d'Indy and others 
completed Cesar Franck's unfinished 
opera Ghiselle; author of Sur les 
chansons populaires francaises (1901). 

BREWER (1) John Hyatt (1855-) : 
American composer of church music, 
secular and sacred cantatas, etc. 
Ref.: IV. 358. (2) Alfred Herbert 
(18G5- ) : b. Gloucester; organist of 
various English churches, since 1897 of 
Gloucester Cathedral, conductor of cho- 
ruses, festivals, etc. ; composer of choral 
music, incl. an oratorio 'The Holy In- 
nocents,' sacred and secular cantatas, 
odes, etc.; also orchestral and organ 
pieces, an operetta, 'Rosamond,' part- 



songs, songs, church music, etc. Ref.: 
VI. 379. 

BRIARD, £tienne (early 1th 
cent.): music printer at Avignon; dis- 
tinguished for his use of round instead 
of angular note-heads. Ref.: I. 28G. 

BRICCIALDI, Giulio (1818-1881) : b. 
Terni, d. Florence; member of the 
Academy of St. Cecilia at Rome, maes- 
tro at the court of Syracuse; concert 
flutist in England and America; com- 
poser of an opera, works for the flute; 
author of a method for the flute. 

BRIDGE! (1) [Sir John] Frederick 
(1844- ) : b. Oldbury, Worcester- 
shire, pupil of his father, J. Hopkins, 
and Sir John Goss. Became organist of 
Trinity Ch., Windsor, Manchester ca- 
thedral, Westminster Abbey. Mus. Bac. 
Oxon., 1868; professor of theory, Royal 
College of Music, 1890; King Edward 
professor of music, London Univ., 1902 ; 
examiner for music, Oxford Univ. He 
wrote cantatas, including 'Boadicea' 
(1880), 'Rock of Ages' (1885), and 'Cal- 
lirhoe' (1888); 'The Repentance of Nine- 
veh,' dramatic oratorio (1890) ; 'The 
Lord's Prayer' [after Dante] (1892); 
'The Cradle of Christ' (1894); also 2 
choral ballades, 2 oratorios, 'Mount 
Moriah,' 'Nineveh,' overture, anthems, 
part-songs, and songs. Pub. primers 
on Counterpoint, Double-counterpoint, 
Canon, and Organ-accompaniment of 
the Choral Service, also a 'Harmony' 
(w. Sawyer). Ref.: III. 421, 422; VI. 
493. (2) Joseph Cox (1853- ): b. 
Rochester; brother of (1); studied 
with, his brother and with Hopkins; 
organist of Chester cathedral since 
1877; revived in 1879 the Chester Tri- 
ennial Musical Festival, of which he 
was conductor until 1900; founder and 
conductor of the Chester Musical So- 
ciety, 1883, and conductor of the Brad- 
ford Festival Chorus Society, 1887-90; 
since 1908 professor of music at Univ. 
of Durham; examiner in music to Dur- 
ham, Oxford and London universities; 
composer of an oratorio, 2 cantatas, 
church services, a 'Requiem Mass,' an 
operetta 'The Belle of the Area,' a sym- 
phony, a string quartet, a sonata for 
'cello and piano, songs, organ music, 
piano pieces, etc. 

BRIDGES, Robert, poet. Ref.: VI. 

BRIEGEL, Wolfgang Karl (1626- 
1712) : b. Germany, d. Darmstadt; or- 
ganist Stettin; court cantor Gotha; 
Kapellmeister at Darmstadt; wrote 
much church music and instrumental 
pieces (1652-1709). Ref.: VII. 473. 

BRIGNOLI (19th cent.) : an Italian 
tenor, introduced to New York by Max 
Maretzek at the Academy of Music in 
1855. Ref. : IV. 132. 

[ten] BRINK, Jules (1838-1889): 
b. Amsterdam, d. Paris; studied with 
Heinze, Dupont, E. F. Richter; music 
director at Lyons; composer in Paris of 
two operas, an orchestral suite, a sym- 
phony, a concerto for the violin, etc. 


BRINSMEAD, John (1814- ): b. 
Wear Gifford, North Devon; was the 
founder of a pianoforte manufacturing 
firm in London (1835); inventor of a 
'perfect check repeater action,' pat. in 
1868. His sons, Thomas and Edgar, 
were co-partners with him; Edgar pub. 
a pianoforte history in 1868 which was 
revised and republished eleven years 

BRISSLER, Friedrich Ferdinand 
(1818-1892): b. Insterburg, d. Berlin; 
studied at Berlin academy; taught at 
the Stern Cons., composed an opera, a 
symphony, etc., and wrote excellent 
arrangements of classics. 

BRISSON, Frederic (1821-1900): b. 
Angouleme, Charente, d. Orleans; 
teacher and dramatic composer in 
Paris; wrote salon pieces, an operetta, 

BRISTOW (1) W. R. (1803-67): b. 
England; conductor in New York. (2) 
George Frederick (1825-98): b. 
Brooklyn, N. Y., d. New York; violin- 
ist, organist and composer. Wrote 2 
operas, 'Rip Van Winkle' and 'Colum- 
bus' (unfinished), 2 oratorios, sympho- 
nies, etc. Ref.: IV. 334. 

BRITO, Esteban de (early 17th 
cent.) : Portuguese director and com- 

BRITTON, Thomas (1651-1714) : 
music patron; a pioneer of concert life 
in London; gave regular Sunday con- 
certs at his house, featuring celebrated 
musicians (including Handel). Ref.: 
VII. 481. 

BRIXI, Franz Xaver (1732-1771): 
b. Prague, d. there; studied with 
Segert; organist, cathedral Kapell- 
meister at Prague and composer of ora- 
torios and a large number of grand 
and minor masses, one requiem and 
other church music. 

nent London firm of piano manufac- 
turers, was founded by Burkhard 
Shudi (correctly Tschudi) whose harp- 
sichords became famous in England 
and on the Continent. His partner, 
son-in-law and successor, was John 
Broadwood (1732-1812), originally a 
cabinet-maker. They adopted the 'Eng- 
lish mechanism' of Americus Backers 
after the latter's death in 1781, which 
was a development of the Christofori 
invention, and henceforth their piano- 
fortes were most highly esteemed. John 
B. was succeeded by James Schudi 
and Thomas Broadwood, the latter 
by Henry Fowler B. (d. 1893), whose 
son Henry John Tschudi B. organized 
the firm into a limited company. Ref.: 
VII. 158. 

BROCKES, B. H.: author of the 
text of Handel's Passion. Ref.: I. 425, 
433, 480; VI. 244. 

BROCKWAY, Howard A. (1870-) : 
b. Brooklyn, N. Y.; studied in Ber- 
lin under Barth and Boise. Has 
taught and concertized in New York 
since 1895. Wrote chiefly works for 



piano; also a symphony, orchestral 
scherzo, etc. Ref.: IV. 382f; mus ex., 
XIV. 271. 

BROD, H. (1809-1839) : b. Paris, d. 
there; oboist, conductor, professor at 
the Conservatoire. 

BRODSKY, Adolf (1851- ): b. 

Taganrog, Russia; studied with 
Hellmesberger and at the Vienna Cons., 
violinist in the Hellniesberger quartet 
and the Imperial opera orchestra; pro- 
fessor at the Moscow Cons.; conductor 
of symphony concerts at Kieff; concert 
violinist in Paris, Vienna and London; 
professor of violin at Leipzig Cons, 
and professor and director at the Man- 
chester Royal College of Music. Ref.: 
VII. 464. 

BROEKHOVEN, J. A. (1852- ): 
b. Reek, Holland; professor in Cincin- 
nati College of Music; composer of an 
orchestral suite, a grand overture, etc. 

BROGI, Renato (1873- ) : Italian 
opera composer. Ref.: III. 383. 

BROMMER, May. See Affekni. 

BRONS, Simon (1838- ): b. Rot- 
terdam; teacher and writer on musical 
subjects at The Hague, composer for 
orchestra, pianoforte and songs. 

BRONSART [von Schellendorf] 
(1) Hans (1830-1913): b. Rerlin; stud- 
ied at the university and with Dehn, 
Kullak, Liszt; concert pianist in Ger- 
many, at Paris and St. Petersburg, con- 
ductor in Leipzig, Rerlin and Hanover; 
intendant of the Weimar court theatre, 
1887-95, composed a piano concerto, a 
Spring Fa'ntasy for orch., 2 sympho- 
nies, a dramatic tone poem 'Manfred,' 
a cantata, string sextet, a trio and 
piano pieces. Ref.: III. 237. (2) 
Ingeborg von (1840-1913) : b. St. Pe- 
tersburg, d. Munich ; studied with Liszt ; 
pianist and comp. of merit; wrote 
pianoforte music of various descrip- 
tions and produced four operas. Her 
maiden name was Starck; she married 
(1) in 1862. Ref.: III. 237. 

BROOKS, Walter William (1861-) : 
composer; studied with Prout at the 
Royal Academy of Music; teacher of 
piano and voice at the William Ellis 
Endowed School, London, since 1889; 
contributor to and for a time editor 
of the 'Monthly Musical Record'; com- 
poser of an Allegro for orchestra, pieces 
for violin and piano, piano pieces, 
songs, part-songs, etc. 

BROOME, William Edward (1868-) : 
b. Manchester; composer; studied pi- 
ano and organ with Roland Rogers at 
Rangor Cathedral; assistant organist 
there and organist of St. Mary's, 1883- 
90; conductor of Rangor Choral Society 
and Penrhyn Male Chorus, 1893; or- 
ganist in Montreal, 1894-1905, and of 
Raptist Church, Toronto, since 1905; 
on staff of Toronto Cons.; composer of 
a dramatic cantata 'The Siege of Car- 
diff Castle' (1908), and much church 

BROR, Ernst (1809-1886) : b. Silesia, 
d. Tarnapol; 'cellist, organist, teacher 


of singing and composer of religious 

BROSCHI, Carlo See Farineixi (2). 

BROSIG, Moritz (1815-1887) : b. 
Fuchswinkel, Upper Silesia, d. Rreslau; 
studied with Franz Wolf; music direc- 
tor and cathedral organist and Kapell- 
meister at Rreslau; assistant director 
of the Royal Institute for Catholic 
Church Music; composer of offertories, 
graduals, instrumental masses, and 
twenty books of organ compositions; 
he wrote treatises on the organ, on 
chorales, on modulation, and on har- 
mony. Ref.: VI. 324. 

BROUNOFF, Platon (1863- ): 
b. Elizabethgrad, South Russia; studied 
at St. Petersburg Cons, under Rubin- 
stein and Rimsky-Korsakoff ; living in 
New York as teacher, pianist, etc., 
since 1892; composed an overture 
'Russia,' 'Songs of Freedom,' an Ameri- 
can Indian opera 'Ramona,' a music 
drama 'Xiolna,' etc., and collected 
Jewish folk-songs. Ref.: rV. 450. 

BROUSTET, Edonard (1836- ): 
b. Toulouse; studied with Stamaty, 
Litolff, Ravina; toured St. Petersburg, 
Portugal and Spain; pianist in Tou- 
louse where he comp. a concerto, trios, 
a quintet, and solos for the pianoforte, 
also a symphonie, concertante for the 
piano with orchestra. 

BROWN (1) William: American 
musical pioneer. Ref.: rV. 66, 72. (2) 
Robert (1790-1873) : b. Glasgow, d. 
Rockhaven; wrote on 'Elements of Mu- 
sical Science' and counterpoint. (3) 
Colin (1818-1896) : b. near Glasgow, 
where he lectured on music at Ander- 
son's College; wrote 'Music in Common 
Things' (1874-6), constructed a Mono- 
polytone (to combine overtones). (4) 
James Duff (1862- ) : b. Edinburgh, 
librarian at Clerkenwell Library, Lon- 
don; wrote a dictionary of musicians 
(1886), etc., also with Stephen Stratton, 
Rritish 'Musical Riography' (1897) ; col- 
lected songs and dances of all nations. 

BROWNE (1) Lennox (19th cent.): 
authority on voice physiology; wrote 
'Voice, Song and Speech' with Emil 
Rehnke (q.v.). (2) John Lewis (1864-) : 
b. London; organist; studied with his 
father and with S. P. Warren and F. 
Archer; organist Holy Name Cathedral, 
Chicago, 1888; organist and conductor 
of symphony concerts in San Fran- 
cisco, 1892-98; organist of Sacred Heart 
Church, and conductor of the sym- 
phony orchestra, Atlanta, 1899-1907; 
musical director at John Wanamaker's, 
Philadelphia, 1908-10; organist and 
choirmaster of St. Patrick's and Our 
Lady of Sorrow's Church, Chicago; de- 
signed organ for Medinah Temple, Chi- 
cago; member of Royal Philharmonic 
Academy, Rome; composer of the op- 
era La Corsicana (1903), sacred mu- 
sic, songs, organ and piano pieces. 

BROWNSMITH, J. Leman (1809- 
1866): b. Westminster, d. there; or- 



BRUCH, Max (1838- ): b. Co- 
logne; pupil of his mother (nee Almen- 
rader), a singer, and Breidenstein at 
Bonn. He won the Mozart Foundation 
scholarship at Frankfort, 1853, and 
studied with F. Hiller, Reinecke and 
Breuning. He prod, a symphony at 
Cologne at age of 14, and a setting of 
Goethe's Scherz, List und Rache (op. 1) 
in 1858. An opera, Loreley (composed 
to the libretto Geibel had written for 
Mendelssohn) appeared in 1864. His 
Frithjof, for male chorus, was prod, 
during 1864-65, and his now popular 
G min. violin concerto in 1867. In 
Berlin he produced his opera Her- 
mione i (1872) and the choral works 
Arminius and Lied von der Glocke, 
also the second violin-concerto (D 
minor). He also wrote Odysseus, for 
mixed chorus, and Normannenzug and 
Leonidas for male chorus, a cantata, 
Das Feuerkreuz, an oratorio Moses, a 
third violin concerto and 3 symphonies, 
also 2 string quartets and other cham- 
ber music, the popular Kol Nidrei, He- 
brew melody for 'cello, piano pieces 
and songs. B. was Musikdirektor at 
Coblenz, 1865-67, court Kapellmeister 
at Sondershausen, 1867-70, conductor of 
the Stern Gesangverein, Berlin, 1878, of 
the Philharmonic Soc, Liverpool, 1880, 
the Orchestral Soc, Breslau, 1883-90; 
director of a Master School for Com- 
position at the Berlin Academy, 1891- 
1910, when he retired. Ref.: III. xii, 
93, 207 f; VI. 197ff; VII. 452, 465; VIII. 
252; portrait, VI. 202; mus. ex., XIV 40. 

BRUCKEN-FOCK, Emile van: 
comp., a one-act music drama, Seleneia 
(1895), works for chorus, orch., etc. 

BRttCKLER, Hugo (1845-1871): b. 
Dresden, d. there; composer of songs 
(Lieder aus Scheffel's Trompeter von 
Sdkkingen, etc.). ballades, male cho- 
ruses, etc. 

BRUCKNER, Anton (1824-1896) : b. 
Ansfelden, Upper Austria, d. Vienna. 
The son of a country schoolmaster and 
orphaned in childhood, he taught him- 
self in organ playing and counterpoint, 
with such remarkable success that he 
secured appointment as cathedral or- 
ganist at Linz in 1855. He now became 
a pupil of O. Kitzler in composition and 
Sechter in counterpoint and succeeded 
the latter as court-organist at Vienna, 
also as professor at the Vienna Cons. 
He became Lektor of music at the Univ. 
in 1875 and received the honorary de- 
gree of doctor in 1891. He travelled 
to France and England, becoming 
known as one of the greatest organ 
virtuosi of his day. He was a friend 
and admirer of Wagner, whose influ- 
ence is supposed to be strong in his 
work, which, however, is classic in 
form and frequently leans to the side 
of Brahms. He wrote 9 symphonies 
(No. 1, C min.; No. 2, C min.; No. 3, 
D min.; No. 4 ['Romantic'], E-flat; 
No. 5, B-flat; No. 6, A; No. 7, E; No. 8, 
C min., No. 9 [unfinished]), a Te Deum 


(1886), grand masses in D min., E min., 
and F min.; a Requiem; graduals, 
offertories, psalms; Germanenzug, and 
several other works for male chorus; a 
string quartet in F, and other chamber 
music. Ref.: II. 438; III. viii, ix, xiii, 
201f, 219ft, 227; choral works, VI. 488; 
symphonies, VIII. 270ff; influence, VIII. 
404, 411, 465; mus. ex., XIV. 31; por- 
trait, III. 202; caricature, VIII. 270. 

BRtJCKNER, Oskar (1857- ): b. 

Erfurt; studied with Grutzmacher and 
Draeseke; 'cellist in concert tours over 
Germany, Russia, Poland and Holland; 
virtuoso on the 'cello at the Strelitz 
court; 'cellist in the Wiesbaden Royal 
Theatre and teacher in the conservatory 
there. His compositions include solo 
pieces for the 'cello, pianoforte works, 
songs and arrangements for the 'cello. 

BRUDIEU, Juan (16th cent.) : Span- 
ish priest and composer; cathedral con- 
ductor at Urgel and Barcelona; wrote 

BRUHNS, Nikolaiis (1665-1697): b. 
Schwabstadt, Schleswig, d. Husum; 
studied with Buxtehude; organist at 
Copenhagen; composer for organ and 
piano and performer on the violin and 
organ (together!). Ref.: VII. 422. 

BRtLL, Ignaz (1846-1907) : b. Pross- 
nitz, d. Vienna; pupil of Epstein, Rufi- 
natscha and Dessoff, Vienna. Toured as 
pianist, then became professor of the 
Horak Institute, Vienna. He composed 
operas, Die Rettler von Samarkand 
(1864) ; Das goldene Kreuz (Berlin, 
1875); Der Landfriede (Vienna, 1877); 
Bianca (Dresden, 1879) ; Konigin Mori- 
ette (Munich, 1883) ; Das steinerne Herz 
(Vienna, 1888) ; Gringoire (1 act, Mu- 
nich, 1892) ; Schach dem Konig (Munich, 
1893); and Der Husar (Vienna, 1898), a 
very successful 2-act comic opera; also 
for orchestra, Im Walde, Jagdouvertiire, 
3 serenades, overture to Macbeth, Tanz- 
Suite; 2 piano concertos, 1 violin con- 
certo, a suite for piano and violin, 
sonatas for 'cello, 2 pianos, violin, pi- 
ano pieces, part-songs, songs, etc. Ref.: 
III. 256; IX. 423. 

BRUMEL, Anton (15th-16th cent.): 
Netherland composer contemp. with 
Josquin; at the court of the Duke of 
Sora in Lyons to 1505, when he went 
to Alfonso I. d'Este at Ferrara. Of his 
compositions 6 4-part masses, frag- 
ments of others, and motets were print- 
ed by Petrucci (1503-14), 3 masses by 
Antiquus (1516) and 1 each by Otts 
and Petrejus (1539) ; others in MS. in 
Munich, Vienna, etc. 

BRUNE, Adolf Gerhard (1870-) : 
b. Bakkum, near Hanover; studied with 
his father and at the Teacher's Semi- 
nary, Osnabruck; for five years organ- 
ist in Peoria, 111.; since 1898 teacher 
of piano and composition at the Chi- 
cago Musical College; composer of 3 
symphonies, 2 symphonic poems, and 
other works for orchestra, 2 piano con- 
certos and an organ concerto, a 6-part 
mass a cappella, choral works with 



and without orchestra, 5 string quar- 
tets, other orch. works, a mass a cap- 
pella, chamber music, organ works, 
piano pieces, songs, etc. 

BRUNEAU, [Louis-Charles-Bona- 
venture-] Alfred (1857- ): b. 

Paris; studied 'cello with Franchomme 
at the Conservatoire and won 1st 'cello 
prize, 1876, harmony with Savard, and 
comp. with Massenet, and won 1st 
prize, 1881, with his cantata Sainte 
Genevieve. He composed Kerim (Op- 
era-Populaire, 1887) ; he Reve (Paris, 
1892); L'Attaque du moulin (Opera- 
Comique, 1893) ; Messidor (libretto by 
£mile Zola) (Ope>a, 1897). Of these 
L'Attaque du Moulin was the most suc- 
cessful by far. He also wrote 2 over- 
tures, 2 symphonic poems, La belle au 
bois dormant and songs, Lieds de 
France, Lieds en prose (Mendes), etc. 
B. was critic for Gil Bias, 1893-95, for 
Figaro from 1895. He wrote on French 
opera, Russian music, etc. Ref.: III. 
viii, ix, 342ff; VI. 387; operas, IX. 462f. 

BRUNELLI, Antonio (early 17th 
cent.) : maestro di cappella at the Flor- 
entine court and composer of motets, 
canzonette and madrigals; author of a 
treatise on counterpoint pub. in Flor- 
ence in 1610. 

BRUNETTI, Gaetano (ca. 1740- 
1808): b. Pisa, d. Madrid; studied with 
Nardini; court musician in Spain and 
composer of symphonies, sextets, quin- 
tets, etc. His intrigues resulted in 
Boccherini's dismissal in Madrid. 

BRUM, Antonio Bartolomeo (1759- 
1823): b. Coni, Piedmont, d. there; 
studied with Pugnani and Spezzani; 
violinist and conductor in Paris; com- 
poser of operas, music for the violin; 
author of violin and viola methods. 

BRUNNER, Christian Traugott 
(1792-1874) : b. Briinlos, near Stollberg, 
d. Chemnitz; organist, director and 
composer of pedagogic piano pieces, 
pot-pourris for beginners, etc. 

BRUNSWICK, Countess Therese 
von: friend of Beethoven. Ref.: II. 

BRUYCK, [Karl] Debrois van 
(1828-1902): b. Briinn, d. Waldhofen; 
abandoned the study of law for music, 
which he learned under Ruflnatscha; 
contributor to musical journals, author 
of a technical and aesthetic analysis of 
the 'Well-tempered Clavichord,' 'Robert 
Schumann' and 'The evolution of piano- 
forte music from Johann Sebastian 
Bach to Robert Schumann.' 

BRYENNIUS, Manuel (early 14th 
cent.) : last of the Greek theorists, wrote 
'Harmonica,' in which he gathered and 
summarized the work of earlier 

BRYNE, Albertus (ca. 1621-after 
1677) : London organist at St. Paul's 
and Westminster. 

BttCHER, Karl (1847- ): b. Kir- 
berg, near Wiesbaden; author of Arbeit 
und Rythmus (1896). Ref.: (cited) 
L 6, 96, 195. 


BUCHH ALTER, Simon (1881- ) : 

b. Kieff, Russia; pianist; studied in 
New York with Paolo Gallico and 
Leopold Kramer, and in Vienna with 
Epstein and Stocker; toured United 
States, 1902-05, 1909-10, and 1912-13; 
head of piano department, Lindberg 
School of Music, Wichita, Kans., 1907; 
composer of an oratorio, the opera 'A 
Lovers' Knot,' a symphonic overture, 
piano pieces, songs, etc. 

BUCHHOLZ (Berlin organ manufac- 
turers) (1) Johann Simeon (1758- 
1825) : b. Schlosswippach, near Erfurt, 
d. Berlin; founder of the firm. (2) 
Karl August (1796-1884) : successor to 
his father. (3) Karl Friedrich (d. 
1885) : grandson and last organ builder 
of the family. 

BtJCHNER, Adolf Emil (1826- 
1908): b. Osterfeld, d. Erfurt; stud- 
ied at the Conservatory of Leipzig; 
conductor at Meiningen and Erfurt; 
composed overtures, symphonies, cham- 
ber music, cantata, 2 operas, etc. 

BUCK (1) Dudley (1839-1909): b. 
Hartford, Conn., d. Orange, N. J.; 
studied at the Leipzig Cons., under 
Plaidy, Moscheles, Richter, Hauptmann 
and Rietz; organist of St. Jacob's, Chi- 
cago, St. Paul's, etc., Boston, and Trin- 
ity Church, Brooklyn, also conductor of 
the Apollo Club there and assistant 
conductor of the Thomas Orchestra; 
teacher of George W. Chadwick, Clar- 
ence Eddy and others. He composed 
church music, cantatas, a setting of 
Psalm 46 and organ pieces; also scenes 
from Longfellow's 'Golden Legend,' an 
overture 'Marmion,' a concerto for 2 
horns, a symphony, 2 string quartets, 
songs, choral songs, a burlesque oper- 
etta 'Deseret' (1880) and an unper- 
formed opera 'Serapis.' He also pub. 
'Illustrations in Choir Accompaniment' 
and pedal studies for organ. His son 
Dudley B., Jr., is a well-known vocal 
teacher in New York. Ref.: IV. 345f ; VI. 
218ff, 498. (2) Percy Carter (1871-) : 
b. West Ham, Essex; studied music at 
the Guildhall School of Music, London, 
also with Parry and Walter Parratt; 
Mus. D. Oxon., 1897; organist Wells 
Cathedral; professor of music at Dub- 
lin Univ. since 1910. He composed an 
overture, a piano quintet, a piano quar- 
tet, a string quartet, a violin sonata, 
piano pieces, a sonata and other pieces 
for organ, anthems, etc., and wrote 
(with Mee and Woods) 'Ten Years of 
University Music in Oxford' (1894), 
also (alone) 'Unflgured Harmony' 
(1911), 'Organ Playing' in 1912, and 
'The First Year at the Organ.' Ref.: 
III. 429. 

BttHLER, Franz (1760-1824) : b. 
Schneidheim, near Nordlingen, d. Augs- 
burg; Benedictine monk; conductor at 
Augsburg cathedral; composed ora- 
torio, church music, sonatas, organ 
preludes, and one opera; collected Ger- 
man songs and wrote theoretical 



BULL (1) John (1563-1628): b. 
Somersetshire, England; d. Antwerp; 
pupil of William Blitheman in the 
Chapel Royal; organist Hereford Cathe- 
dral, 1582, and later 'master of the 
children.' Mus. Doc., Oxon., 1592. On 
Queen Elizabeth's recommendation, he 
was made professor at Gresham Col- 
lege (1596-1607). He became organist 
of the cathedral of Notre Dame at 
Antwerp in 1617. According to the 
list in Ward's 'Lives of the Gresham 
Professors,' he produced 200 composi- 
tions, some of which appeared in con- 
temporary collections (exercises and 
variations for the virginals, some can- 
ons, and an anthem). A few are re- 
printed in Pauer's 'Old English Com- 
posers.' Ref.: I. 306; VI. 448, 449; VII. 
19, 32; VIII. 125; mus. ex., XIII. 88. 
(2) Ole Bornemann (1810-1880): b. 
Bergen, d. near there ; violinist; pupil of 
Paulsen, but formed a style peculiarly 
his own. Went to Spohr in 1829, but 
left him and went to Paris (1831), 
where he came under Paganini's influ- 
ence; made debut in 1832. Toured ex- 
tensively, also in the U. S. ; founded a 
national theatre at Bergen, but left 
the town because of disputes; attempt- 
ed to establish a Norwegian colony in 
Pennsylvania, but lost heavily, and re- 
newed concert activity. A past-master 
of all resources and tricks of technique, 
he was not a broadly educated musi- 
cian, and seldom played any but his 
own pieces. He wrote 2 concertos, and 
many characteristic violin pieces. 
Ref.: VII. 452; VIII. 73. 

BULLARD, Frederick Field (1864- 
1904) : American composer; pupil of 
Rheinberger; published over 100 songs, 
part-songs, anthems, etc. Ref.: IV. 

BtJLOW, Hans [Gnidol von (1830- 
1894): b. Dresden; d. Cairo, Egypt; 
pianist, conductor and critic; studied 
piano with Wieck and harmony with 
Eberwein, counterpoint with Haupt- 
mann. In Berlin he became an ardent 
Wagner disciple, joined the master in 
Zurich, 1850-51, and learned conduct- 
ing from him. He conducted in the- 
atres at Zurich and St. Gallen, then 
studied with Liszt at Weimar. After 
two tours as pianist he became Kul- 
lak's successor at the Stern Cons., Ber- 
lin. He was made court pianist in 
1857 and received a similar appoint- 
ment in Munich through Wagner's in- 
fluence, 1864, was court Kapellmeister, 
1867-69, and dir. of the Music School. 
After a sojourn at Florence he became 
court Kapellmeister at Hanover and 
Hofmusik-Intendant at Saxe-Meiningen 
in 1880. After 1885 he taught at the 
Raff Cons., Frankfort, and Klind- 
worth's Cons., Berlin; directed the 
Philharm. Concerts at St. Petersburg 
and Berlin, and the Subscription Con- 
certs at Homburg, which he founded. 
B. was not only a great technician, but 
a most remarkable interpreter, both 


as pianist and conductor, and was en- 
dowed with a wonderful memory. He 
married (first) Cosima, the daughter of 
Liszt, whom he divorced and who then 
married Wagner. His second wife was 
Marie Schanzer, an actress. B. com- 
posed music to 'Julius Caesar,' a sym- 
phonic mood picture, orchestral char- 
acter pieces, piano pieces and songs. 
He made fine transcriptions of Wagner 
and Berlioz, and edited Beethoven's 
Sonatas. Ref.: III. 18, 23, 235; VI. 344; 

VII. 44, 332, 342; VIII. 256; portrait, 

VIII. 310. 

BULSS, Panl (1847-1902): b. Birk- 
holz, d. Temesvar; studied with Engel; 
operatic baritone at Lubeck, Cologne, 
Cassel, 'Dresden and the Berlin court 

BULTHAUPT, Heinrich Alfred 
(1849-1905) : b. Bremen, d. there; 
author of Dramaturgie der Oper (1887), 
Karl Lowe, etc. (1898) and other musi- 
cal books, also librettos. 

ner's adaptation of 'Rienzi') II. 406; 

IX. 262 

BUNGERT, Ausnst (1846-1915): b. 
Muhlheim, d. Leutesdorf; studied with 
Kufferath, at the Cologne Cons, and 
with Mathias in Paris and later Kiel 
in Berlin; Musikdirektor in Kreuznach, 
lived in Berlin, near Genoa and Leutes- 
dorf-on-the-Rhine. He wrote a piano 
quartet (prize of the Florentine Quar- 
tet, 1878), piano pieces, many songs, 
male quartets, overture Tasso, Sym- 
phonia vitrix, a symphonic poem, etc., 
for orch., a comic opera Die Studenten 
von Salamanka (Leipzig, 1884), a 
musico-dramatic tetralogy Homerische 
Welt (4 parts, 1898-1903); also a mys- 
tery, a 'Zeppelin' symphony, music to 
Faust, etc. Ref.: III. viii, 240, 268; V. 
312; VI. 355f; IX. 420. 

BUNNET, Edward (1834- ): b. 

Shipdam, England; organist articled to 
Dr. Buck at Norwich Cathedral, con- 
ductor of the Norwich Musical Union 
(1871-92) ; composer of cantatas, serv- 
ices, anthems, part-songs, and pieces 
for piano, organ, etc. 

BUNNING, Herbert (1863- ): b. 

London; studied with Ferroni at Mi- 
lan; composer of symphonic poems, 
overtures, orchestral suite, part-songs 
and an unpublished opera; conductor 
at London theatres. 

BUNTING, Edward (1773-1843): b. 
Armagh, Ireland; d. Dublin; collected 
and published three volumes of Irish 
music gathered from the minstrel 

BUNYAN, John. Ref.: IV. 12. 

BUONAMENTE, Giovanni Bat- 
tista (early 17th cent.) : one of the 
first composers of sonatas for vio- 
lin; Imperial court musician, ca. 1626, 
and chapel master of the Franciscan 
monastery of Assisi, ca. 1636; pub- 
lished 7 books of sonatas, symphonies 
and dances, some preserved in the Mu- 
nicipal Library or Breslau. 



BUONAMICI, Giuseppe (1864-1914) : 
b. Florence, d. there; studied with 
his uncle, G. Ceccherini, with von 
Billow and Rheinberger; 1870-73 taught 
in Munich at the Conservatory; con- 
ductor of a chorus in Florence, foun- 
der of the Trio Society there; became 
professor of piano at the Royal Inst, 
of Music. Wrote a quartet, overture, 
piano pieces, etc., and edited 50 etudes 
of Bertini, special etudes for Beethoven 
study, Beethoven's sonatas; pub. 'The 
Art of Scale Study/ 

BUONGIORNO, Crescendo (1864- 
1903) : b. Bonito, Province of Avellino, 
d. Dresden; composer; studied with 
Serrao at the Naples Cons.; his works 
include the operettas Abukadabar 
(1889), Circe e Calipso (1892), La 
nuova Saltarella (1894), and the op- 
eras Etelka (1887), Das Erntefest 
(1896), Das Mddchenherz (1901) and 
Michel Angela und Rolla (1903). 

BUONI, Giorgio (17th cent.) : com- 
posed Alettamenti da camera for two 
violins and continuo (Bologna, 1693). 
Ref.: VII. 390. 

BUONONCINI. See Bononcini. 
BURANELLO. See Galuppi. 
Leon Philippe Marie, Chevalier de, 
(1812-1889) : b. Termonde, East Flan- 
ders, d. Antwerp; author of mono- 
graphs on the ancient Antwerp music 
guilds of Saint Job and Saint Maria 
Magdalena; also on clavichord and lute 
makers in Antwerp after the 16th cen- 
tury, on the Belgian Cecilian Society, 
and on Haussens, Bosselet and Oke- 
ghem; also composed for orchestra, 
chamber music and church music. 

BURCHARD, Bishop of Worms. 
Ref.: X. 129. 

BURCI. See Burtius. 
BURCK, Joachim. See Burgk. 
BDRDE-NEY, Jenny (1826-1886) : 
b. Graz, d. Dresden; soprano; sang in 
Germany, Austria and England; retired 
from the stage 1867, and taught. In 
1853 she married E. Biirde. 

BURETTE, P. J. (1665-1747): b. 
Paris, d. there; professor of medicine 
in the University of Paris; wrote on 
Greek music, controverting the theory 
of the Greek knowledge of polyphony. 
Ref.: (cited on Greek dance) X. 63. 

BCRGEL, Konstantin (1837-1909) : 
b. Liebau, Silesia; d. Breslau; studied 
with Brosig and Kiel; taught pianoforte 
at Kullak Academy; composed over- 
tures, chamber music. • 

BtRGER. Ref.: II. 223; VII. 339. 
BURGK, Joachim Muller (or Miil- 
ler), called J. A. Burgk (ca. 1541- 
1610): b. Burg, d. Muhlhausen; organ- 
ist and Protestant composer of church 

UIRGMEIX, J., pseudonym. See 
Ricordi, Giulio. 

BURGMt5LLER (1) Jokann Fried- 
rich Franz (1806-1874): b. Ratisbon, 
d. Beaulieu, France; wrote easy pi- 
ano pieces. (2) Norbert (1810-1836): 


brother of (1); b. Dusseldorf, d. 
Aachen; studied with Spohr and 
Hauptmann; pianist; composer of pi- 
anoforte concerts, a rhapsody, sonatas, 
a polonaise, quartets, etc. 

BURKHARD, Johann Andreas 
Christian (early 19th cent.): author 
of a 'Dictionary of Music' (published 
at Ulm, 1832) and a 'Method of Thor- 
ough Bass' (1827). 

BURKHARDT, Max (1871- ): 
b. Lobau in Saxony; composer and 
author; studied at Leipzig and Greifs- 
wald; conductor of the Liederkranz in 
Cologne, 1899; musical critic, and lec- 
turer on music at the Lessing Hoch- 
schule, Berlin, since 1906; composer 
of the opera Konig Drosselbart (1904) 
and Das Moselgretchen (1912), a sym- 
phony, choral works and songs; au- 
thor of FiXhrer durch R. Wagners Mu- 
sikdramen (1909), Fiihrer durch die 
Konzertmusik (1911), Johannes Rrahms: 
Ein Fiihrer durch seine Werke (1912). 

BURLEIGH (1) Cecil (1885- ): 

b. Wyoming, N. Y.; violinist, composer 
and teacher; studied violin with Emil 
Sauret and Hugo Heermann at the Chi- 
cago Musical College and with Max 
Grunberg at Berlin; made concert 
tours in United States and Canada, 
1907-09; pub. a number of pieces for 
violin and piano, including 'Ascension 
Sonata' (1914). Ref.: IV. 401. (2) 
Harry: b. Erie, Pa.; contemp. Ameri- 
can song-composer of negro parentage; 
studied music at National Conserva- 
tory of Music, New York, 1892; bari- 
tone soloist at Bethesda Episcopal 
Church, Saratoga; St. George's Church, 
New York, since 1894; composed many 
songs ('Jean,' 'Deep River,' 'The Young 
Warrior,' etc.), some in negro folk- 
music style, also 'Saracen Songs,' etc. 
Ref.: IV. 443. 

BURMEISTER, Richard (I860-) : 
b. Hamburg; pianist; studied and trav- 
elled with Liszt; teacher in Hamburg 
Conservatory, director of pianoforte in 
Peabody Institute, Baltimore; composed 
piano concerto, symphonic fantasy, pi- 
ano transcriptions, etc. 

BURNEY, Charles (1726-1814): b. 
Shrewsbury, d. Chelsea; studied with 
Baker and with Dr. Arne; organist 
and musical historian, Mus. Doc; 
composer of incidental dramatic music, 
violin concertos, cantatas, duets for 
the flute, etc. He travelled extensively 
in Europe and his historical criticism 
of the music of his day in Europe is 
his chief claim to fame. He wrote 'The 
Present State of Music in France and 
Italy' (1771), 'The Present State of 
Music in Germany, the Netherlands, 
etc' (1773), and a most valuable 'Gen- 
eral History of Music' in 4 volumes 
(1776-89) ; also an Italian essay on the 
music of papal chapel (by Palestrina, 
Allegri and Bai) (1784), articles for 
Ree's 'Encyclopedia,' etc Ref.: (quot- 
ed) I. 84f; (on 17th cent, opera) I. 
377; (on madrigal by Festa) I. 276; 



(on relation of music to poetry) II. 
27; (on Viennese musical supremacy) 
II. 50; (on Stamitz) II. 64, 67; (travels 
of) II. 76, footnote; (description of Vi- 
enna) II. 80ff; (and Haydn) II. 89; 
(cited) VI. 72, 102f; VII. 43; 48, 108, 
394, 408, 415. 

BURNS, Robert. Ref,: V. 91, 95f, 
113f; VI. 210. 


BURR, Willard (1852- ): b. 
Ohio; studied at Oberlin Conservatory 
and with Haupt at Berlin; composer of 
a grand sonata for piano and violin, 
fugues, etudes, fantasies, string quar- 
tets, anthems, songs, etc. 

BURRIAN, Carl (1870- ): b. 

Prague; operatic tenor; studied with 
Piwoda; debut at Reval (1892); sang 
in Cologne, Hanover, Hamburg, Dres- 
den, Vienna and New York; principal 
roles include Tristan, Parsifal, Sieg- 
fried, Siegmund, Walter, Lohengrin and 
Tannhauser. Ref.: IV. 155. 

BURROWES, John Freckleton 
(1787-1852): b. London, d. there; pi- 
anist, organist and teacher in London; 
wrote "Thorough Bass Primer' and 'Pi- 
anoforte Primer'; composed an orches- 
tral overture, sonatas for piano with 
flute, 'cello or violin, piano diver- 
tissements, English ballads, etc. 

BURTIUS (Burci, Burzio), Nicolas 
(1450-1518): b. Parma, d. there; wrote 
the Musices opusculum, which, pub. in 
Bologna by tJ. de Rugeriis, is one of 
the oldest works containing printed 
mensural music. 

BURTON (1) Avery: cathedral mu- 
sician and composer in the reign of 
Henry VIII. (2) Frederick Russell 
(1861-1909): b. Jonesville, Mich.; d. 
Hopatcong, N. J.; author and com- 
poser; wrote 'Primitive American Mu- 
sic' and other works; composed dra- 
matic cantatas ('Hiawatha,' etc.), ode 
for the 2nd inauguration of Pres. Mc- 
Kinley, songs, anthems, etc. Ref.: I. 
39; IV. 347; V. 42. 

BUSBY, Thomas (1755-1838): b. 
Westminster, d. Betonville, London; 
English organist, Mus. D., Cambridge, 
1800; composer of an oratorio, odes, 
songs, etc., of conventional type; author 
of a 'General History of Music/ a 'Mu- 
sical Grammar,' a music manual, etc. 

BUSCH, Carl (1862- ): b. Ger- 
many; conductor of Kansas City Sym- 
phony Orchestra and composer of 
works for orchestra and for chorus 
and orchestra; also violin pieces and 
songs. Ref.: IV. 394/; mus. ex., XIV. 

BUSI . (1) Giuseppe (1808-1871) : 
Bolognese composer of excellent church 
music in the contrapuntal style; pro- 
fessor of counterpoint at the Liceo. (2) 
Alessandro (1833-1895) : b. Bologna, d. 
there; 'cellist in the theatre orchestra 
which he later conducted; teacher of 
harmony, then professor of counter- 
point at the Liceo; director of a school 
of singing and composer of church 


music, romances, choral and orchestral 
symphony, an Elegia funebre for Ros- 
sini, etc. 

BUSNOIS, Antoine ([?]-1492): d. 
Bruges; singer in the Burgundian court 
chapel, 1467; composed chansons (3 
printed by Petrucci), church music, still 
extant in manuscript. Ref.: I. 244, 245. 

BUSONI, Ferruccio Benvenuto 
(1866- ): b. Empoli, near Florence; 
celebrated pianist composer; son of an 
Italian father (Fernando B., clarinet- 
tist) and a German mother (nee Weiss, 
pianist), who taught him; made debut 
at 8 in Vienna; toured Italy after 
further study with Remy in Graz. He 
went to Leipzig in 1886, taught in 
Helsingfors Cons., 1888-89, took Rubin- 
stein prizes for composition and piano 
playing; became prof, in the Imp. 
Cons, at Moscow, 1890; professor of 
piano in the New England Cons., Bos- 
ton, Mass., 1891-93; toured Europe, also 
U. S., and settled in Berlin. Composed 
songs, piano preludes, etudes, chamber 
music, orchestral suites, symphonic 
poems; also 'ballet scenes,' a Kon- ■ 
zertstiick, etc., for piano, and famous 
transcriptions of Bach's works. Ref.: 
III. xxi, 275; VI. 446, 492; VIII. 419; 
IX. 432; portrait, VII. 364. 

Bt'SSFH, Henri Paul (1872- ): 
b. Toulouse; studied at Paris in the 
Niedermeyer School and the Conserva- 
toire; winner of the Prix de Rome 
(1893) ; composer of 2 cantatas, an or- 
chestral suite, a 3-act opera, etc. Ref.: 
III. 363. 

BUSSHOP, Auguste Guillaume 
(1810-1896): b. Paris, d. Bruges; a 
self-educated and successful composer 
of cantatas, church and military music. 

BUSSINE, Romain (1830-1899): b. 
Paris, d. there; singer; teacher at the 
Paris Conservatory; founder of the 
Societe nationale de musique. Ref.: 
III. 287. 

BUSSLER, Ludwis (1838-1900): b. 
Berlin, d. there; studied with various 
teachers in Berlin (Dehn, Wieprecht, 
and others) ; instructor in theory at the 
Ganz (later Schwantzer) and the Stern 
Conservatory; theatre conductor and 
music critic. He has published 11 
books of theory, including a Prak- 
tische musikalische Kompositionslehre, 
a Geschichte der Musik, etc. 

BUSSMEYER (1) Hugo (1842-) : 
b. Brunswick; studied with Richter, 
Litolff and Methfessel; concert pian- 
ist; appeared in South America, New 
York, Paris; settled in Rio Janeiro; 
composer for the piano and author of 
Das Heidenthum in der Musik, pub- 
lished 1871. (2) Hans (1853- ) : b. 
Brunswick; brother of Hugo; studied 
at Munich Royal School of Music and 
with Liszt; toured as pianist in South 
America, then returned to Munich, 
where he became teacher, then director 
in the Royal School of Music and 
founded (1879) a Choral Society. 

BUSTINI, Alessandro (1876- ): 



Italian opera composer; principal 
work, Maria Dulcis. Ref.: III. 383. 

BUTHS, Julius (1851- ) : b. 

Wiesbaden; studied with his father, 
Gernsheim, Hiller and Kiel; won the 
Meyerbeer scholarship; lived in Milan 
and Paris from 1873-74; conductor in 
Wiesbaden, Breslau, Elberfeld; director 
of the Diisseldorf Cons., 1902; com- 
posed chamber music, a piano concerto, 

BUTT, Clara (1873- ): b. South- 
wick, Sussex; contralto; studied at the 
Royal College of Music, with Bouhy in 
Paris and Etelka Gerster in Berlin; 
debut at Albert Hall, 1892; very suc- 
cessful in English festivals and con- 

BttTTNER, Paul (1870- ): b. 

Dresden; composer; studied with 
Draeseke at the Dresden Cons.; teacher 
there, 1896-1907; his compositions in- 
clude 3 symphonies, 2 symphonic fan- 
tasies, an overture to Grabbe's Na- 
poleon, Saturnalia for wind instru- 
ments and kettle-drums, sonatas for 
piano and violin, male choruses a 
cappella and with orchestra, and a 1- 
act opera Anka. 

BUTTSTEDT, Johanu Heinrich 
(1666-1727): b. Bindersleben, near Er- 
furt; d. Erfurt; studied with Pachelbel; 
organist at the Erfurt cathedral; com- 
posed church music and for clavier 
and organ; wrote polemics defending 
the principles of solmization against 

BUTTYKAY, A.: contemp. Hun- 
garian composer; has written sym- 
phonic works and a children's opera, 
'Cinderella.' Ref.: III. 199. 

BUUS, Jaques, or Jacket de (16th 
cent.) : Flemish composer, second or- 
ganist at St. Mark's, 1541, organist of 
the Vienna court chapel, 1551-64; pub. 
2 books ricercari, 2 books canzoni 
francesi, 1 book 4-part motets (1549), 
also madrigals. Ref.: VI. 417. 

BUXTEHUDE, Dietrich (1639- 
1707): b. Helsingborg, Sweden; d. Lii- 
beck, where he was organist at 
the Marienkirche from 1668, and estab- 


lished the celebrated Abendmusiken 
(musical services made up of organ- 
music and concerted pieces for chorus 
and orchestra, held on Sunday after- 
noons from 4 to 5) in 1675. J. S. 
Bach walked 50 miles, from Arnstadt, 
to hear them. He was also distin- 
guished as a composer, especially in the 
fugue and suite forms. Philipp Spitta 
has edited a complete edition of his 
organ works; those for other instru- 
ments or voices are mostly preserved 
in manuscript only. They include, as 
far as discovered, church cantatas, pub. 
in the Denkmaler deutscher Tonkunst, 
vol. xiv; 14 trio sonatas for violin, 
gamba and continuo (op. 1 and 2), 6 
sonatas (2 violins, gamba and con- 
tinuo; 1 violin, gamba and cont.; 
gamba, violone and cont.) pub. in the 
Denkmaler, vol. xi; 5 wedding arias, 
Die fried- und freudenreiche Heimfahrt 
des alten Simeons (1671, printed 1674), 
Die Hochzeit des Lammes (1678), Cas- 
trum doloris and Templum honoris 
(1705). Ref.: I. 361, 451, 458, 471, 476; 
VI. 433f, 436; VII. 16; VIII. 284. 

BUZZOLA, Antonio (1815-1871): b. 
Adria, d. Venice; studied with Doni- 
zetti; travelled in Germany and France; 
church and operatic composer; maestro 
di cappella at St. Mark's; produced 
5 operas in Venice. Ref.: II. 503. 

BYRD (or Byrde, Bird, Byred), 
William (1543-1623): b. London, d. 
there; pupil of Tallis, organist at Lin- 
coln, member of the Chapel Royal; 
with Tallis obtained a patent for the 
exclusive printing and selling of music, 
which he retained after Tallis' death 
(1585). Of his own compositions he 
pub. Cantiones sacrae 5 v. (1575), 
'Psalms, Sonnets and Songs, 5 etc., 3-6 v. 
(1588), 'Songs of sundrie natures' 3-6 v. 
(1589), 2 books Sacrae cantiones (1589, 
'91), 2 books Gradualia oc sacrae can- 
tiones 3-6 v. (1607), 3 masses, 4 canons 
and instrumental music in the Fitz- 
william and other virginal books. 
Ref.: I. 305ff; IV. 4; VI. 75, 98, 136, 
449; VII. 19; VIII. 124; mus. ex. XIII. 



CABAIiIiERO. See Fernandez-Ca- 


CABEL, or Calm (1) fidouard: sing- 
er at Paris Opera Comique and Lyrique. 
(2) Marie-Josephe-Dreulette (1827- 
1885): b. Liege, d. Maisons Lafltte; 
studied at the Conservatoire after her 
marriage; operatic soprano in Paris, 
Brussels, Lyons, Strassburg, London 
and the French provinces; created 

CABEZON (1) Don Felix Antonio 
de (1510-1566) : b. Castrojeriz, Burgos, 
d. Madrid; blind performer on harpsi- 
chord and organ; chamber musician 
and instrumental composer to the king. 
Ref.: VI. 445. (2) Hernando de: son 
of Felix; editor of his father's manu- 
scripts; himself a composer. 

CABLE, George W. Ref.: IV. 307f. 

CABO, Francisco Javier (1768- 
1832) : b. Najera, near Valencia, d. 
Valencia; singer, organist and chapel- 
master at the cathedral there; composer 
of masses, vespers, etc., in old a cap- 
pella style. 

CACCINI (1) Gin Ho [il Romano] 
(ca. 1550-1618) : b. Rome, d. Florence, 
as singer to the Tuscan court. He stud- 
ied singing and lute with Scipione della 
Palla. According to the manner of his 
time, he wrote contrapuntal madrigals, 
but he was soon influenced by the dis- 
cussions of the camerata meeting at 
the Palazzo Bardi, and the experiments 
of V. Galileo (q.v.). Hence he began 
writing vocal soli in stile rappresen- 
tativo, which he sang with great suc- 
cess to his own accompaniment on the 
theorbo, and subsequently settings of 
dramatic scenes written by Bardi. His 
first attempt at a full drama in musica 
was II combattimento d' Apollone col 
serpente, text by Bardi; the next, with 
Peri (q.v.) La Dafne (1594), text by 
Rinuccini; then followed Eurydice 
(1600), text by Rinuccini; and // rapi- 
mento di Cefalo (1600), text by Chia- 
brera, the first opera ever produced in 
a public theatre. He was also the 
author of Le nuove musiche, a series 
of vocal solos with figured bass (1601, 
1607 and 1615), Nove Arie (1608), and 
Fuggilotio musicale (1614). With Peri, 
Caccini has the credit for creating the 
monodic style, and virtually the opera. 
It is difficult to fix their respective mer- 
its, and a great deal is no doubt due 
to others. Ref.: I. 329ff, 333ff, 366; II. 
26; canzoni, V. 47ff, 154, 159; VI. 101; 
opera, IX. 9, 10, 13; mus. ex., XIII. 54; 
facsimile title page, illus., IX. 10. (2) 


Francesca, daughter of (1) ; famous 
singer and composer of 1- and 2-part 
cantatas and two ballets. Ref.: I. 378. 
(3) Septimia, sister of Francesca, a 
noted singer, who aroused the ad- 
miration of Monteverdi. 

CADAUX, Justin (1813-1874): b. 
Albi, France, d. Paris; pupil of the 
Conservatoire; composer of 6 comic 

CADE AC, Pierre (16th cent.) : choir- 
master at Auch; church composer 
whose masses and motets were pub- 
lished in collections at Lyons, Venice 
and Paris. 

CADMAN, Charles Wakefield 
(1881- ) : b. Johnstown, Pa. ; studied 
music with Steiner, von Kunits and 
Pauer; specialist in the field of Indian 
music, transcribing from phonographic 
records that of the Omahas, lecturing 
on and arranging Indian songs. He 
composed symphonic, orchestral and 
chamber music, a cantata for male 
chorus, songs, etc. Ref.: IV. 425ff; IV. 

CAD ORE, Arturo: contemporary 
Italian composer who has successfully 
produced 2 comic operas in Milan in 
1898 and 1902. 

CADY, Calvin B. (1851- ): b. 
Barry, 111.; studied at Oberlin Cons, 
and Leipzig Cons.; taught at Oberlin 
Cons, 5 years ; Univ. of Michigan 8 
years; Chicago 6 years; Boston 10 
years; lecturer at Columbia Univ. since 
1907; at Institute of Musical Art, New 
York, since 1908; pub. 'Music-Educa- 
tion 5 (3 vols., 1902-07). 

CECILIA: martyred about 230 and 
sainted by the Roman Church. Legend 
connects the invention of the organ 
with her. She has become the patron 
saint of music, and her name has been 
adopted by many singing societies. The 
oldest Caecilian society was one founded 
by Palestrina in Rome; among others 
of renown is that of London, which 
produced the Handel and Haydn ora- 

CJESAR, Julius (17th cent.) : English 
doctor who wrote catches published in 
'The Pleasant Musical Companion.' 

CAFARO (or Caffaro), Pas quale 
(1706-1797): b. San Pistre, d. Naples; 
pupil of Leo, and his successor in Na- 
ples, Cons, della Pieta d. T.; composer 
of church music and operas, also ora- 
torios, cantatas and a Stabat Mater. 
Ref.: I. 400, ; II. 6. 

CAFFARELLI (correctly Gaetano 
Majorano) (1703-1783) : b. Bari, d. San- 



to-Dorato; famous male soprano, rival 
of Farinelli; studied with Cafaro, then 
with Porpora; noted in Italy, London, 
Paris and Vienna as one of the most 
brilliant coloratura singers of his time. 
Ref.: II. 4; V. 44. 

CAFFI, Francesco (1780-1874) : b. 
Venice, d. Padua; councillor at Milan; 
from 1827 student of musical history 
in Venice; author of monographs on 
Zarlino, Dragonetti, etc.; wrote an un- 
finished history of the theatre and 
composed a cantata. 

CAFFIAUX, Dom Phillippe Joseph 
(1712-1777) : b. Valenciennes, d. Paris ; 
Benedictine monk; wrote a history of 
music, printed 1756. 

Baron de (1777-1859): b. Paris, d. 
there; improved the siren and 
made it an accurate gauge of vibra- 

CAGNONI, Antonio (1828-1896): b. 
Godiasco, Boghera, d. Bergamo; studied 
in Milan; maestro di cappella at Ber- 
gamo, Vigevano, and the Novaro Ca- 
thedral; produced about 20 operas with 
varying success. Ref.: II. 503 (foot- 
note) ; IX. 156. 

CAHEN (1) Ernest (1828-1893) : b. 
Paris, d. there; pupil of the Conserva- 
toire, Parisian pianist, teacher and 
writer of operettas. (2) Albert (1846- 
1903): b. Paris, d. Cap d'Ail; studied 
with Clauss-Czarvady and Franck; 
composed 7 operas produced in Bouen, 
Brussels and Paris. 

CAHIER, Mme. Charles, nee Walk- 
er: b. Tennessee; contemporary operatic 
and concert contralto; studied with de 
Reszke and appeared at the opera of 
Nice, in the Vienna Royal Opera and 
at the New York Metropolitan Opera 

CAILLOT, Joseph (1732-1816): b. 
Paris, d. there; baritone in the Comedie 

CAIMO, Jose (To (16th cent.) : Milan- 
ese composer of madrigals and can- 
zonets (pub. 1571, 1581, 1584). 

CAIN, Henri (1859- ) : b. Paris ; 
painter and librettist. 

CAIX D'HERVELOIS (early 18th 
cent.) : virtuoso on gamba to the Duke 
of Orleans, Paris; composed for viol 
and flute. 

CALAH, J. (1758-1798) : English or- 

CALAND, Elizabeth (1862- ) : b. 
Rotterdam; pupil of Deppes, whose 
method of instruction she adopted in 
her teaching in Berlin and advocated 
in her several books on method. 

CALDARA, Antonio (1670-1736): b. 
Venice, d. Vienna; studied with Le- 
grenzi; 'cellist at St. Mark's, Venice, 
Bome, Madrid, Vienna; assistant Kapell- 
meister in Vienna to Fux; composed 74 
operas, 32 oratories, masses, motets, 
cantatas, church music and instrumen- 
tal pieces. Some of his vocal canzoni, 
such as Come raggio di sol, are still 
admired for their chaste melodic beauty 


and expressiveness. Ref.: II. 479; V. 
160; VIII. 139; IX. 20; mus. ex., XIII. 

CALDICOTT, Alfred James (1842- 
1897) : b. Worcester, Eng., d. Glouces- 
ter; studied at the Cons, of Leipzig and 
the Univ. of Cambridge; taught in 
and later directed the Royal College of 
Music; opera conductor in an American 
tour and in London; composer of op- 
erettas, children's songs, etc. 

CALEGARI (1) Francesco Antonio 
(early 18th cent.) : Franciscan monk 
and conductor in Venice and Padua; 
wrote musical theory. (2) Antonio 
(1757-1828): b. Padua, d. there; pro- 
duced 10 operas in Padua, Venice, Tre- 
viso, Modena; wrote a book on compo- 
sition for laymen during his stay in 
Paris (about 1800-1802) ; organist and 
conductor at St. Anthony's ; composer of 
6 psalms, etc. (3) Luigi Antonio 
(ca. 1780-1849): b. Padua, d. Venice; 
nephew of Antonio; wrote 8 operas, 
one ballet and one cantata, produced 
in Padua, Venice, Rome, Parma and 

CALETTI-BRUNI. See Cavalli. 

CALIGULA, Roman Emperor. Ref.: 
X. 76. 

CALKIN, J. Baptist (1827- ) : b. 
London; pianist, organist, professor in 
the Guildhall Music School, composed 
church music, etc. 

CALL, Leonhard von (1779-1815) : d. 
Vienna; composer of part-songs and 
arrangements for flute and guitar with 
other instruments. 

CALLAERTS, Joseph (1838- ) : b. 

Antwerp; studied at the Brussels Cons., 
organist at the Cathedral of Antwerp, 
where also he taught in the Music 
School. He has written a prize sym- 
phony, a trio for pianoforte, and pro- 
duced a comic opera in 1889. Ref.: 
VI. 470. 

CALLCOTT (1) John Wall (1766- 
1821) : b. London, d. Bristol; London or- 
ganist; Mus. D. Oxon., 1800; lecturer at 
Royal Institute; composer of glees and 
catches; wrote 'A Musical Grammar' 
and the prospectus for a lexicon. (2) 
William Hutchins (1807-1882) : son 
of John; b. London, d. there; composer 
of songs and anthems, which still re- 
tain popularity. (3) John George 
(1821-1895): b. London, d. Teddington; 
organist, composer of choruses, and 
accompanist to Leslie's choral society. 
(4) William Robert Stuart, son of 
William Hutchins (1852-1886) : organ- 
ist of distinction. 

CALLINET. See Daublaine & Cal- 


CALLIOPE: Greek muse, the legen- 
dary mother of Orpheus and the patron 
of eloquence and heroic poetry. 

CALORI, Angiola (1732-1790) : b. Mi- 
lan, d. there; soprano. 

CAL.SABIGI. See Calzabigi. 

CALVfi, Emma de Roquer (1863-) : 
b. Decazeville, France; studied with 
Marchesi and Pugets; operatic soprano, 



whose d£but was made in 
(Brussels, 1854) ; has sung at the 
Italien and the Comique, Paris, in 
London and New York (both Metro- 
politan and Manhattan opera houses), 
where she was long the favorite 'Car- 
men.' She is the wife of Mario Gas- 
pary (1912), an Officier d'Academie in 
Paris. Ref.: IV. 144, 146, 151. 

CALVIN, the leader of the Reformed 
Church. Ref.: I. 294; VI. 95, 96. 

CAL.VISIUS, Setting (or Setti Kall- 
wita) (1556-1615) : b. Gorschleben, 
Thuringia, d. Leipzig; studied at uni- 
versities of Helmstadt and Leipzig; 
Musikdirektor at the Paulinerkirche, 
1581; Thomaskirche and Nicolaikirche, 
1594; wrote many valuable works on 
music; composed church music (pub. 

CAI/VOCORESSI, Michel-D. (1877-) : 
b. Marseilles; noted music critic, 
writer and lecturer in Paris on Rus- 
sian music, Greek folk-songs, etc., 
translator of songs and librettos, writ- 
er on d'Indy, Liszt, Moussorgsky, etc.; 
professor at the ficole des hautes 
eludes sociales; contributor to the Lon- 
don 'Musical Times.' 

CALV6R, Kaspar (1650-1725): b. 
Hildesheim, d. Clausthal; theorist; 
writer on church music. 

CALZABIGI, Raniero da (1715- 
1795): b. Leghorn, d. Naples; poet; 
librettist for Gluck and with him re- 
sponsible for the reformation of the 
opera and the return to the dramatic 
ideals of the Florentine camerata. Ref.: 
II. 18f , 26 ; IX. 42, 44, 45, 49. 

CAMARGO (1) Felix Antonio (16th 
cent.) : Spanish composer, born at 
Guadalajara; conducted at the cathe- 
dral at Valladolid and composed church 
music. (2) See Cupis. (3) Mile., 
French ballet dancer. Ref.: X. 94, 
99, 100. 

CAMARANO, librettist to Verdi. 
Ref.: II. 490. 

CAMBERT, Robert (ca. 1628-1677) : 
b. Paris, d. London. He was a pupil 
of Chambonnieres; organist at St. 
Honore, Paris, and intendant of music 
to the queen-dowager Anne of Austria, 
1666. In 1659 he prod, a Pastorale 
(text by Perrin) at the Chateau dTssy 
and, in 1661, Ariane, ou le mariage de 
Bacchus. Adonis (1662) was not per- 
formed. In 1669 Perrin (q. v.) se- 
cured a patent to establish the Acad- 
emie royale de musique (still existing 
as the Grand Opera), and together with 
Cambert produced a real opera, Pomone 
(1671). Lully having secured the 
transfer of the patent in 1672, the 
second opera by Perrin and C, Les 
peines et les plaisirs d'amour, was 
never performed, but it was pub. with 
its predecessor in the Chefs d'ceuvre 
classiques de I'opera. francais (Breit- 
kopf & Hartel). C. died as Master of 
the Music to Charles II. in London. 
Ref.: I. 405ff; IX. 23. 

CA1UBINI, Giovanni Giuseppe 


(1746-1825): b. Leghorn, d. Paris; oper- 
atic and ballet composer in Paris, 
where he was also theatre conductor. 
He was a prolific composer of sym- 
phonies and string quartets. 

CAMBIO, Perrisone (16th cent): 
Italian composer whose part-song set- 
tings show evidences of the new mo- 
nodic style (chord-harmony). Ref.: V. 

CAMERANA, Luigi (1846- ): b. 

Piedmont; theatre conductor, Savona; 
produced 6 dramatic works, includ- 
ing an operetta, 2 operas, a melodrama, 

CAMERLOHER (1) Placidns von 
(ca. 1710-1776): b. Murnau, d. Freising; 
canon at Freising, where he composed 
18 sinfonie da camera, trio sonatas, 
singspiele, an opera, oratorios, etc. (2) 
Anton ( -1743) : composer of one 
opera and of chamber music in Mu- 
nich; brother of Placidus. 

CAMETTI, Alberto (1871- ): b. 
Rome; studied there at the Caecilian 
Academy; organist and member of the 
Gregorian Society; wrote on Palestrina, 
Ferretti, Bellini, etc.; composed for 
church and secular music. 

CAMIDGE (1) John (ca. 1735-1803) : 
studied with Greene and Handel; or- 
ganist at York Cathedral, writer of 
exercises for harpsichord. (2) Matliew 
(1758-1844): b. York, d. there; son of 
John, and successor to his position; 
composed sonatas and wrote a method. 
(3) John (1790-1859): son of Mathew 
(2), b. York, d. there; doctor of 
music, Cambridge, 1819; organist at 
York Cathedral, from 1842-1848, when 
a paralytic attack ended his ca- 
reer. (4) Thomas Simpson: son 
of John (3), organist in York, Swin- 
don, Swansea, and successor to his 
father at the cathedral. (5) John: 
son of Thomas (4) ; organist at Bev- 
erley Minster. 

CAMMARANO, librettist of Trova- 
tore, etc. Ref.: II. 491; IX. 348. 

CAMPAGNOLI, Bartolomeo (1751- 
1827) : b. Cento, near Bologna, d. Neu- 
strelitz; studied with Dall' Occa, Quas- 
tarobba and Nardini; director in Dres- 
den and conductor at tne Neustrelitz 
court chapel. His compositions are 
concertos for flutes, violin sonatas and 
concertos, caprices, duets, etc. 

CAMPANA, Fabio (1819-1892): b. 
Leghorn, d. London; singing teacher 
and dramatic composer. 

CAMPANARI (1) Leandro (1857-) : 
b. Rogivo, Italy; studied in Milan 
Conservatory; violinist of distinction 
in Europe and America; organized 
string quartet in Boston, professor of 
the violin in the New England Con- 
servatory and in that of Cincinnati; 
from 1897 concert director and con- 
ductor, La Scala, Milan; wrote violin 
text-books. (2) Giuseppe: brother of 
Leandro; dramatic baritone and 'cel- 
list. Played in the Boston Symphony 
Orchestra and in chamber music; sang 



for years in Metropolitan Opera House, 
New York. Ref.: IV. 147. 

CAMPANINI (1) Italo (1846-1896): 
b. Parma, d. Bigatto; tenor; studied 
with Griffini, later with Lamperti; sang 
in Florence, 1871; London, 1872; toured 
United States in 1873, with Nilsson, 
1879-80, and with Patti in 1894; sang 
leading roles in various Italian operas. 
(2) Cleofonte (1860- ): b. Parma; 
studied at the Cons, there, 8 years; con- 
ducted Carmen in Parma, 1883; later 
at the Metropolitan Opera House, then 
in Milan and Naples; became conductor 
of Manhattan Opera House, New York, 
in 1906, and director of the Chicago 
Opera Company in 1910, which posi- 
tion he holds at present. 

CAMPARDON, fimile (1834- ) : b. 

Paris; archaeologist and historian; 
writer of 3 books on musical history 
{Les spectacles des foires, 1877, etc.). 

CAMPBELL, Alexander (1764- 
1824) : b. Tombea, Loch Lubnaig, d. 
Edinburgh; teacher of Sir Walter Scott; 
collector of Scotch folk-songs, com- 
poser of popular ballads, author of 
'Conversation on Scotch Songs.' Ref.: 
VI. 211. 

(1877- ): b. Chicago; studied music 
in Boston and Chicago, also in Leipzig, 
3 years; taught at the Chicago Musical 
College, 1900-05; privately in Paris 
since then; composed many piano 
pieces, a suite for piano and violin, 
songs, etc. Ref. : IV. 422ff; port., IV. 408. 

CAMPELLA, Martianus Minucius 
Felix (5th cent.) : Carthaginian theorist. 

CAMPENHOUT, Francois van 
(1779-1848): b. Brussels, d. there; vio- 
linist and operatic tenor in Belgium, 
Holland and France; composed 17 
operas, church music, symphonies, etc.; 
noted for his composition of the na- 
tional Belgian song, Rrabangonne. 

CAMPIOLI, -A. Gualandi, or Cam- 
piole (early 18th cent.) : b. Germany. 
His parentage was Italian and he stud- 
ied in Italy, returning to Berlin in 1708 
as a male contralto. He sang in Ham- 
burg, Dresden, London, etc. 

CAMPION, Thomas (17th cent.) : 
English writer of madrigals; published 
5 books of airs and (1618) *A New 
Way of Making Foure Parts to Counter- 
point.' Ref.: I. 385; VI. 141. 

CAMPIONI, Carlo Antonio (ca. 
1720-1793) : b. Leghorn, d. Florence ; 
maestro di cappella to the Tuscan court; 
composed for the church, also instru- 
mental works, printed in London and 

CAMPORESE, Violante (1785- 
1839) : b. Borne, d. there ; concert so- 
prano in Paris at the private concerts 
of Napoleon; in opera at La Scala, Mi- 
lan, and at the King's Theatre, London. 

CAMPOS, Jofio Ribeiro de Almeida 
de (ca. 1770- ) : b. Vizen, Portugal ; 
conductor and professor of church 
singing in Lamego; wrote two elemen- 
tary text-books. 


CAMPRA (1) Andre (1660-1744): b. 
Aix (Provence), d. Versailles; was a 
pupil of Guillaume Poitevin; maitre de 
musique at Toulon cathedral at 20; 
maitre de chapelle at Aries, 1681; at 
Toulouse Cathedral, 1683-94, at the 
Jesuit collegiate church and Notre 
Dame, Paris. After successfully pro- 
ducing 2 operas, he became conductor 
of the royal orchestra. He then prod, 
successively L'Europe galante (1697), 
Le Carnaval de Venise (1699), Hesione 
(1700), Arethuse, ou la vengeance de 
Vamour (1701), Tanerede (1702), Les 
Muses (1703), Iphigenie en Tauride 
(1704), Telemaque (1704), Alcine 
(1705), Le Triomphe de Vamour 
(1705), Hippodamie (1708), Les Fetes 
venitiennes (1710), Idomtnee (1712), 
Les Amours de Mars et Venus (1712), 
Tclephe (1713), Camille (1717), Les 
Ages, ballet-opera (1718), Achille et 
Deidamie (1712), operas bridging the 
gap between Lully and Bameau. He 
also wrote 3 books of cantatas, 5 books 
of motets, divertissements for the 
court at Versailles, etc. Ref.: VIII. 84; 
IX. 26. (2) Joseph: brother of Andre, 
player of the double bass at the Opera; 
permitted the use of his name on his 
brother's first opera and ballet. 

CAMPS y SOLER, Oscar (1837-) : 
b. Alexandria, Egypt; of Spanish 
parentage; studied in Florence with 
Dohler and in Naples with Mercan- 
dante; concert pianist; settled in 
Madrid, where he has written songs, 
piano pieces, and a cantata; wrote also 
text-books and philosophical studies. 

CAMUSSI, Ezlo (b. 1883) : contemp. 
Italian opera composer. Ref. : III. 383. 

CANAL, Abbate Pietro (1807-1883): 
b. Crespano, Venesia, d. there; profes- 
sor of classical languages at Padua; 
writer of musical biography and his- 

CAN ALE (or Canali), Floriano 
(16th cent.) : organist and composer 
of church music at Brescia. 

CANAVASSO (1) Alessandro: com- 
poser of 'cello sonatas, lived in Paris, 
1735-53. Ref.: VII. 591. (2) Joseph, 
brother of Alessandro, composer of so- 
natas for violin, viola, and 'cello, with 

CANDEILLE (1) Pierre- Joseph 

(1744-1827): b. Espaires, d. Chantilly; 
dramatic composer, few of whose com- 
positions were produced. (2) (Simons- 
C.) Amelie-Julie (1767-1834) : b. Paris, 
d. there; daughter of (1); soprano, 
whose debut in 1782 was made in 
Gluck's Iphigenie en Aulide; actress, 
teacher and operatic composer in 
Paris. She wrote operas, trios, sonatas 
and fantasies for the piano, songs, 

CANGE, Charles Duf resne, Sieur du 
(1610-1688): b. Amiens, d. Paris; law- 
yer and lexicographer. 

CANNABICH (1) Christian (1731- 
1798) : b. Mannheim, d. Frankfort; com- 
poser and conductor, studied under 



Stamitz, whom he succeeded in 1757 
as concert-master and director of cham- 
ber music at the court of Karl Theodor 
in Mannheim. In 1778 he followed the 
court to Munich. Both here and in 
Mannheim Mozart was an intimate 
friend of his family. His compositions, 
including operas, ballets, about 100 
symphonies, violin concertos, orchestral 
trios, quartets, and quintets, developed 
the style of Stamitz, broadening the 
form, and enlarging orchestral re- 
sources (obbligato clarinets, also in low 
register, etc.). He lacked, however, 
the originality of his genial master. A 
symphony (B maj.) and an overture 
(G maj.) have been repub. in Biemann 
in the Denkmdler der Tonkunst in 
Bayern. Ref. : II. 67 ; VII. 413, 418. 420 ; 
VIII. 146, 147, 158. (2) Carl (1764- 
1806): b. Mannheim, d. Munich; son 
of (1) ; violinist, who succeeded his 
father as Kapellmeister at the court in 
Munich. He was a fine conductor, but 
as composer had only a mediocre tal- 
ent. Ref.: VIII. 93. 

CANNICIARI, Don Pompeo (1670- 
1744): b. Borne, d. there; conductor 
and composer of the Boman school; 
collector of a large musical library, 
now lost. 

CANOBBIO, Carlo (late 18th cent.) : 
violinist in St. Petersburg, where he 
produced 2 ballets and composed 2 
symphonies, 6 guitar and violin sona- 
tas, arias, etc., as well as three other 
ballets for the Venetian stage. 

CANTOR, Otto (1857- ) : b. Kreuz- 
nach, Bhenish Prussia; London song 

CANTU, Agostino (1878- ) : Ital- 
ian opera composer. Ref.: III. 383. 

CAPEL-CURE, [Bev.] E.: author of 
text of Elgar's 'The Light of Life.' 
Ref.: VI. 361. 

CAPELLA, Martianus Minneus Fe- 
lix (5th cent.) : Carthaginian poet and 
scholar; wrote Satyricon, book 9 of 
which deals with musical theory. 

CAPELLI. Pseudonym for Apell. 

CAPOCCI (1) Gaetano (1811-1898) : 
b. Borne, d. there; maestro di cappella 
of the Lateran; produced 2 oratorios in 
Borne (1833, '42). (2) Filippo (1840-) : 
b. Borne; organist at the Lateran; com- 
posed for organ and one oratorio. Ref.: 
III. 397; VI. 491. 

CAPORALE, Andrea (d. London, 
1756): 'cellist. 

CAPOUL, Joseph Amedee Victor 
(1839- ): b. Toulouse; studied at 
the Conservatoire; tenor in the Opera- 
Comique, in New York and London; 
professor of operatic singing in New 
York National Conservatory; assistant 
director of the Opera and director of 
the Opera-Comique. 

CAPPA, Goifredo (ca. 1647-1717) : d. 
Saluzzo; eminent violin maker, pupil 
of Amati; founder of a school for vio- 
lin making in Saluzzo. 

CAPRA, Marcello (1862- ) : b. 

Turin; abandoned the army for music, 


which he studied with Haberl, Haller 
and Benner; founded a music pub- 
lishing firm in Turin; edits Santa 

CAPRI, Julius (1837- ) : b. Mar- 
seilles; studied at the Conservatory 
there; taught in St. Petersburg, wrote 
salon music, songs, one opera, pro- 
duced in St. Petersburg, 1897. 

C APRON, Henri (18th cent.) : pio- 
neer musician in America. Ref. : IV. 66. 

CAPUZZI, Giuseppe Antonio (1753- 
1818): b. Brescia, d. Bergamo; studied 
with Tartini and Bertoni ; violinist 
in Venice, London and concert leader 
at Bergamo; produced operas and bal- 
lets in Venice and Milan; wrote quar- 
tets and quintets for string instru- 

CARACCIO (or Caravaccio), Gio- 
vanni (ca. 1556-1626) : b. Bergamo, d. 
Borne; conductor at Bergamo and 
Borne; composed madrigals, canzoni, 
psalms, magnificats, etc. 

CARACCIOLI, Luigi (1849-1887) : b. 
Adria, Bari, d. London; dramatic com- 

(ne'e de Munck), (1800-1865) : b. Milan, 
d. London; soprano. Ref.: IV. 124. 

chele Enrico (1787-1872) : b. Naples, d. 
Paris; an officer in the Napoleonic 
army; after the defeat at Waterloo, he 
abandoned the army for music; com- 
posed nearly thirty operas, successfully 
produced in Italy, Vienna and Paris; 
taught at the Conservatoire; composed 
ballets, cantatas and church music. 

Juan (1606-1682) : b. Madrid, d. Vige- 
vano, Italy; Bishop of Vigevano; writer 
on Gregorian music and opponent of 
the use of solmisation. 

CARDON, Louis (1747-1805): b. 
Paris, d. Bussia; harpist, composer of 
sonatas for harp with violin, 2 harps, 
2 concertante symphonies, for 2 harps 
and string orchestra, etc. 

CARDOSO, Manuel (1569-1650): b. 
Fronteira, d. Lisbon [?] ; sub-prior, 
chapel-master and composer of church 

CARESANA, Cristoforo (1655- ) : 
b. Tarentum; Neapolitan organist and 
composer of motets, hymns and duetti 
da camera. 

CARESTINI (Cusanino), Giovanni 
(ca. 1705-1760) : b. Monte Filatrano, 
near Ancona, d. there; male soprano; 
sang Bome, Prague, Mantua, London, 
Venice, Berlin and St. Petersburg. 

CAREY, Henry (ca. 1690-1743) : d. 
London; natural son of the Marquis of 
Halifax; composer of popular English 
ballads (100 of which he issued under 
the title of 'The Musical Century'), 
operettas, ballad-operas, etc. Chrysan- 
der has proven him to be the composer 
of the tune of 'God Save the King.' 
Ref.: IV. 324; V. 171. 

CARIO, Johann Heinrich (1736- 



after 1800): b. Eckernforde, Holstein, 
d. there; trumpeter. 

CARISSIMI, Giacomo (1604-1674) : 
b. Marino, Papal States; d. Rome; com- 
poser; organist at the Cathedral of 
Tivoli and maestro di cappella at the 
Apollinaris church in Rome. He had 
great influence in the development of 
monody, especially in perfecting the 
recitative, and enriching instrumental 
accompaniment; his pupils included 
Scarlatti, Cesti, J. R. Kerll, Christian 
Rernard, Krieger and M. A. Charpentier. 
He composed many oratorios, cantatas, 
and other sacred works of which many 
have been lost. The 15 oratorios that 
have been preserved (in the Paris 
Ribliotheque, Cons. Library, Rritish 
Museum, Christ Church, Oxford, Rerlin 
Royal Library) are as follows: 'Abra- 
ham and Isaac,' 'Ralthasar,' Diluvium 
universale, Extremum Dei judicium, 
Ezechia, Felicitas beatorum, Historia 
divitis, 'Jeptha,' 'Hiob,' 'Jonas,' Judi- 
cium Salomonis, Lamerntatio damna- 
torum, Lucifer, Martyres, Vis frugi et 
pater familias. Of the printed works 
(masses in 5 and 9 voices, etc., 1665, 
Arion Romanus, 1-5 voices, 1670, Sacri 
concerti in 2-5 voices, 1675) only a 
few copies remain, and single motets 
are to be found in collections issued 
between 1646 and 1693. An ars can- 
tandi is preserved only in German 
translations. R. was the first to dif- 
ferentiate the oratorio from the opera 
nnd perfect the form of the cantata. 
Through his pupils he exerted an in- 
fluence upon the development of opera, 
which though good in a purely musical 
sense, resulted in the degeneration of 
the opera as a music drama. Ref.: I. 
386f; V. 160; VI. 230, 247; IX. 16, 18; 
mus. ex., XIII. 117. 

CARL, William Crane (1865- ): 
b. Rloomfield, N. J.; studied with 
Warren, Schiller and Guilmant; or- 
ganist and conductor in New York, 
where he is also director of the Guil- 
mant Organ School; tours as concert- 

CARLYLE, Thomas, English writer. 
Ref.: II. 213; VI. 466; IX. 73. 

CARMEN, Johannes (early 15th 
cent.) : one of the 'three distinguished 
Parisian' masters mentioned in Martin 
Le Franc's Champion des Dames (c. 
1440), the other two being Tapissier 
and Cesaris. Of his writings only 
one extended setting, Pontifici decori 
speculi (reprinted in Stainer's 'Dufay 
and His Contemporaries') is preserved. 

CARMENCITA: Spanish dancer. 
Ref.: X. 210. 

CARMICHAEL, Mary Grant: b. 
Rirkenhead, Eng. ; studied with Rerin- 
ger, Rache, Hartvigson and Prout; com- 
posed an operetta, 'The Snow Queen,' 
songs, a suite for pianoforte, etc.; and 
translated Ehrlich's 'Celebrated Pian- 
ists of the Past and Present' (1894). 

CARNABY, William (1772-1839) : b. 
London, d. there; organ composer. 


CARNALL, Arthur (1852-1904) : b. 
Petersborough, d. Penge; organist at 
the latter place; composed an overture, 
quintets, etc. 

CARNEGIE, Andrew, contemp. 
American capitalist; built Carnegie 
Concert Hall, New York; Pres. N. Y. 
Oratorio Society, etc. Ref.: TV. 211. 

(1789-1855): b. Tarega, Catalonia, d. 
Madrid; studied in Urgel and Rarce- 
lona; conductor of Italian opera at 
Rarcelona and Royal opera in Madrid; 
professor of composition at Madrid 
Conservatory; composed 9 operas, sym- 
phonies, church music, etc. 

CARO (1) Marco (15th-16th cent.): 
composer of frottole at the court of Man- 
tua. (2) Paul (1859- ): b. Rreslau; 
studied there and at the Vienna Con- 
servatory ; composed 5 symphonies, sin- 
fonietta, overtures, 2 operas, 2 cantatas, 
2 serenades for string orchestra, sym- 
phonic poems, etc. 

CARON, Philippe (15th cent.) : con- 
trapuntist in the style of his masters, 
Rinchois and Dufay; composed masses 
and chansons, only a few of which 
still exist. 

CARPANI, Giuseppe Antonio (1752- 
1825): b. Villalbese, Como,v d. Vienna; 
poet at the Viennese court; author of 
books on Haydn and Rossini; opera- 

CARPENTER, John Alden (1876-) : 
b. Illinois; studied at Harvard Univ., 
with Rernard Ziehn and Edward El- 
gar; engaged in business in Chicago. 
He composed notable songs (some with 
orchestra), a violin sonata, 'Adven- 
tures in a Perambulator' (suite for or- 
chestra), a symphony, etc. Ref.: rV. 
427f; portrait, IV. 408. 

CARPENTRAS (II Carpentrasso). 
See Genet, Eleazer. 

CARR (1) Benjamin (18th cent.): 
composer of the first American opera, 
'The Archers' (1796). Ref.: IV. 112. 
(2) Frank Osmond (1858- ) : b. York- 
shire; Mus. Doc. and composer of dra- 
matic music, including farces, bur- 
lesques and comic operas. 

CARRfi, Albert (1852- ): b. 
Strassburg; nephew of Michel C, 
the librettist; studied in the Lycee 
there; dir. theatre at Nancy, 1884; 
Cercle at Aix-les-Rains, 1885-90; suc- 
ceeded Carvalho as dir. of the Opera- 
Comique, which position he held from 
1898 to 1912; composed for the stage. 
Ref.: II. 205; IX. 180, 238, 240, 

CARRENO, Teresa (1853- ): b. 
Caracas, Venezuela; studied with Gott- 
schalk and Mathias; toured the United 
States, 1875; Germany, 1889-90; became 
court pianist to king of Saxony, 1893; 
has played in all the principal cities 
of Europe and America; composed a 
string quartet in R, brilliant piano 
pieces, and the Venezuelan national 
hymn. She was married successively 
to E. Sauret (q.v.), Giov. Tagliapietra 



(baritone), E. d'Albert (q.v.) and Ar- 
turo Tagliapietra. 

CARRERAS, Rafael: pub. El Ora- 
torio Musical (1906). Ref.: VI. 232. 

CARRODUS, John Tiplady (1836- 
1895): b. Braithwaite, d. London; vir- 
tuoso on violin which he studied in 
Stuttgart and London; concert violinist 
and conductor; teacher at the London 
National Training School; composer 
of violin solos, etc. 

CARROLL., Marcus H., contemp. 
Anglo-American clergyman and com- 
poser of songs, part songs, orch. pieces, 
etc. Ref.: IV. 354. 

CARSE, A. von Ahn (1878- ) : b. 
Newcastle-on-Tyne ; writer of 2 sym- 
phonies (C and D), 1 concert overture; 
Prelude to 'Manfred,' 'The Death of 
Tintagiles,' and a cantata, 'The Lay of 
the Brown Bosary' (1902). Ref.: III. 443. 

CARTER, Thomas (ca. 1735-1804) : 
d. London; studied in Italy; organist, 
theatre conductor and dramatic com- 
poser; wrote incidental music, a con- 
certo for bassoon and piano; sonatas 
for the piano, songs, etc. 

CARTESIUS. See Descartes. 

CARTIER, Jean-Baptiste (1765- 
1841): b. Avignon, d. Paris; studied 
with Viotti; accompanist to Marie An- 
toinette, violinist at Opera, and in the 
royal chapel, 1804. He wrote variations 
and other violin music, also 2 operas. 
Ref.: VII. 407, 412, 428. 

CARULLI (1) Ferdinando (1770- 
1841) : b. Naples, d. Paris; guitar- 
player whose method is the founda- 
tion of modern guitar-playing; com- 
posed many works for his instrument; 
wrote a guitar method and a treatise 
on harmony (Paris, 1825). (2) Gus- 
tavo (1800-1877): son of (1); b. Leg- 
horn, d. Boulogne; vocal composer 
and teacher; wrote an opera, songs and 
vocal exercises. 

CARUSO (1) Luigi (1754-1822): 
b. Naples, d. Perugia; maestro di cap- 
pella at Perugia Cathedral; composed 
69 operas, 5 oratorios and church mu- 
sic. (2) Enrico (1873- ) : celebrated 
operatic tenor; b. Naples, studied under 
Guglielmo Vergine; debut in L'Amico 
Francesco at Theatre Nuovo, Naples, 
1894; has sung in Milan, St. Peters- 
burg, Moscow, Warsaw, Bome, Berlin, 
Paris, London, New York, etc.; Italian 
and French repertoire. He created prin- 
cipal tenor role in 'The Girl of the 
Golden West' (Puccini). Ref.: III. 374; 
IV. 149, 155; IX. 485. 

CARVALHO (Carvaille), Leon 
(1825-1897) : b. in a French colony, d. 
Paris; noted impresario; managed va- 
rious operas in Paris from 1872 to 
1887; Opera-Comique from 1876; mar- 
ried Mile. Miolan, famous soprano, 1853. 

Marie-Felix (1837-1895): b. Mar- 
seilles, d. near Dieppe; studied at the 
Conservatoire; debut at the Opera- 
Comique, 1849; sang leading roles in 
many of the principal operas. 


CARY, Annie Louise (1842- ) : b. 
Wayne, Kentucky; studied in Boston 
and Milan; concert and operatic con- 
tralto at Copenhagen, Hamburg, Stock- 
holm, Brussels, London, New York, 
St. Petersburg and the United States. 

CASALI, Giovanni Battista (ca. 
1715-1792): b. Bome, d. there; con- 
ductor at the Lateran; composed in 
the style of the Bo man School; wrote 
4 operas and 3 oratorios. 

CASALS, Pablo (1876- ) : b. Veu- 
drell, Spain; brilliant 'cellist and com- 
poser. He studied with Garcia, Bose- 
reda and Breton; in 1897 he accepted 
a professorship at the Conservatory of 
Barcelona; toured extensively in 
Europe and U. S., where he appeared 
frequently in conjunction with Harold 
Bauer, the pianist. His works include 
'cello and violin pieces with piano, 
orchestral works and La Vision de 
Fray Martin. He married Susan Met- 
calfe, English singer. Ref.: portrait, 
VII. 596. 

CASAMORATA, Luigi Fernando 
(1807-1881): b. Wurzburg, d. Florence; 
studied law and music; composed un- 
successful ballet and opera, then wrote 
church-music. He founded the Boyal 
Istituto musicale florentino and pub- 
lished a history of its origin. Besides 
critical and historical essays, he wrote 
compositions for voice and instruments 
and published a manual on harmony. 

CASATI, Gasparo (d. 1643) ; Novara; 
chapel master of the cathedral there, 
and composer of church music. 

. CASELLA (1) Pietro (13th cent.) : 
earliest composer of madrigals; friend 
of Dante. (2) Alfredo (1883- ) : b. 
Turin; studied at the Paris Conserva- 
toire; professor there, 1912-15; pro- 
fessor at the Liceo musicale di S. 
Cecilia since 1915; composed a large 
amount of chamber music, orchestral 
works, piano pieces and songs. Ref.: 
III. xxi. 

CASERTA, Philippe de (15th cent.) : 
Neapolitan theorist; wrote on meas- 
ured music; one treatise published in 
Coussemaker's Scriptores. 

CASINI, Giovanni Maria (1670-after 
1714) : b. Florence, where he was ca- 
thedral organist from 1703. He pub. 
Canzonetti Spirituali, motets, organ 
pieces, etc. He advocated the re-intro- 
duction of the old modes and con- 
structed a clavier with 31 notes to the 

CASSELL, Guillaume (1794-1836): 
b. Lyons, d. Brussels; singer and 

CASSIODORUS, Magnus Aurelius 
(5th cent.) : theoretician at Sylla- 
ceum, Lucania; his Institutiones Mu- 
sicale was printed in the Scriptores of 
Gerbert. Ref.: (cited) I. 135, 148. 

CASTAN, Armand de (1834-1897) : b. 
Toulouse, d. New York; operatic bari- 
tone; sang at the Opera, London 
Italian opera, and in New York. His 
repertoire, which was extensive, in- 



eluded bass and baritone roles, among 
them Mephistopheles. 

CASTELLI, Iguaz Franz (1781- 
1862): b. Vienna, d. there; poet at the 
court, editor of a musical journal which 
he founded; composer, librettist of 
Weigl's Schweizerfamilie and other 

CASTELMARY. Pseudonym of 
Castan, Akmand de. 

CASTIL-BLAZE [Blaze], Francois 
Henry Joseph (1784-1857): b. Cavail- 
lon (Vancluse), d. Paris; pupil of his 
father, H. Sebastien Blaze (1763- 
1833), a notary but also active as com- 
poser and poet. C.-B. studied law in 
Paris and attended the Conservatoire; 
in 1820 he left the law and settled in 
Paris as musical litterateur and critic 
of the Revue de Paris, Journal des 
Debats, etc., for which he wrote his- 
torical articles (in part pub. separate- 
ly). He also wrote L'Opera en France 
(1820, 1826) ; Dictionnaire de musique 
moderne (1821, 1825; repub. with ad- 
ditions by Mees, 1828) ; Chapelle-mu- 
sique des rois de France (1832) ; Physi- 
ologie du musicien (1844) ; Moliere 
musicien (1852, 2 vols.) ; Theatres 
lyriques de Paris (1847-56, 3 vols.) ; 
Sur Vopera francais (1856) ; L'art des 
vers lyriques (1858). He translated 
German and Italian opera texts (Don 
Giovanni, Figaro, Freischutz, Barbiere, 
Euryanthe, etc.) into French. His son 
is Henry Blaze de Bury (q. v.). Ref.: 
(quoted) X. 80f, 93, 100, 131. 

CASTILLON, Alexis de (Vicomte de 
Saint-Victor) (1838-1873) : b. Chartres, 
d. Paris; was pupil of Masse, then 
Cesar Franck. Together with Duparc 
and Saint-Saens, C. was a founder of 
the Societe nationale de musique, but 
an early death put an end to his cre- 
ative activity. His works are among 
the first serious orchestra and chamber 
music written by Frenchmen. They 
include Symphonic Sketches, two 
'Suites,' an overture, a piano con- 
certo and other piano pieces, much 
music for strings alone and with piano, 
and songs. Ref.: III. xvlii, 212f. 

CASTRTJCCI, Pietro (1689-1752) : b. 
Rome, d. Dublin; violinist, pupil of 
Corelli; leader of Handel's opera or- 
chestra in London, 1715. C. was the 
inventor of the violetta marina, re- 
sembling the viol d'amore in tone. 
Handel in Orlando wrote an aria, ac- 
companied by two violette marine 
(played by C. and his brother Prospero). 
C. wrote violin concertos, and 2 books 
of violin-sonatas. Ref.: VIII. 87. (2) 
Prospero (d. London, 1760) : violinist in 
the Italian Opera, wrote 6 soli for violin 
and bass. 

CATALANI (1) Angelica (1779-1849) : 
b. Sinigaglia, d. Paris; celebrated oper- 
atic soprano whose voice ranged up to 
g"', was very flexible and capable of 
brilliant bravura singing. She made 
her debut at Venice, 1795, then sang at 
La Pergola, Florence, La Scala, Milan, 



1801, and Lisbon, where she married 
an attache of the French embassy. 
In Paris she sang only in concert. 
Her London debut was made at the 
King's Theatre, 1806, and she is said 
to have earned there £16,700 in one 
year. She returned to Paris after 7 
years to manage the Theatre Italien, 
from which she retired, 1817, and 
toured Europe 10 years, living in Flor- 
ence after 1828. Ref.: II. 185. (2) Al- 
fredo (1854-1898): b. Lucca, d. Milan; 
studied with his father and F. Magi; 
later at the Paris Cons, and at Milan 
Cons.; wrote operas, orchestral and 
piano pieces, chamber music, etc. 

CATEL, Charles-Simon (1773-1830) : 
b. L'Aigle, Orne; d. Paris; studied at 
the Paris Ecole Royale du Chant (later 
the Conservatoire), where he was ac- 
companist and professor; professor of 
harmony at the Conservatoire, 1795; 
wrote a Traite d'harmonie (pub. 1802, 
used at Conservatoire 20 years) ; mem- 
ber of Academy, 1815; wrote operas, 
cantatas, chamber music, etc. 

CATELANI, Angelo (1811-1866) : b. 
Guastalla, d. S. Martino di Mugnano; 
studied at Naples Cons.; later with 
Donizetti and Crescentini; conductor 
of Messina opera, maestro di cappella 
at the cathedral and court at Modena; 
wrote 3 operas, also a musical history. 

CATENHAUSEN, Ernst (1841-) : 
b. Ratzeburg; conductor and composer. 

CATHERINE, Empress of Russia. 
Ref.: II. 15, 16, 40; III. 41; X. 141. 

CATOIRE, Georg Lvovitch (1861-) : 
b. Moscow; was a pupil of Klindworth 
and Willborg in that city; afterward 
of Riifer in Berlin and Liadoff in St. 
Petersburg. C. lives in Moscow and 
has thus far published a symphony 
(C min., Op. 7) ; a symphonic poem, 
Mzyri (after Lermontoff) ; a cantata, 
Russalka; a trio, violin sonatas, a 
string quartet, a piano concerto, piano 
pieces, songs and choruses. Ref.: HI. 
154; VI. 396. 

CATRUFO, Giuseppe (1771-1851) : b. 
Naples, d. London; composer of operas. 

CAURROY, Francois-Eustache du 
(1549-1609) : b. Gerberoy, d. Paris ; 
singer, conductor and superintendent 
of music at Paris court; composed 

CAVACCIO, Giovanni (ca. 1556- 
1626) : b. Bergamo, d. Rome; maestro 
di cappella at Bergamo, composer of 
church music, madrigals, canzonets, 

CAVAILLfi-COLIi, Aristide (1811- 
1899) : b. Montpellier, d. Paris ; famous 
organ-builder, which profession his 
father, Dom Hvacinthe C.-C. (1771- 
1862), also followed. C.-C. built the 
organ at St. Denis, 1833; also those of 
St. Sulpice, Madeleine, and other Paris 
churches, as well as in Belgium, Hol- 
land and various parts of France. The 
system of separate wind-chests with 
different pressures for the low, medium, 
and high tones, also the flutes octavi- 


antes are his inventions. He pub. 
Etudes expdrimentales sur les tuyaux 
d'orgue (1849) ; De Vorgue et de son 
architecture (1856), and Projet d'orgue 
monumental pour la Basilique de Saint 
Pierre de Rome (1875). Ref.: VI. 407, 

CAVALIERI (1) Emilia de> (ca. 
1550-1599) : d. Florence, as Inspector- 
General of Art and Artists to the Tuscan 
court. He was one of the originators 
of the stile rappresentativo (accom- 
panied monody) and his oratorio, Rap- 
presentazione di anima e di corpo 
(Rome, 1600), is the first application 
of that style to sacred music. He also 
wrote II Satiro (1590), Disperazione di 
Filene (1590), and Giuoco delta cieca 
(1595), which are among the very 
first operatic attempts. Ref.: I. 328f, 
334ff, 385; VI. 100, 101 (footnote), 244f, 
227; VIII. 82; IX. 8, 16, 21f; mus. ex., 
XIII. 55. (2) Lina (1874- ): b. 
Rome; operatic soprano; debut at 
Royal Theatre, Lisbon, as Nedda in 
/ Pagliacci; has sung in Naples, War- 
saw, London, New York, etc. 

CAVALLI, Francesco (real name 
Caletti-Bruni) (1602-1676): b. Cre- 
ma, d. Venice; son of a maestro at 
Crema named Caletti and surnamed 
Rruni, and protege of a Venetian noble- 
man, Federigo Cavalli, whose name he 
adopted. He was engaged as singer 
at S. Marco in 1617 and 1628, and 
second organist in 1640, and first or- 
ganist in 1665, becoming maestro in 
1668. His Giasone (Venice, 1649) went 
the rounds of Italy; Serse (Venice, 
1654) was chosen for the marriage 
festivities of Louis XIV (1660), and 
with Ercole amante the hall of the 
Tuileries was inaugurated. C. also 
composed a fine Requiem and other 
church music. He studied with Monte- 
verdi and wrote 41 operas, which de- 
veloped his master's style in the di- 
rection of melodic freedom and con- 
sequent decline of dramatic significance. 
Ref.: I. 346, 380ff, 407; II. 181; V. 
159f; VII. 6; IX. 14, 15, 23, 29, 67; 
mus. ex., XIII. 61. 

CAVAL.L.INI, Ernesto (1807-1873) : 
b. Milan, d. there; performer on clari- 
net and composer for that instru- 

CAVAIiLO, Peter (1819-1892) : b. 
Munich, d. Paris; organist in various 
Paris churches. 

CAVENDISH, Michael (late 16th 
cent.) : English composer. 

CAVOS, Catterino (1776-1840): b. 
Venice, d. St. Petersburg; studied with 
Rianchi; maestro di cappella, Imperial 
Theatre, St. Petersburg, and conductor 
of Russian opera there, composed Rus- 
sian, Italian and French operas, can- 
tatas, ballets, choruses, etc. See Ad- 
denda. Ref.: III. 41; IX. 380, 382. 

CAYLUS, Anne Claude Philippe de 
Tubieres, Comte de (1692-1765): b. 
Paris, d. there; writer on ancient mu- 
sic (Paris, 1752), 


CECILIA. See Cecilia. 

CELBGA, Nicolo (1844-1906): b. 
Polesella, d. Milan; studied at Milan 
Cons.; composed operas, symphonic 
poems, instrumental pieces, transcrip- 
tions, etc. 

CEL.ESTINE I, Pope. Ref.: I. 143. 

CELESTINO, Eligio (1739-1812) : b. 
Rome, d. Ludwigslust; conductor at 
the court there; teacher in London and 
composer of sonatas for violin and 
bass, duos for 'cello and violin. 

CELLER, Ludovic (pseud, for Louis 
Leclerq) (1828- ): b. Paris; pub. La 
semaine sainte au Vatican (1876), Les 
origines de I'opera et le 'Ballet de la 
Reine' (1868), Moliere-Lully : Le mariage 
force [Le Ballet du roi] (1867), Les 
decors, les costumes et la mise en 
scene au XVIII* siecle (1869). 

CELL.ES, Dom Jean Francois Be- 
dos de (1706[?]-1779[?]) : b. Caux, d. St. 
Maur; Renedictine monk; author of 
L'Art du facteur des orgues (Paris, 1766- 
1778), and an account of the new organ 
at St. Martin de Tours in Mercure de 
France (Jan. 1762). Ref.: VI. 445. 

CELLIER, Alfred (1844-1891): b. 
Hackney, London, d. there; studied 
with T. Helmore; conductor in Relfast, 
Manchester, London; composer of a 
mass, 14 operettas, an opera, 'Pan- 
dora,' a symphonic suite, popular 
songs, etc. 

CEREZO, Sebastian: Spanish danc- 
er. Ref.: X. 109. 

CERNOHORSKY. See Czernohor- 


CERONE, Domenico Pietro (b. Rer- 
gamo, 1566) : singer at the courts of 
Spain and Naples ; pub. El melopeo, etc. 
(1613), and Regole necessarie, etc. 
(1609). Ref.: VIII. 69f. 

CERRETO, Scipione (1551-ca. 1632) : 
b. Naples, d. there; pub. treatises on 
musical theory (2 pub., 1 MS.) at Na- 
ples; lutenist and composer. 

CERRITO, Fanny, ballerina. See 
Saint-Leon. Ref.: X. 158f. 

CERTON, Pierre (ca. 16th cent.): 
choir master in Paris; contrapuntist 
and composer of masses, magnificats, 
chansons, motets, etc., included in col- 
lections by Rallard, Attaignant, and 
Phalese; pupil of Joaquin. 

CEIlfj, Domenico Agostini (b. 
Lucca, 1817) : musical amateur whose 
profession was engineering; pub. biog- 
raphy of Roccherini and a History of 
Music in Lucca. 

CERVANTES: the author of Don 
Quixote. Ref.: VIII. 400; X. 145. 

CERVENf. See Czerveny. 

CERVETTI. See Gelinek. 

CESI, Beniamino (1845-1907): b. 
Naples, d. there; studied at Naples 
Cons, and privately; taught at the 
Naples Cons, and at the St. Petersburg 
Cons.; editor of L'Archivio Musicale; 
concertized in Italy, also Paris, Cairo, 
Alexandria, etc.; composed 60 piano 
pieces, songs, opera and a piano 



CESTI, Marc' Antonio (1620-1669): 
b. Arezzo, d. Venice; was a pupil of 
Carissimi at Rome; maestro di cappella 
to Ferdinand II de' Medici, Florence, 
1646: tenor in the papal choir, 1660; 
Vice-Kapellmeister at the Vienna court, 
1666-69. His operas include Orontea 
(Venice, 1649), La Dori (ib., 1663), both 
of which were very successful. He 
also prod. II principe generoso (Vienna, 
1665), II porno d'oro (ib., 1666), Tito 
(Venice, 1666), Nettuno e Flora Festeg- 
gianti (ib., 1666), Semiramide (ib., 
1667), Le Disgrazie d'Amore (ib., 1667), 
Argene (1668), Genserico, and Argia 
(ib., 1669). With C. is supposed to 
have begun the degeneration of the 
opera into a mere 'concert in cos- 
tume' since he transmitted the Caris- 
simi formalism to the stage (da capo 
aria, etc.). He also wrote madrigals, 
songs, etc., and transferred the cantata, 
perfected by Carissimi, to the stage. 
Ref.: I. 328f; VI. 105; IX. 15f, 67. 

CHABRAN, Francesco (18th cent.) : 
b. Piedmont; aroused enthusiasm in 
Paris and London as violin virtu- 
oso; composed violin sonatas and can- 

CHABRIER, Alexis Emanuel (1841- 
1894) : b. Ambert, d. Paris ; studied 
piano with Ed. Wolff, and theory and 
composition with T. A. E. Semet and 
Aristide Hignard. L'etoile, his first op- 
eretta, was produced 1877 (after vari- 
ous unsuccessful operatic attempts 
which were not staged). More im- 
portant were his grand operas, Gwen- 
doline (Brussels, 1886), and Le roi 
malgre lui (Paris, 1887). The first 
act of his uncompleted opera, Briseis, 
was first presented at a Lamoureux 
concert in 1897. C.'s rhapsody Espafia, 
for orchestra, is a favorite reper- 
tory number. He also wrote piano 
pieces. C. was choral director at the 
Chateau d'Eau, 1884-85, and aided 
Lamoureux in the rehearsing of Tris- 
tan und Isolde. Ref.: III. viii, ix, xviii, 
2, 286, 341; V. 354; VII. 353, 366; VIII. 
427ff; IX. 443, 454, 457; mus. ex., XrV. 
83; portrait, III. 298. 

CHADWICK, George Whitfield 
(1854- ) : b. Lowell, Mass.; American 
composer; pupil of Eugene Thayer at 
Boston, and Reinecke and Jadassohn in 
the Leipzig Cons.; later of Rheinberger 
in Munich. He became organist of the 
South Congreg. church, and teacher of 
harmony, composition and orchestra- 
tion at the New England Cons., in 
Boston. In 1897 he succeeded Faelten 
as director. He also conducted the 
Worcester Music Festival. His com- 
positions include 3 symphonies, 7 over- 
tures, symphonic poem sketches, fan- 
tasy, suite, 5 string quartets, a piano 
quartet, choral works with orch., an 
opera 'Judith,' a comic opera 'Tabasco,' 
songs, etc.; pub. a 'Harmony' (1898). 
Ref.: TV. 248f, 311, 337/, 357, 462; 
VI. 221, 381, 464; VII. 589; mus. 
ex., XIV. 212, 215; portrait, IV. 342. 

Chapi y Iiorente 

CHALIAPINE, Theodore (1873-) : 
b. Kazan, Russia; operatic bass; joined 
an opera company at 17; has sung in 
St. Petersburg, Moscow, Paris, Lon- 
don, New York, etc., leading r61es in 
Boris Goudunoff, 'Ivan the Terrible,' 
'Prince Igor,' La Khovanstchina, Me- 
fistofele, etc. Ref.: IX. 398. 

CHAMBERLAIN, Houston Stewart 
(1855- ) : contemp. aesthetician and 
writer, authority on Wagner. He pub. 
Das Drama Richard Wagners (Leip- 
zig, 1892), and Richard Wagner (Mu- 
nich, 1896). The latter has been 
translated into English by G. A. Hisht 
(London, 1897). Ref.: (cited) IX.259,296. 

CHAMBERLYN (ca. 1509) : English 
organ builder. Ref.: VI. 405. 

Champion (17th cent.) : chamber-cem- 
balist at the French court; composer of 
clavecin compositions and teacher of 
many famous pupils, among them the 
elder Couperins, d'Anglebert, Le Begue, 
etc. Ref.: I. 375; VI. 442; VII. 27, 32, 
33, 104. 

CHAMINADE, Cecile-Louise-Steph- 
anie (1861- ): b. Paris; pianist and 
composer; studied with Lecouppey, 
Savard, and Marsick, and composition 
with Godard. She composed a ballet- 
symphonie Callirhoe (1888), a sym- 
phonie-lyrique, Les Amazones (1888), 
2 orchestral suites, a Konzertstuck for 
piano and orchestra and a great num- 
ber of piano pieces, some of which 
have become very popular; also many 
songs. Ref.: V. 318; VII. 342. 

CHAMPEIN, Stanislas (1753- 

1830): b. Marseilles, d. Paris; studied 
with Peccico and Chavet, Paris; com- 
posed church music, 2 operettas and 
40 operas before 1792; after that date 
he wrote 15 operas, none of which were 

CHAMPINGTON, J. (16th cent.): 
English organ maker. 

CHAMPION, Jacques. See Cham- 


CHAMPS, Ettore de (1835-1905) : b. 
Florence, d. there; was educated as a 
pianist and composer, wrote several 
operas, skits (farse) and ballets; and 
in addition composed masses and other 
church music. 

CHANDOS, Duke of. Ref.: I. 433f. 

CHANNAY, Jean de (16th cent.) : 
Avignon music printer. 

CHANTAVOINE, Jean (1877- ): 

b. Paris; studied with Friedlander, 
1898, 1901-02; music critic on the 
Revue Hebdomadaire since 1903; on 
Excelsior since 1911; has been editor 
of L'Annee Musicale and Les Maltres 
de la Musique; wrote Musiciens et 
Poetes (Paris, 1912). 

(1851-1909): b. Villena, d. Madrid; 
studied at the Madrid Cons.; later in 
Rome on a grant from the Spanish 
Academy; wrote several operas, but 
is especially well known for his zar- 
zuelas, of which he has written 155. 



CHAPMAN (1): English masque 
writer. Ref.: VI. 141. (2) William 
Rogers (1855- ): b. Hanover, Mass. ; 
chorus-leader and conductor in New 
York and New England; conductor of 
the Maine Music Festivals; composer 
of church music, choral works, songs, 

CHAPPELL & CO.: music publish- 
ing house of London, founded in 1812 
by Samuel Chappell, Cramer, the 
pianist, and Latour. William C. 
(1809-1888), son of Samuel, succeeded 
his father in 1834; established the 
'Antiquarian Society,' 1840; pub. col- 
lections of music, songs and an unfin- 
ished history of music. 

CHAPPLE, Samuel (1775-1833) : b. 
Crediton, Devon, d. Ashburton; blind 
organist and pianist; composed piano- 
forte sonatas with violin accompani- 
ment, anthems, songs, a glee, etc. 

CHAPUIS, Auguste - Paul - Jean - 
Baptiste (1862- ): b. Dampierre- 
sur-Salon; studied under Dubois, 
Massenet and Cesar Franck; took the 
Rossini prize, 1885; organist at Notre- 
Dame-des-Champs. 1882-87, and at 
Saint-Roch since then; professor of har- 
mony at the Conservatoire since 1894; 
inspector-general of musical instruction 
of the schools in Paris since 1895; 
wrote dramas, cantatas, oratorios, in- 
strumental pieces, choruses, organ mu- 
sic and a treatise on harmony. 

CHARD, G. W. (ca. 1765-1849) : Eng- 
lish organist and composer. 

CHARLEMAGNE. Ref.: V. 131; VI. 
I7f, 400. 

CHARLES (1) I, King of England. 
Ref. : X. 84. (2) II, King of England. Ref. : 
VI. 90; X. 119, 145. (3) VIII, Emperor 
of Germany. Ref.: II. 64. (4) IX, King 
of France. Ref.: VI. 57. (5) X, King 
of France. Ref.: II. 188. (6) XI, King 
of France. Ref.: VII. 375. 

CHARLIER, Theodore (1876- ): 
virtuoso on trumpet. 

CHARPENTIER (1) Marc-Antoine 
(1634-1702): b. Paris, d. there; pupil 
of Carissimi in Italy; maitre de cha- 
pelle to the Dauphin in Paris, which he 
lost through Lully's machinations; 
maitre de chapelle to Mile, de Guise; 
then at the Jesuit collegiate church and 
monastery, and finally of the Sainte- 
Chapelle; for a time also intendant 
to the Due d'Orleans. He wrote 16 
operas and other stage music, also sev- 
eral tragedies spirituelles, masses, mo- 
tets, pastorales, drinking-songs, etc. C, 
aggrieved by Lully, avoided the lat- 
ter's style, probably to his own preju- 
dice, though Fetis considers him supe- 
rior to Lully in learning. Ref.: I. 410. 
(2) Gustave (1860- ): b. Dieuze; 
composer; studied violin with Massart, 
harmony with Pessard, composition 
with Massenet at the Conservatoire, 
where he took the grand prix de Rome 
in 1887. C. first became known through 
his orchestral suite, Impressions d' 
ltalie, sent to the Cons, from Italy, fol- 


lowed by La vie du poete, for soli, 
chorus and orchestra, after Baudelaire; 
Impressions fausses, for chorus and 
orchestra, after Verlaine; Louise, an 
opera (1900) ; Julien, a lyric drama 
(1913). Ref.: II. 439; III. viii, ix, 
3U8ff; VIII. 429f ; IX. xiii, xiv, 253, 443, 
opera, IX. U6Uff ; portrait, III. 298. 

CHATTERTON, J. B. (1805-1871) : b. 
Norwich, d. London; harpist and com- 
poser to the court. 

CHAUMET, William (1842-1903) : b. 
Bordeaux; winner of the Cressent and 
the Rossini prizes; composer of two 
comic operas, a lyric drama, composi- 
tions for orchestra and for piano, songs, 

CHAUSSON, Ernest (1855-1899) : b. 
Paris, d. Limay near Mantes; was a 
pupil of Massenet and Cesar Franck 
at the Conservatoire. C. held for a 
long time office of secretary of the 
Society nationale de musique. His com- 
positions have awakened interest be- 
cause of their distinction and indi- 
viduality: among them are a sym- 
phony in B flat; a symphonic poem, 
Vivaine; hymns from the Rig-Veda 
for chorus and orchestra; Poeme de 
I'amour et de la mer (song with or- 
chestra) ; a violin concerto ; a string 
quartet (unfinished) ; a lyric scene, 
Jeanne d'Arc, some incidental music 
to plays; also the operas He- 
lene and Le roi Arthus (Karlsruhe, 
1900; Brussels, 1903), a number of songs 
and piano pieces and some motets. Ref. : 
III. viii, ix, xiii, 308; songs, V. 355; 
chamber music, VII. 552, 589; sym- 
phony, VIII. 430f ; opera, IX. 454. 

CHAUVET, Charles-Alexis (1837- 
1871) : b. Marnes, d. Argentan; studied 
with Benoist and A. Thomas; organist 
in Paris churches; composer of organ 
music and famed for his improvisa- 
tions on the organ. 

CHAVANNE, Irene von (1868- ) : 
b. Graz; studied at the Vienna Cons.; 
alto at the Dresden Court Opera from 
1885; royal chamber singer, 1894. 

CHEESE, G. J. (18th cent.) : London 
organist and writer. 

CHELARD, Hippolyte-Andre-Jean- 
Baptiste (1789-1861) : b. Paris, d. Wei- 
mar; studied under Fetis, Gossec and 
Dourlen; took the grand prix de Rome 
in 1881; then studied With Baini, Zin- 
garelli and Paesiello; prod, an opera 
in Naples, 1815. His opera 'Macbeth, 5 
prod, in Paris 1827, was not success- 
ful, but when given in Munich, 1828, 
won him an appointment as Kapell- 
meister; wrote other operas for Mu- 
nich and conducted German opera in 
London, 1832-33; prod, operas in Mu- 
nich and Weimar up to the year 1844. 

CHELIUS, Oskar von (1859- ): 
b. Mannheim; studied under Steinbach, 
Reiss and Jadassohn; entered the army 
and became major-general in 1911; was 
military attache at St. Petersburg, 
1914; wrote operas and sacred music, 
piano pieces and songs. 



CHENEY, Moses E. (19th cent.) : 
American singing teacher; organizer 
(with E. K. Prouty) of first American 
musical 'convention.' Ref. : IV. 244. 

CHERNIAVSKY (1) L.eo (1890-) : 
b. Odessa; violinist; studied with 
Auer, later in Vienna and London. 
(2) Jan (1892- ): b. Odessa; broth- 
er of (1); pianist; studied with 
Mme. Essipoff and later with Lesche- 
tizky. (3) Michel (1893- ): b. 
Odessa; brother of (1) and (2); 'cel- 
list; studied with Versbilovitch and 
later under Popper. The brothers 
toured Russia, 1900; Germany, Hol- 
land and France, 1904; Vienna, Lon- 
don and the provinces, 1906; United 
States and Canada, 1916. 

CHERUBINI, [Maria] Lui&i [Carlo 
Zenobio Salvatore] (1760-1842) : b. 
Florence, d. Paris. His father, a cem- 
balist, was his first teacher; later he 
studied with Bart, and Alex. Felici, 
Bizarri and Castrucci, and finally Sarti, 
to whom he was sent by Leopold II 
of Tuscany (later Emperor). After 
several youthful works he prod, the 
opera Quinto Fabio (Alessandria della 
Paglia, 1780). This, unsuccessful, was 
followed by Armida (Florence, 1782), 
Adriano in Siria (Leghorn, 1782), 
Mesenzio (Florence, 1782), a revised 
version of Quinto Fabio (Rome, 1783), 
ho Sposo di tre e marito di nessuna 
(Venice, 1783), Idalide (Florence, 
1784), and Alessandro nelle Indie 
(Mantua, 1784), which were success- 
ful. In 1784 he brought out 2 operas 
in London (where he was composer 
to the king for a year), La finta prin- 
cipessa (1785), and Giulio Sabino. 
After a year in Paris, he prod. Ifigenia 
in Aulide at Turin; then returned to 
Paris and failed with a French opera 
Demophoon (Opera, 1788). After Leon- 
ard's establishment of a licensed Italian 
opera (Theatre de la foire) at St. Ger- 
main, C. conducted there until 1792. 
His next opera, Lodoiska (1791), began 
the evolution of a different style, akin 
to that of the French opera comique 
composers. In 1795 C. became, with 
Mehul and Lesueur, inspector of the 
new Conservatoire. Meantime he prod. 
Elisa, ou le voyage au mont St. Ber- 
nard (1794), and Medee (1797), fol- 
lowed by L'Hotellerie portugaise 
(1798), La Punition (1799), La Pri- 
sonniere (1799, w. Boieldieu), and Les 
deux journees (1800, considered his op- 
eratic masterpiece), also Anacreon, ou 
Vamour fugitif (1803), and the ballet 
Achille a Scyros (1804). Troubles with 
Napoleon and financial difficulties in- 
duced him to accept the commission 
to set an opera for Vienna. Hence 
Faniska was brought out (with great 
success) in 1806 at the Karnthnerthor 
Theatre. When Napoleon occupied 
Vienna he returned to Paris and wrote 
Pimmaglione (1809), Crescendo (1813), 
Les Abencerages (1814), 2 others in 
part, and after a protracted retire- 


ment turned his attention chiefly to 
church music, composing his famous 
3-part mass in F, a symphony, an 
overture and a Hymn to Spring for 
the London Philharmonic Society. 
After losing his post in the Conserva- 
toire he was made superintendent of 
the Boyal Chapel, and in 1816 returned 
to the Cons, as professor of composi- 
tion, and was its director, 1821-41. His 
works include 1 symphony, 1 overture, 
11 marches, 11 dances, etc., 6 string 
quartets, 1 string quintet; 1 sonata for 
2 organs, 6 piano sonatas, 1 grand fan- 
tasia, 1 minuet, 1 chaconne, and other 
piano music, 1 ballet, 17 cantatas, many 
single arias, romances, nocturnes, duets, 
etc.; 14 choruses, 4 sets of solfeggi, 11 
solemn masses, 2 requiems, many 
Kyries, Glorias, Credos, etc., 1 oratorio, 
motets, hymns, graduals, etc., 1 
Magnificat, 1 Miserere, 1 Te Deum, 4 
litanies, 2 Lamentations, 20 antiphones, 
etc., most of the larger ecclesiastical 
works with orchestral accompaniment. 
His last opera was AU Baba (1833). 
Ref.: II. 40ff; V. 49f; VI. 324, 333f; 
VII. 411; VIII. 101; IX. xi, 111, 112, 
113ff, 123, 205, 225; mus. ex., XIII. 215, 
216; portrait, VIII. 166. 

CHESNIKOFP, P. G.: contemp. Rus- 
sian composer of church music. Ref.: 
III. 143; 161. 

CHEV15, £mile [Joseph Maurice] 
(1804-1864) : b. Douarnenez, Finisterre, 
d. Paris; physician who married 
Nannie Paris (d. 1868), and jointly 
with her and her brother Aime Paris 
(1798-1866, b. Finisterre, d. Paris) pub. 
a series of treatises on Pierre Galin's 
method of elementary music teaching, 
including Methode Galin-Cheve-Paris, 
Methode elementaire d'harmonie (1846), 
Methode elementaire de musique vocale 
(1844, 6th ed., 1854, transl. into Ger- 
man), Exercises elementaires de lec- 
ture musicale a Vusage des icoles 
primaires (1860), and thus became one 
of the chief exponents of the method. 
The methods are based largely on the 
use of numbers instead of notes, and 
the movement of a stick on a blank 
staff known as the meloplast. C.'s son 
Armand continued the method with 
compromising modifications, also edit- 
ed periodical L'avenir musical and 
wrote a Rapport sur I'enseignement du 
chant (1881). 

CHEVILLARD, Camille (1859- ): 
b. Paris; studied piano with Georges 
Mathias; self-taught in composition. 
He was assistant conductor of the 
Lamoureux Concerts till 1897 when he 
succeeded Lamoureux as chief conduc- 
tor. His compositions include 1 sym- 
phonic ballade, Le chene et le roseau, 
1 symphonic poem, and 1 symphonic 
fantasy, 1 string quintet, 1 quartet, 1 
trio, a violin sonata, piano pieces, etc. 
Ref.: III. 285, 363; VIII. 487. 

CHEZY, Helmine (or Wilhelmine) 
[Christine] von (1783-1856) : b. Berlin, 
d. Geneva; wrote the play Rosamunde, 



for which Schubert wrote incidental 
music and the libretto of Weber's 
Eurganthe. Ref.: IX. 121, 200, 202. 
CHIABRAN. See Chabran. 
CHIAROMONTE, Francesco (1809- 
1886): b. Sicily, d. Brussels; studied 
under Donizetti; prod, the opera 
Fenicia at Naples in 1844; professor 
of singing at the Royal Cons.; prod. 
Caterina di Cleves, 1850; became cho- 
rus-master at the Theatre Italien, Paris, 
1858; held a similar position in Lon- 
don and then became professor in the 
Cons, at Brussels, 1871. Besides op- 
eras he wrote an oratorio, Mob' (1884), 
and a singing method. 

CHICKERING & SON: celebrated 
American firm of piano makers, found- 
ed in Boston, 1823, by Jonas dicker- 
ing (1798-1853). His son, Thomas 
E. C. (1824-1871), became Chevalier of 
the Legion of Honor and took the 
first prize for pianos at the Paris Ex- 
position, 1867. 

CHILESOTTI, Oscare (1848- ): 
b. Bassano, Italy; flutist and 'cellist; 
contributor to the Gazzetta Musicale 
and other papers; lectured throughout 
Italy on musical subjects; wrote many 
valuable books, especially on old lute 
music, pub. 1883 to 1911. 

CHITTENDEN, Kate (1856- ): 

b. Hamilton, Ontario, Canada; pianist 
and teacher; taught in London, Stam- 
ford, Conn., New York and Vassar 
College; president of Metropolitan Col- 
lege of Music, and dean of the faculty 
of American Institute of Applied Mu- 
sic. Ref.: P7. 255. 

CHOP, Max (nom de plume <M. 
Charles') (1862- ) : b. Greussen, 
Thuringia; abandoned law for the 
study of music; has written books of 
songs and ballads, 2 piano concertos, 
2 suites for orchestra; pub. Zeitgenos- 
sische Tondichter (2 vols., 1888-90) and 
a work on the history of music (Ber- 
lin, 1912) ; also various 'guides,' etc. 

CHOPIN, [Francois] Frederic 
(1810-1849) : b. Zelazowa Wola, near 
Warsaw, d. Paris; son of a teacher in 
the Warsaw Gymnasium (French by 
birth), and a Polish mother. He was 
educated at his father's private school, 
studied piano with the Bohemian pian- 
ist, Albert Zwyny, theory with Joseph 
Eisner. He first played and improvised 
in public at 9, and subsequently he ap- 
peared as a pianist in Berlin, Danzig, 
Dresden, Leipzig, Prague, etc. His first 
opus (a Rondo) was pub. in 1825, 
though he had earlier written some 
polonaises, mazurkas and waltzes. His 
piano concertos, several mazurkas, 
nocturnes, rondos, etc., followed soon 
after. He now visited as a pianist 
Vienna, Munich, and Paris on his way 
to London, but remained in Paris to 
make it his home. Everywhere he was 
acclaimed as a master of his instru- 
ment, and he quickly won the friend- 
ship of men like Liszt, Berlioz, Meyer- 
beer, Bellini, Nourrit, Balzac, and 


Heine. He was eagerly sought as a 
teacher, chiefly by members of the 
French and Polish aristocracy; and 
every year he gave concerts to the 
musical ilite, but generally preferred 
playing in salons before selected cir- 
cles to public appearances. As com- 
poser, too, he was received with high 
favor, and Schumann's 'Hats off, gen- 
tlemen! A genius!' with which he 
greeted the La ci darem la mano varia- 
tions, voiced the general opinion. In 
many quarters he was the subject of 
fanatic adulation. C. in 1836 met Mme. 
Dudevant, the novelist (George Sand) 
and their subsequent liaison was to 
prove an unfortunate circumstance in 
the life of the over-sensitive artist. 
After an attack of bronchitis which 
he suffered, Mme. Dudevant accompa- 
nied him to Majorca, where she nursed 
him, but the disease developed into 
consumption, and, after parting from 
Mme. D. in 1844, C. visited England 
twice in search of health. He suc- 
cumbed in 1849, leaving an imperish- 
able memory both as a great composer 
and the reformer of pianoforte tech- 
nique, the first exploiter of the instru- 
ment's resources in a characteristic 
manner. His compositions comprise 
74 opus numbers and 12 works with- 
out numbers, as follows: Piano and 
orchestra. 2 concertos (E min., op. 
11; F min., op. 21); Don Giovanni 
Fantasia, op. 2; Krakoviak, Rondo, op. 
14; Polonaise in E-flat, op. 22; and a 
Fantasia on Polish airs. For piano 


tant on themes from Robert le Diable; 
Introd. et Polonaise, op. 3, and Sonata, 
op. 65, for piano and 'cello; piano trio 
in G min., op. 8; a Rondo for 2 pianos 
in C, op. 73. Piano solo. Allegro de 
concert, op. 46; 4 Ballades, op. 23, 38, 
47, 52; Barcarole, op. 60; Berceuse, op. 
57; Bolero, op. 19; 3 ticossaises, op. 72; 
12 Grandes Etudes, op. 10; 12 Etudes, 
op. 25, 3 Etudes; 4 Fantasies, op. 13, 
49, 61, 66; 3 Impromptus, op. 29, 36, 
51; Marche funebre, op. 72; 52 Mazur- 
kas, op. 6, 7, 17, 24, 30, 33, 41, 50, 56, 59, 
63, 67, 68; Morceau de concert sur la 
Marche des Puritains de Bellini; 19 
Nocturnes, op. 9, 15, 27, 32, 37, 48, 55, 
62, 72; 11 Polonaises, op. 3, 26, 40, 44, 
53, 61, 71 ; 24 Preludes, op. 28 ; Prelude, 
op. 45; 3 Rondos, op. 1, 5, 16; 4 
Scherzos, op. 20, 31, 39, 54; 3 Sonatas, 
op. 4, 35, 58; Tarentelle, op. 43; 13 
Valses, op. 18, 34, 42, 64, 69, 70, and 
B min.; Variations on Je vends des 
scapulaires, op. 12; Variation dans 
I'Hexameron. Vocal. 16 Polish Songs, 
op. 74. Ref.: For life and work see II. 
25677, 291, 365, 3Uff ; for songs, V. 256; 
for piano compositions, VII. 55, 132, 
207, 250ff, 284, 305, 333, 342, 367, 428; 
mus. ex., XIII. 339, 340, 341, 343; por- 
traits, II. 312; VII. 268. For add. refer- 
ences see individual indexes. 

CHORLEY, Henry Fothergill (1801- 
1872) : b. Blackley Hurst, Lancashire, 



d. London; music critic of the Lon- 
don 'Athenaeum,' 1833-71. He travelled 
much and had a broad knowledge of 
music, hut his criticism is not of great 
value. He wrote 'Musical Manners in 
France and Northern Germany' (3 vols., 
1841), 'Modern German Music' (1854, 
2 vols.), 'Thirty Years' Musical Recol- 
lections' (2 vols., 1862), 'Autobiog- 
raphy, Memoir, and Letters' (2 vols., 
1873), 'National Music of the World' 
(1880, ed. by Hewlett), 'Handel Stud- 
ies' (1859), and 'Prodigy, a Tale of 
Music' (1866) ; also librettos, and 
translations (Gounod's Faust, etc.). 
Ref.: II. 485; VI. 79, 183, 253; X. 156. 

CHORON, Alexandre - fitienne 
(1772-1834): b. Caen, d. Paris; stu- 
dent of the theory and practice of 
music; edited and published musical 
works and compositions; became di- 
rector of the Opera, 1816; re-opened the 
Conservatoire; pub. a historical dic- 
tionary of musicians (1810-11), a 
Methode elementaire de musique et de 
plainchant (1811), various other books 
on method, a musical encyclopedia (8 
vols., 1836-38), and many other works. 

CHOUftUET, Adolphe - Gustave 

(1819-1886): b. Havre, d. Paris; taught 
music in America, 1840-60, then in 
Paris; won the prix Bordin twice for 
a history of music from the 14th cen- 
tury to modern times (1873) and a 
study of dramatic music in France 
(printed 1873) ; conservator of instru- 
ments at the Cons, from 1871. 

King of Denmark. Ref.: 309. 

CHRISTIANS Elise (1827-1853) : b. 
Paris, d. Tobolsk; 'cellist; made debut 
in Paris, 1845; Mendelssohn wrote a 
Lied ohne Worte for her. 

CHRISTY, Edwin T.: Amer. 'negro' 
minstrel. Ref.: IV. 361ff. 

CHRYSANDER, Friedricft (1826- 
1901) : b. Lubtheen, Mecklenburg, d. 
Bergedorf; critic, editor and historian; 
editor of the Allgemeine musikalische 
Zeitung, 1868-71; co-editor (w. Philipp 
Spitta and Guido Adler) of the Viertel- 
jahrsschrift f. Musikwissenschaft, from 
1885. He edited two Jahrbucher fur 
musikalische Wissenschaft (1863, 1867), 
containing important papers by various 
writers, and wrote, besides important 
articles on Music Printing, the Hamburg 
Opera, etc., pamphlets on the Minor Key 
in Folk-song, the Oratorio and a monu- 
mental biography of Handel (1858- 
1894). He was one of the founders of 
the Leipzig Handel-Gesellschaft, super- 
intended the great Handel edition, has 
edited Bach's clavier works (1856), and 
Carissimi's oratorios in the Denkmdler 
der Tonkunst. Ref.: I. 437, 444; VII. 
53; IX. 33. 

(19th cent.) : archbishop of Durazzo, 
Albania; taught church music in Con- 
stantinople, wrote 'Introduction to the 
Theory and Practice of Church Mu- 
sic,' 1821, and 'Great Theory of Music,' 


1832, in which he simplified the pre- 
vailing method of notation. 

CIAMPI, Legrenaio Vlncenzo 

(1719- ) : b. near Piacenza; indi- 
rectly a founder of the French comic 
opera, as his opera buffa, Bertoldo alia 
corte (Bertoldo Bertoldini e Cacaseno), 
first prod, in Vienna and Piacenza 
(1749 and 1750), and brought to Paris 
in 1753, was imitated by Favart in his 
Ninette a la cour and a whole progeny 
of similar works (also in Germany). 
C. prod, in all 23 operas (Venice, 
Naples, etc., 1737-73) ; went to Lon- 
don in 1748 and prod, a number of 
operas there; also pub. church music, 
including masses, and instrumental 
works (6 violin concertos, 6 organ con- 
certos, 12 trio sonatas, 10 violin so- 
natas with continuo, piano sonatas). 
Ref.: LX. 81. 

CICERO. Ref.: (quoted) X. 72. 

CICOGNANI, Giuseppe (1870- ): 
contemp. Italian opera composer. Ref. : 
III. 384. 

CIFRA, Antonio (ca. 1575-ca. 1636) : 
b. Rome, d. Loretto; composer of the 
Roman school; studied with Pales- 
trina and Nanini; maestro di cappella 
at the German College, Loretto, 1610- 
20; at the Lateran 2 years; for the 
Archduke Carl of Austria, 1822; pub. 
much church music, including motets, 
psalms, masses, antiphones, litanies, 
madrigals, etc. (1600-38). 

CILfiA, Francesco (1866- ) : b. 
Palmi, Calabria; was a pupil of Cesti 
and Serrao, and composer of the op- 
eras: Gina (Naples, 1889); Tilda (Flor- 
ence, 1892) ; L'Arlesiana (Milan, 1896) ; 
Adrienne Lecouvreur (Milan, 1902) ; 
and Gloria (Milan, 1907). Has also 
written chamber music and is now di- 
rector of the conservatory at Palermo. 
Ref.: III. 369. 

CIMAROSA, Homenico (1749-1801) : 
b. Aversa, near Naples, d. Venice, be- 
ing a poor orphan, C. received his 
early training from Polcano, at the 
charity school of Minorites, then at 
the Conservatorio di S. Maria di Lo- 
reto, singing under Manna and Sac- 
chini, counterpoint under Fenaroli, 
composition under Piccini. In 1770 
he prod, an oratorio, Giuditta, in 
Rome; in 1772 his first opera Le Straca- 
ganze del Conte at Naples. His first 
success came with La flnta parigina, 
prod, at the Teatro Nuovo, Naples, in 
the following year. In the next 29 
years he wrote nearly 80 operas; and 
he soon became a rival of Paesiello, 
bringing out operas alternately in 
Rome and Naples and becoming re- 
nowned all over Europe. In 1789 he 
agreed to go to St. Petersburg as Pae- 
siello's successor, and proceeded tri- 
umphantly from court to court. In St. 
Petersburg he stayed 3 years and he 
there produced 3 operas, besides 500 
pieces of music for the court and no- 
bility. The severe climate drove him to 
Vienna, where Emperor Leopold made 



him Kapellmeister at 12,000 florins 
a year. Here he brought out II Matri- 
monii) segreto, his masterpiece, in 1733 
and with it for the time eclipsed all 
rivals, including Mozart. Excepting the 
latter's operas, Matrimonio is the only 
one of all the mass of stage works pro- 
duced in this period that has survived 
to the present day. It was performed 
67 times in Naples in 1793, and was 
followed by Gli Orazi e Curiazi in 
Venice. C. had begun another opera, 
Artemisia, when he suddenly died. He 
had some time before (1798) been im- 
prisoned for revolutionary activities 
and saved from execution only by the 
clemency of King Ferdinand. It was 
rumored that he was finally poisoned 
by order of Queen Caroline of Naples, 
but a posthumous examination dis- 
posed of the charge. P. is known to 
have written 76 operas, of which the 
comic ones (opere buffe) are the best. 
In his II Fanatico per gli antichi Ro- 
mani (1777) he introduced for the first 
time vocal ensembles into the dramatic 
action. He also wrote 7 symphonies, 2 
oratorios, several cantatas, masses, 
psalms, motets, requiems, arias, cava- 
tinas, a great variety of other vocal 
works, solfeggi, etc. Ref.: II. 15; IX. 
39, 69, 130, 131f, 380. 

CIPOLLINI, Gaetano (1857- ): 
b. Catanzaro, Italy; dramatic composer; 
studied with Francesco Coppa; com- 
posed many vocal romanze, piano 
pieces, operettas, lyric comedies, a 
melodrame and an opera. 

CISNEROS, Eleonora de (ne'e 
Broadfoot) (1880- ) : b. New York; 
dramatic mezzo-soprano; studied with 
Mme. Celli, New York, and later with 
Jean de Reszke and Trabadello in 
Paris; debut as Amneris in A'ida in 
Philadelphia, 1900; sang in Milan and 
in Trieste; also appeared in Rio de 
Janeiro, Lisbon, Covent Garden, Lon- 
don, the Vienna Opera and at La Scala, 
Milan; made a concert tour of Bel- 
gium and Germany, 1908, and accom- 
panied Melba on a tour of Australia, 
1911; member of the Manhattan Opera 
Company, and Chicago Opera Company 
since 1910. 

CLAASSEN, Arthur (1859- ): b. 

Stargard, Prussia; studied music at 
Weimar; conductor of theatres in Got- 
tingen and Magdeburg; conducted the 
Arion in Brooklyn for 25 years, also 
the Liederkranz in New York; found- 
ed the San Antonio Symphony So- 
ciety, 1910; pub. 'Festival Hymn,' 
Waltz-Idyll,' songs and choruses. 

CLAPISSON, Antoine-Louis (1808- 
18GJ; : b. Naples, d. Paris; violinist 
and composer; member of the Insti- 
tute of France, 1854; professor of har- 
mony at the Conservatoire, 1861; com- 
posed 21 comic operas and many songs. 

CLAPP, Philip Greeley (1888- ) : 

b. Boston; studied music at Harvard 
Univ.; composer of a symph. poem, a 
symphony, an orchestral prelude, a 


string quartet, piano pieces, songs, etc.; 
instructor in Music at Harvard (1911- 
12), Middlesex School (1912-14), etc.; 
director of music, Dartmouth College, 
since 1915. Ref.: TV. 390. 

CLARI, Giovanni Carlo Maria 
(1669-1754): b. Pisa, d. Pistoja; 
maestro di cappella there; wrote fa- 
mous Duetti e Terzetti da camera 
(1720) ; also masses, psalms, other 
church music, 11 oratorios, and an 

CLARK, Rev. Frederick Scotson 
(1840-1883) : b. London, d. there ; stud- 
ied music in Paris and London; or- 
ganist of Exeter College, Oxford; then 
studied in Leipzig and Stuttgart; found- 
ed London Organ School, 1873; com- 
posed many pieces for the organ and 
harmonium as well as sacred music, 
songs, etc. 

CLARKE (1) Jeremiah (ca. 1670- 
1707): b. London, d. there; chorister 
in the Chapel Royal; Master of the 
Children at St. Paul's, 1693; organist 
of the Chapel Royal, 1704; wrote in- 
cidental music to plays and was joint 
composer of the operas 'The World 
and the Moon' and 'The Island Prin- 
cess' (1699). (2) John (Whitfield- 
Clarke) (1770-1836): b. Gloucester, d. 
Homer, n. Hereford; organist at Lud- 
low, Armagh, Dublin, organist and 
choirmaster of Trinity and St. John's 
Colleges, Cambridge, later at Hereford; 
professor of music, Cambridge, from 
1821. Mus. D. Cantab, and Oxon. He 
wrote an oratorio, 'The Crucifixion and 
the Resurrection' (1822) ; cathedral 
services and anthems, glees, songs, 
chants, etc.; and edited the vocal works 
of Handel (1809). Ref.: VI. 473f. (3) 
James Hamilton Smee (1840-1912) : 
b. Rirmingham, England; d. Bansted; 
organist of Queen's College, Oxford, 
1866; conducted operas in Paris and 
London; first conductor of the Carl 
Rosa Company in 1893; musical di- 
rector of the Lyceum Theatre from 
1878; pub. more than 400 works, in- 
cluding incidental music for some of 
Shakespeare's plays, operettas, canta- 
tas, church music, songs and instru- 
mental music. (4) Coningsby: contemp. 
English song-writer. Ref.: III. 443. 

CLARUS, Max (1852- ): b. 

Miihlberg-on-Elbe ; Kapellmeister in va- 
rious theatres, including the Victoria, 
Berlin; became court Musikdirektor in 
1890; has directed many choral socie- 
ties; composed a number of choruses; 
prod, several operas and ballets. 

CLAUSSEN (1) Wilhelm (1843- 
1869): b. Schwerin, d. there; studied 
at the Stern Cons., Berlin, and with 
Schaffer; won the Meyerbeer Scholar- 
ship with an overture; composed piano 
pieces and songs. (2) Julia (1879-) : 
b. Stockholm; studied music at the 
Royal Academy of Music there and 
with Professor Friedrich, Berlin; de- 
but at the Royal Opera in Stockholm, 
1903; sang in Covent Garden, 1914; 



member of the Chicago Opera Company 
since 1913. ' 

CLAVfi, Jose Anselmo (1824-1874) : 
b. Barcelona, d. there; founder of 
singing societies in Spain modelled on 
the French 'Orpheons'; composed songs, 
choruses and zarzuelas. 

CLAXTON, Philander D., American 
educator. Ref.: IV. 242f. 

CL.EGG, Edith: b. London; contral- 
to; studied with Klein in London and 
Bouhy in Paris; debut in opera, Lon- 
don, 1906; has sung at Covent Gar- 
den and toured Germany as a lieder- 

CLEMENS, Jacob (called Clemens 
non Papa, to distinguish him from 
Pope Clement VII, who was a good 
player of several instruments) : emi- 
nent 16th-cent. contrapuntist of the 
Netherland school. He was first chapel 
master to Emperor Charles V at Vi- 
enna, and wrote 11 masses, many mo- 
tets, chansons, etc. Ref.: I. 304; mus. 
ex., XIII. 40. 

CLEMENT, Franz (1784-1842) : b. 
Vienna, d. there; Kapellmeister at the 
Theater an der Wien, Vienna, 1802-11 
and 1813-18, in the interim leader at 
Frague, under Weber; later travelled 
with Mme. Catalani for several years. 
He wrote 6 concertos and 25 concer- 
tinos for violin, overtures, quartets, 
piano concertos, and 1 opera, Le trom- 
peur trompe. Ref.: VII. 444, 451, 456. 

CLfiMENT (1) Felix (1822-1885): b. 
Paris, d. there; student of musical 
history in Paris, was organist and 
choirmaster at the Church of the 
Sorbonne; assisted in the establish- 
ment of the Institute for Church Mu- 
sic; pub. Chants de la Sainte-Cha- 
pelle (1849; 3rd ed., 1875); wrote sev- 
eral methods and other works on the 
history of music. (2) Edmond (1867-) : 
b. Paris; studied music at the Con- 
servatoire; debut at Opera-Comique, 
1889; sang there for 21 years; has 
sung in most of the principal cities 
in Europe; at the Metropolitan Opera 
House, 1909-10; with the Boston Opera 
Company, 1911-13. 

CLEMENT, Pope. Ref.: VII. 89; 
IX. 22. 

Ref.: quoted, I. 141. 

CLEMENT y CAVEDO (1810-[?]): 
b. Gandia, Spain; organist and teach- 
er of music; pub. a text-book of music, 
Gramatica Musical; composed an op- 
era, a zarzuela and songs. 

CLEMENTI, Muzio (1752-1832): b. 
Rome, d. Evesham, England; son of a 
goldsmith and musical amateur. He 
was taught by Antonio Buroni, maestro 
di cappella in a Roman church, and 
the organist Condicelli; subsequently 
he studied composition with Carpani 
and singing with Sartarelli, still later 
he finished his training in an English 
patron's home in Dorsetshire. At 9 
he secured an organist's post in com- 
petition with maturer players. At 18, 


a thoroughly equipped pianist, he took 
London by storm. Three piano sonatas 
dedicated to Haydn (op. 2) were pub. 
in 1773 and earned the praise of C. P. 
E. Bach. C. was cembalist-conductor 
of the Italian Opera, 1777-80, and 
toured on the continent from 1781. In 
Vienna he met Mozart in competition, 
which was undecided, though C. after- 
wards imitated M.'s style, which was 
expressive rather than brilliant, thus 
acknowledging the master's superiority. 
For 20 years C. remained in London 
(1782-1802) except for a season in 
Paris; he taught, published his compo- 
sitions and established a successful 
piano-factory and publishing house 
(now Collard's), and incidentally be- 
came rich. He travelled for a time 
with his pupil, John Field (q.v.), who 
was but one of a number of distin- 
guished ones, including Cramer, 
Moscheles, Kalkbrenner, and Meyer- 
beer. His compositions (which were 
also a lucrative source of income) in- 
clude symphonies and overtures for or- 
chestra; 106 piano sonatas (46 with 
violin, 'cello, or flute) ; 2 duos for 2 
pianos; 6 piano duets; fugues, preludes 
and exercises in canon-form, toccatas, 
waltzes, variations, caprices, Points 
d'orgue, etc. (op. 19) ; also an Introduc- 
tion a Part de toucher le piano, avec 
50 legons, etc. His Gradus ad Parnas- 
sum (1817), a great collection of etudes, 
is still one of the acknowledged classics 
of piano pedagogy. It has been edited 
by Biilow and others. Ref. : II. 106 
(footnote), 163; VII. 64, 98, 100, 112, 
117, 119ff, 143, 157; portrait, VII. 110. 

CLEMM, John (18th cent.) : early 
American organ builder. Ref.: VI. 496. 

CLEONICA, Greek dancer. Ref.: 
X. 70. 

CLEONIDES (2d cent.): a Greek 
writer on music whose treatise, Intro- 
ductio harmonica, was for many years 
thought to be the work of Euclid. 

CLEOPATRA. Ref.: (as dancer) 
X. 17f. 

CLfiRAMBAULT, Louis Nicholas 
(1676-1749): b. Paris, d. there; com- 
poser; organist successively at the 
churches of St. Jacques, St. Louis, St. 
Cyr, and St. Sulpice; composed pieces 
for clavecin and organ, besides numer- 
ous cantatas. Ref.: VI. 444. 

CLEVE, Half dan (1879- ): b. 
Kongsberg, Norway; studied in Chris- 
tiania and Berlin; pianist; composer of 
4 piano concertos, piano pieces and 
songs with orchestra. 

CLIFFE, Frederick (1857- ): b. 
Lowmoor, Yorkshire; organist at Wyke 
Parish Church at the age of 11; stud- 
ied under Prout, Stainer and others; 
organist of the Bach Choir, 1888-94, 
and accompanist at Covent Garden and 
other London theatres; professor at 
the Royal Academy of Music, 1901; 
toured Australia 1898; South Africa 
1900 and 1903; composed a symphony 
in C minor, 1889, one in E minor, 



1892, a symphonic poem, a concerto 
for violin and orchestra, songs and 
church music. 

CLIFFORD, Rev. James (1622- 
1698): b. Oxford, d. London; Senior 
Cardinal of St. Paul's; pub. 'A Col- 
lection of Divine Services and An- 
thems . . .' (1664). 

CLIFTON (1) John Charles (1781- 
1841) ; b. London, d. Hammersmith; 
studied with Bellamy and Wesley; 
taught and conducted in Bath, in Dub- 
lin and in London; invented the 
'Eidomusicon'; prod, an opera 'Edwin' 
in Dublin (1815) ; pub. glees, songs, a 
theory of harmony and a 'Selection of 
British Melodies.' (2) Chalmers 
(1889- ): b. Jackson, Miss.; studied 
at Harvard University and Cincinnati 
Cons.; also with Vincent d'Indy and 
Gedalge in Paris; conductor of the Ce- 
cilia Society, Boston, since 1915; or- 
chestrated 20 of MacDowelPs piano 
pieces; composed piano sonatas, songs, 
etc. (MS.) ; contributor to 'The Art of 
Music.' Ref.: IV. 442. 

CLIQUOT, Francois-Henri (1728- 
1791) : b. Paris, d. there; French organ- 
builder in partnership with Pierre 
Dallery after 1765. 

CLOSSON, Ernest (1870- ): b. 

St. Josse ten Noode, near Brussels; 
assistant curator of museum at the 
Cons, in Brussels, professor there since 
1913; has written many musical and 
folkloristic studies, the latter under the 
nom de plume Paul Antoine. 

(1874- ) : b. Washington, D. C; com- 
poser; studied at Columbia and Trin- 
ity (Toronto) universities; organist of 
several churches in Washington and 
Providence; instructor in musical ethics 
and theory, Howe School of Music, 
Boston (1900-1901) ; editorial staff, Oli- 
ver Ditson Co., Boston (1901-1908) ; 
editor-in-chief, Boston Music Co. (G. 
Schirmer, Boston), since 1908; has 
composed numerous songs, cycles, can- 
tatas and large choral works; piano 
Novelletten and studies ; pub. theoretical 
and technical works. Ref.: IV. 436f. 

CLUER, John (d. London, 1729): 
English publisher and engraver of mu- 
sic; pub. Handel's Suites (1720), 9 of 
his Italian operas (1723-29) and a col- 
lection of opera songs. 

COATES, Eric: contemp. English 
song-writer: Ref.: III. 443. 

COBB, Gerard Francis (1838-1904) : 
b. Nettlestead, England; d. Cambridge; 
studied music in Dresden; president of 
Cambridge Music Society, 1874-84; 
chairman of the Board of Music Stud- 
ies, 1877-92; composed much sacred 
music, songs and ballads, also instru- 
mental pieces. 

COCCHI, Gioacchino (ca. 1715- 
1804): b. Padua, d. Venice; taught 
there; wrote 42 operas for Rome, Na- 
ples, Venice and London, where he 
conducted concerts and taught; also 2 
oratorios, etc. 


COCCIA, Carlo (1782-1873): b. Na- 
ples, d. Novara; pupil of Balente, Fena- 
roli, and Paisiello at Naples; became a 
prolific writer of operas; travelled 
through Italy, to Lisbon and London, 
to produce his almost 40 operas. He 
was maestro at Novara cathedral when 
he died. He also wrote masses, other 
sacred music, arias, duets, etc. Ref.: 
II. 503 (footnote). 

COCCON, NicolO (1826-1903): b. 
Venice, d. there; pianist; organist and 
composer; pub. much sacred music, 
including an oratoria, Saul, masses, a 
sacred melodrama, also 2 operas and 
an operetta. 

COCKS (Robert) & Co.: London 
firm of music publishers established 
in 1823. In 1898 the business was 
transferred to Augener & Company. 
Their catalogue of publications con- 
tains 16,000 items. 

COENEN (1) Johannes Meinardus 
(1824-1899): b. The Hague, d. Amster- 
dam; studied with Liibeck .at Hague 
Cons.; conducted the orchestra of the 
Dutch Theatre, Amsterdam, 1864; mu- 
nicipal musical director; founded the 
Palais Orchestra; composed cantatas, 
ballet music, symphonies, an opera 
and various instrumental works. (2) 
Franz (1826-1904): b. Rotterdam, d. 
Leyden; studied with Vieuxtemps and 
Molique; gave tours as concert violin- 
ist; director in the Amsterdam Cons, 
to 1895; composed cantatas, a sym- 
phony, quartets and other works. (3) 
Willem (1837- ) : b. Rotterdam; 
brother of (2) ; pianist, teacher and 
composer; the first musician to intro- 
duce Brahms' chamber music into 
England; wrote an oratorio 'Lazarus' 
(1878), piano music, songs, masses, 

COERNE, Louis Adolphe (1870-) : 
b. Newark, N. J.; composer; stud- 
ied under J. K. Paine, Franz Knei- 
sel, and Rheinberger; director of Ger- 
man-American singing societies and or- 
ganist in churches; associate professor 
of music, Smith College (1903-1904), di- 
rector Cons, of Music, Olivet College 
(1909-1910) ; director School of Music, 
Univ. of Wisconsin (1910-15) ; professor 
of music, Connecticut College (1915-). 
He wrote 'Evolution of Modern Or- 
chestration' (1908) and composed a 
symphonic poem 'Hiawatha'; operas, 'A 
Woman of Marblehead' and 'Zenobia' 
(Bremen, 1905-06) ; melodrama, 'Sakun- 
tala'; Swedish Sonata for violin and 
piano; masses, choral works, etc. Ref.: 
IV. 343; mus. ex., XIV. 274. 

COFFEY, Charles (18th cent.) : 
adapted Jevon's 'The Devil of a Wife' 
(1686) into the ballad opera 'The Devil 
to Pay,' with melodies by Lord Roches- 
ter, Colley Cibber and others, which 
made a sensation in London, Berlin and 
New York. Ref.: II. 8f; IX. 79. 

COHAN, George M.: contemp. Amer. 
comedian and composer of musical 
comedies. Ref.: IV. 463. 



COHEN (1) Jules -timile- David 

(1835-1901): b. Marseilles, d. Paris; 
studied at the Conservatoire; taught 
there ; chorus-master at the Opera, 1877 ; 
composed many songs and piano pieces, 
also 4 operas, 3 cantatas and several 
masses, symphonies and oratorios. 
(2) See Lara, Isidoro de. 

COINI, Jacques: contemp. stage man- 
ager active at Met. Opera House, New 
York. Ref.: IV. 157. 

COLASSE, Pascal (1647-1709): b. 
Rheims, d. Versailles; pupil of Lully, 
whom he assisted by writing out the 
choral and orchestral parts of his op- 
eras from the figured bass and melody. 
He was afterwards accused of appro- 
priating scores which his master put 
aside as incomplete. He became maitre 
de la musique in 1683, royal chamber 
musician in 1696. A favorite of Louis 
XIV., he was privileged to produce op- 
eras at Lille. There the theatre burned, 
his opera Polyxene et Pyrrhus (1706) 
failed, and his mental powers were dis- 
rupted. He wrote 10 operas, including 
Les noces de Thetys et Pelee (1689), also 
sacred and secular songs. Ref.: IX. 26. 

COLBRAN, Isabella (19th cent.): 
singer, wife of Rossini. Ref.: II. 184f. 

COLBUBN, George (1878- ): b. 

Colton, N. Y.; studied at the American 
Conservatory of Music, Chicago; taught 
there 1903-15, also at Northwestern Mil- 
itary^ Academy, 1902-15; cond. various 
musical societies; composed masques 
and pageants, incidental music and 
other works. 

COLE, Rossetter Gleason (1866-) : 
b. Clyde, Mich. ; studied composition 
in Rerlin under Max Bruch; has 
been professor of music at Ripon 
(Wis.) College, Grinnell College and 
University of Wisconsin; professor of 
music Columbia University Summer 
Sessions (1908- ). Has composed 
cantatas, Ballade for 'cello and orches- 
tra, Fantasie Symphonique and Rhap- 
sody for organ, numerous other compo- 
sitions for voice, piano, organ, chorus 
and orchestra; also accompaniments 
for recitations. Ref.: IV. 384; VI. 384f, 
501; mus. ex., XIV. 256. 


(1875-1912): b. London, d. Thornton 
Heath; was son of a negro physician of 
Sierra Leone and of an Englishwoman; 
became choirboy at St. Mary Magdalen, 
Croydon; went to Royal College of 
Music in 1890; and in 1898 was teacher 
there and conductor of a string orches- 
tra. He took a prize in 1893 and stud- 
ied four years with Charles Villiers Stan- 
ford. C. has written a number of im- 
portant works, among them a symphony 
in A min. (1896) ; chamber music; pieces 
for violin and piano; pieces for piano 
solo, a number of songs ('Southern 
Love Songs,' 'Seven African Romances'), 
and choral music, for which he is 
best known, including 'Hiawatha's 
Wedding' (1898) ; Los Gitanos, a can- 
tata-operetta; 'A Tale of Old Japan'; 



and an oratorio, 'The Atonement' 
(1903). In addition he wrote an op- 
eretta, 'Dreamlovers' ; music to Herod 
(an orchestral suite) ; and an 'African 
Suite' for piano. Ref.: III. 437; VI. 
215f, 370f; mus. ex., XIV. 186; portrait, 
VI. 202. 

COLLAN, Karl (1828-1871) : Finnish 
composer. Ref.: III. 100. 

COLLET, Henri (1885- ): b. 

Paris; studied with Thibaut and Bares 
in Paris, and later with Olmeda in 
Madrid; composed El Escorial, a sym- 
phonic poem, also songs and instru- 
mental music; wrote books and essays 
on 16th cent, music, etc. 

COLLINS: (1) writer of odes. Ref.: 
VI. 141. (2) Lottie (19th cent.): Eng- 
lish dancer. Ref.: X. 189, 192f. 

COLOMBI, Giuseppe (1635-1694) : 
b. Modena, d. there; maestro di cap- 
pella of Modena Cathedral, instrumental 
composer (sinfonie da camera, suites, 
sonatas, etc.). 

COLONNA, Giovanni Paola (1637- 
1695): b. Bologna, d. there; studied 
with Filipuzzi, Carissimi, Benevoli and 
Abbatini; maestro di cappella of San 
Petronio; composed much church mu- 
sic, 11 oratorios and 3 operas. 

COLOTVIVE, tidouard (correctly Ju- 
das) (1838-1910) : b. Bordeaux, d. Paris; 
conductor; pupil of Girard and Sauzay, 
in violin, and of Elwart and Thomas 
in composition at the Conservatoire. 
He founded the famous Concerts du 
Chatelet in 1874 and in these produced 
the gigantic works of Berlioz, as well 
as many by modern German composers. 
He also directed the official concerts 
at the Exposition of 1878, and was 
conductor at the Opera, 1892. His work 
is being continued under other con- 
ductors by the orchestra bearing his 

COLUMBI, Vincenzo (16th cent.): 
Ital. organ builder. Ref.: VI. 405. 

COMBARIEU, Jules -Leon -Jean 
(1859- ): b. Cahors, Lot; studied 
Paris; also with Spitta, Berlin; became 
professor at the lyceum Louis-le-Grand, 
Paris; and is now professor of the 
history of music at the College of 
France and member of the Conseil su- 
perieur des beaux arts. C. has at- 
tracted attention through his musico- 
resthetic writings, especially Essai sur 
I'archeologie musicale au XIX e siecle 
et le probleme de I'origine des neumes 
(1896, awarded prize by Academy) ; La 
musique, ses lois, son evolution (1906) ; 
Histoire de la Musique (Des origines a 
la mort dc Beethoven, 2 vols., 1913, 
1914). C. also edited the Documents, 
mimoires et voeux of the 1900 Interna- 
tional Music Congress at Paris and has 
contributed many essays of value to 
periodicals (Revue philosophique, Re- 
vue de Paris, etc.). Ref.: I. 410; VIII. 

COMBS, Gilbert Raynolds (1863-) : 
b. Philadelphia; noted organist and 
choirmaster in several Philadelphia 


churches; founded Broad Street Cons., 
Philadelphia, 1885; director there 
since that date. 

COMER, Thomas (19th cent.) : Bos- 
ton musical pioneer. Ref.: IV. 188. 

COMETTANT, John-Pierre-Oscar 
(1819-1898) : b. Bordeaux, d. Montvil- 
liers; studied at the Conservatoire; 
directed a private musical institute 
for 20 years; wrote many books on 
the history of music and musicians 
published between 1860 and 1895; also 
composed piano pieces and songs. 

COMMER, Franz (1813-1887) : b. 
Cologne, d. Berlin; studied in Cologne, 
and at Berlin with A. W. Bach (organ), 
A. B. Marx and Rungenhagen (compo- 
sition). He was charged with the ar- 
rangement of the library of the Royal 
Inst, for Church Music, made important 
historical researches, and edited collec- 
tions of old music which include Col- 
lectio operum musicorum, Batavorum 
seeculi XVI. (12 vols.) ; Musica sacra 
XVI, XVII sseculorum (26 vols.); Coll. 
de compositions pour I'orgue des XVI e , 
XVII*, XVIII* siecles (in 6 parts), and 
Cantica sacra (16th-18th cent., 2 vols.). 
He founded, with Kuster and Kullak, 
the Berlin Tonkunstlerverein, was Royal 
Musikdirektor, Professor, Senator of 
the Berlin Academy and president of 
the Gesellschaft fur Musikforschung. 
He composed music for Aristophanes' 
'Frogs,' and Sophokles' 'Elektra'; 
masses, cantatas, and choruses; was 
choirmaster at the (Cath.) Hedwigs- 
kirche and vocal teacher at several 
schools. Ref.: VI. 425 (footnote). 

COMPENIUS (1) Heinrich (b. Nord- 
hausen, 1540) : organ builder; built the 
cathedral organ at Magdeburg (1604), 
etc. He composed Christliche Har- 
monia a 5 (1572). (2) Esajas: son of 
Heinrich (1), was also a famous organ 
builder in Brunswick, and invented the 
organ stop called Duiflote. 

COMPERE, Louis (late 15th cent.): 
b. Flanders, d. St. Quentin; chorister, 
canon and chancellor of St. Quentin 
Church; noted contrapuntist. Only 
twenty-one of his motets exist in col- 
lections (pub. 1501, 1503, 1519, 1541). 

CONCONE, Giuseppe (ca. 1810-1861) : 
b. Turin, d. there; vocal teacher in 
Paris, 1832-48; at the time of his 
death organist of the court choir at 
Turin. He is famous as the composer 
of excellent solfeggi, issued in 5 vols. 
(50 Lezioni, 30 Esercizi, 25 Lezioni, 15 
Vocalizzi, and hO Lezioni per Basso). 
He also wrote 2 operas, vocal scenes, 
duets and songs. 

CONFUCIUS. Ref.: X. 33, 38. 

CONINCK, Jacques-Felix de (1791- 
1866): b. Antwerp, d. near Brussels; 
pianist; founded the 'Society d'Har- 
monie'; comp. concertos and sonatas 
for piano. 

CONRADI (1) Joliann Georg (17th 
cent.): Kapellmeister at ottingen; one 
of the earliest German opera com- 
posers; prod, operas for the Hamburg 


theatre, 1691-1693. (2) August (1821- 
1873): b. Berlin, d. there; composer, 
for many years a friend of Liszt at 
Weimar; Kapellmeister at Stettin, Ber- 
lin, Dusseldorf and Cologne; prod, 
operas in Berlin between the years 
1847 and 1868. 

CONRIED, Heinrich (1855-1909) : b. 
Bielitz, d. Meran. He was an actor 
at the Burgtheater, Vienna, in 1873; 
came to the German Theatre in New 
York, 1878; succeeded Amberg as man- 
ager of the Irving Place Theatre, 1892; 
and assumed the direction of the Met- 
ropolitan Opera House in 1901 as Grau's 
successor; the first to produce Parsifal 
outside of Bayreuth (1903-04 at the 
Metropolitan Opera House, New York). 
Ref.: TV. 149ff. 

CONSOUO, Federigo (1841-1906) : 
b. Ancona, d. Florence; violin virtu- 
oso; studied with Giorgetti in Flor- 
ence, Vieuxtemps in Brussels, also with 
Fetis and Liszt; wrote 'Oriental Suites,' 
'Hebraic Melodies' and concertos for 
both violin and piano; also pub. a 
work on the modern notation of 

CONSTANTINE. See Konstantine. 

CONTI (1) Francesco Bartolommeo 
(1681-1732): b. Florence, d. Vienna, 
where he was first theorbist, then com- 
poser to the court. He wrote 16 op- 
eras, incl. Don Chisciotte in Sierra 
Morena (Vienna, 1719; Hamburg, 1722); 
also 13 feste teatrali (serenades), 9 
oratorios, and over 50 cantatas. (2) 
(called Contini), Ignazio (1699-1759) : 
b. Florence, d. Vienna; son and 
successor of Francesco (1). He wrote 
oratorios, cantatas, masses, serenades, 
etc., of little merit. (3) Gioacchino 
(surnamed Gizziello after his teacher, 
Domenico Gizzi) (1714-1761): b. Ar- 
pino, d. Rome; was celebrated as so- 
pranist all over Italy, also in London, 
where he made common cause with 
Handel against the opposition. He also 
sang in Madrid, Lisbon, etc. (4) 
Carlo (1797-1868) : b. Arpino, d. Na- 
ples; pupil of Tritto, Fenaroli and 
Zingarelli at Naples; later of Simon 
Mayr. He was professor of counter- 
point (1846-58), and later vice-director 
of Naples Cons., and taught Bellini, 
Buonamici, Lillo, Florimo, Marchetti, 
Andreatini, etc. He composed 11 op- 
eras, incl. L'Olimpia (Naples, 1829); 
also church-music, songs, etc. (5) 
Prince, 18th cent. French amateur. 
Ref. : II. 68. (6) Giacinto (1815-1895) : 
b. Brescia, d. there; violinist and com- 
poser; pupil of his father, Defendente 
C.j director of ballet, then of opera, 
at Brescia. He composed duets and 
symphonies for his pupils in the In- 
stitute Filarmonico Venturi. 

CONVERSE (1) Charles Crozat 
(1832- ) : b. Warren, Mass., pupil of 
Richter and Plaidy at Leipzig Cons., 
lawyer; composed under the pen name 
of Karl Redan, an 'American Concert- 
overture' (on 'Hail Columbia') for orch. 



(1869); Fest-Ouverture (1870); 6 Ger- 
man Songs (Leipzig, 1856) ; a cantata, 
vocal quartets, etc., 2 symphonies, 2 
oratorios, several overtures, quartets, 
and quintets for strings, chorals, etc. 
(in MS.). Ref.: IV. 357. (2) Frederick 
Shepherd (1871- ) : b. Newton, 
Mass.; pupil of Royal Academy of Mu- 
sic, Munich; taught harmony at New 
England Cons.; assistant professor of 
music, Harvard Univ., 1904-07. He 
composed a fantasy for orch. ('The 
Mystic Trumpeter'), a symphonic poem 
('Ormazd'), 2 operas, 'The Pipe of De- 
sire' (1906, perf. in Boston and New 
York), and 'The Sacrifice'; cantatas, 
piano music, songs, etc. Ref.: IV. 154, 
227, 377ff; VI. 383f; mus. ex., XIV. 277; 
portrait, IV. 368. 

COOK (1) [Capt.] James. Ref.: I. 
16f, 23. (2) Will Marion: contempo- 
rary American (negro) composer. Ref.: 
IV. 443f. 

COOKE (1) Benjamin (1734-1793): 
b. London, d. there; pupil of Pepusch 
and his master's successor as conductor 
at the Academy of Ancient Music; 
later choirmaster, lay-vicar, and organ- 
ist (1762) of Westminster Abbey; or- 
ganist of St. Martin's-in-the-Field, 1782. 
Mus. D., Cantab, and Oxon. He com- 
posed glees, canons and catches, for 
which he took several Catch Club 
prizes, also odes, instrumental con- 
certos, church music, organ and harpsi- 
chord pieces. Ref.: VI. 472. (2) 
James Francis (1875- ) : b. Bay 
City, Michigan; studied music in 
various conservatories in United States 
and Europe; organist and teacher 
of music in Brooklyn; director of 
the Brooklyn Institute of Arts and 
Sciences since 1907; has contributed 
articles to German musical magazines; 
editor of 'The Etude'; pub. piano pieces 
and songs, author of 'A Standard His- 
tory of Music' (1910), and 'Great Pi- 
anists on Piano Playing' (1914). 

COPERARIO, John (17th cent.): 
composer of music for masques, etc. 
Ref.: X. 84. 

COPIOLA, Galeria, Roman dancer. 
Ref.: X. 77. . 

COPPET, Edward J. de (1855- 
1916) : b. New York, d. there; founder 
of the Flonzaley Quartet, composed of 
Adolf o Betti, 1st violin, Alfred Pon- 
chon, 2d violin, Ugo Ara, viola, and 
Ivan d'Archambeau, 'cello, who since 
1902 have given chamber-music con- 
certs in Europe and United States. 

COPPOLA, Pietro Antonio (1793- 
1877): b. Sicily, d. Catania; studied 
at the Naples Cons.; contemporary and 
rival of Rossini; prod. 15 operas be- 
tween the years 1816 and 1850; his 
first successful one, Nina pazza per 
amore, was prod, in Rome, 1835; con- 
ducted Lisbon Royal Opera, 1839-42; 
also composed much church music. 

COQJJARD, Arthur (1846-1910) : b. 
Paris, d. Noirmoutier, La Vendee; com- 
poser; pupil of Cesar Franck; professor 


of music at the Institut National des 
Jeunes Aveugles; music critic for Le 
Monde, L'Echo de Paris, etc. His com- 
positions include the operas L'epee du 
roi (in 2 acts, prod. Angers, 1884), Le 
mari d'un jour (1886), L'oiseau bleu 
(1894), La Jacquerie (1st act by Lalo, 
1895), Jahel (1900), and La troupe Joli- 
coeur (1902) ; songs with piano, Chant 
de l'epee for baritone and orchestra 
(1876), an orchestral suite, a legend 
for violin, a 'cello serenade, etc. Ref.: 
II. 471; V. 319. 

CORDANS, Bartolommeo (1700- 
1757) : b. Venice, d. Udine; maestro 
at Udine cathedral ; comp. a great amount 
of church music; prod. 3 operas in 
Venice, 1729-31. 

CORDELLA, Giacomo (1783-1847) : 
b. Naples, d. there; studied with Fena- 
roli and Paisiello; professor of sol- 
feggio at the Naples Cons.; comp. 
many operas, 19 of which were pro- 
duced in Naples. 

CORDER (1) Frederick (1852-) : 
b. London; composer, teacher; curator 
of the Royal Acad, of Music (of which 
he is a fellow) since 1890; founded 
Society of British Composers (1905) 
and the publishing firm of Charles Avi- 
son (1906) ; has composed choral 
works, an opera, 'Nordisa,' and numer- 
ous works for orchestra, songs, etc. 
Ref.: III. 421. (2) Paul (1879- ): b. 
London; studied at the Royal Academy 
of Music; professor of harmony and 
composition there, 1907; comp. sev- 
eral operas, an overture, a ballet and 
other music. 

CORELLI, Arcangelo (1653-1713) : 
b. Fusignano, n. Imola, d. Rome; was a 
pupil of Giov. Ratt. Rassani in violin, 
and of Matteo Simonelli in counter- 
point. After travelling and holding 
various positions C. came under the 
patronage of Cardinal Pietro Ottoboni, 
in Rome, at whose palace his concerts 
were highly esteemed. His first work 
was published in 1863. Also famous 
as teacher, he gathered such eminent 
pupils as Raptiste Anet, Geminiani, 
Locatelli, and G. and L. Somis. After 
repeated overtures made by the king, 
C. went to the court of Naples, and 
gave a very successful concert, but on 
his second trip failed to please, and 
otherwise lost the king's favor. He 
returned to Rome, mortified, and found 
a mediocre violinist, Valentini, in his 
place of favor with the public, which 
disappointment caused his decline and 
retirement. C. not only laid the foun- 
dation of good violin technique, but 
established the classic standard in vio- 
lin composition. His Concerti grossi, 
the greatest of his works, were pub. 
shortly before his death. Many works 
pub. under his name are spurious, but 
the following are accepted as authentic: 
12 Suonate a tre, due violini e violon- 
cello, col basso per Vorgano, op. 1 
(1683) ; 12 Suonate da camera a tre, due 
violini, violoncello, e violone o cem- 



balo, op. 2 (1685) ; 12 Suonate a tre, 
due violini e arciliuto col basso per 
I'organo, op. 3 (1690) ; 12 Suonate da 
camera a tre, due violini e violone o 
cembalo, op. 4 (1694) ; 12 Suonate a 
violono e violone o cembalo, op. 5 
(1700) (later arr. by Geminiani as 
Concerti grossi) ; Concerti grossi con 
due violini e violoncello di concertino 
obbligato, e due altri violini, viola e 
basso di concerto grosso ad arbitrio, 
che si possono raddoppiare, op. 6 
(1712). C.'s works have been frequent- 
ly reprinted, more recently in editions 
►by Pepusch (op. l-4 ; and op. 6, Lon- 
don) ; and by Joachim, (op. 1 and 2, 
in Chrysander's Denkmaler). Ref.: I. 
375, (life) 39iff, 446, 452, 472; II. 51; 
III. 385; VII. 6, 37, 93, 389, 392, (works) 
396ft, 412, 427, 428, 480, 481; VIII. 85; 
mus. ex., XIII. 90; portrait, VII. 398. 

COREY, Newton J. (1861- ): b. 
Hillsdale, Michigan; organist of the 
Fort St. Presbyterian Church; musical 
editor of 'Saturday Night,' contributor 
to 'The Etude'; has given many lecture 

CORNELIUS, Peter (1824-1874): b. 
Mayence, d. there; began life as an 
actor; then studied with Dehn at Ber- 
lin (1845-52), and went to Weimar to 
join Liszt's circle, being an ardent 
champion of Wagner and contributing 
frequently to the Neue Zeitschrift fur 
Musik. Liszt produced his opera, Der 
Barbier von Bagdad, in Weimar in 
1858, but it encountered such bitter 
opposition that it caused Liszt's de- 

f>arture from the town. The work was 
ater successfully prod, in Dresden, 
Coburg, Hamburg, and elsewhere. 
Joining Wagner, C. followed the mas- 
ter to Munich (1865), and there be- 
came reader to King Ludwig II., and 
professor of harmony and rhetoric at 
the Royal Music School. He prod, an- 
other opera, Der Cid, at Weimar in 
1865; a third, Gunlod, based on the 
Edda, remained unfinished and was 
completed by Lassen (prod. Strassburg, 
1892). C. also wrote a song cycle, duets 
(sop. & bar.), Weihnachtslieder (op. 8), 
Trauerchore for male voices (op. 9), 
and Lyrische Poesien (1861). C. wrote 
the text for his operas, and was a 
talented poet and translator. Ref.: II. 
380f; III. viii, 235f, 239, 245; V. 298, 
(songs) 302ff; IX. xiv, (opera) 418f, 
420, 497; mus. ex., XIII. 350. 

poet (18th cent. B. C). Ref.: VI. 399. 
CORONARO (1) Gaetano (1852- 
1908): b. Vicenza, d. Milan; violinist 
and composer; studied with Faccio at 
the Milan Cons.; professor of har- 
mony and composition there; prod. 3 
operas, also wrote some instrumental 
music. (2) Antonio (1860- ) : b. 
Vicenza; brother of (1); prod. 2 op- 
eras, Seili (1880) and Falco di Cala- 
bria (1903). (3) Gellio Benvenuto 
(1863- ): b. Vicenza; brother of 
(1) and (2); pianist and composer; 


studied at the Liceo Rossini, Bologna, 
where he won the first prize with the 
opera Jolanda, prod, at the Milan 
Cons., 1889. His other works include 
a dramatic sketch, Festa a Marina 
(Venice, 1893) and 3 other operas prod, 
in Milan and Messina; comp. masses, 
songs, piano pieces, etc. 

CORRE, Joseph (18th cent.) : Amer. 
musical pioneer. Ref.: IV. 67. 

CORRI, Domenico (1744-1825): b. 
Rome, d. London; studied with Por- 
pora; prod. 2 operas; founded a music 
publishing house, 1797; pub. a musi- 
cal dictionary (1798), other musical 
text-books, and much vocal music. 

CORSI, Jacopo (b. ca. 1560) : Floren- 
tine nobleman and patron of art, in 
whose palace, as in that of his friend 
Bardi, were held the memorable meet- 
ings of the camerata (incl. Peri, Cac- 
cini, Emilo de' Cavalieri, Galilei, Ri- 
nuccini, etc.) which inaugurated the 
era of monody and originated the opera. 
As a skillful player on the gravicem- 
balo, C. himself assisted in the per- 
formance of the new music. Ref.: I. 
329ff; IX. 8. 

CORTECCIA, Francesco Bernardo 
di (early 16th cent.-1571) : b. Arezzo, d. 
Florence; was organist at San Lorenzo, 
1531; maestro di cappella to Duke 
Cosimo the Great, 1541-71. Of his 
compositions 9 pieces, in 4, 6, and 8 
parts (Venice, 1539) ; 3 books of madri- 
gals (1545, '47, '47) ; Responses and 
Lessons (1570): 32 Hymns in 4 parts; 
Canticorum liber primus (1571), have 
been preserved. His intermedias to 
dramas are notable. Ref.: VII. 376. 

CORTESI, Francesco (1826-1904) : 
b. Florence, d. there; studied with 
Rossini; vocal teacher, conductor and 
composer; prod, operas in Rome, Flor- 
ence and Trieste from 1852 to 1881. 

CORTOPASSI, Domenico (b. 1875) : 
Italian opera composer. Ref.: III. 384. 

CORTOT, Alfred-Denis (1877- ) : 
b. Nyon, Switzerland; studied at the 
Conservatoire, Paris; specialized in the 
study of Wagner's works; conducted 
the French premiere of Gotterdam- 
merung, 1902; toured France, Germany, 
England and other European countries; 
professor at the Conservatoire since 

COSSMANN, Bernhard (1822-1910): 
b. Dessau, d. Frankfort; noted 'cellist; 
member of the Opera orchestra, Paris, 
1840; professor at the Moscow Cons., 
1866, and later professor of 'cello at 
the Frankfort Cons. 

COSSOUL, Guilherme Antonio 
(1828-1880): b. Lisbon, d. there; 'cel- 
list, composer and teacher; director 
of the Cons, at Lisbon after 1863; 
comp. several comedies, much church 
music and instrumental music. 

COSTA (1) [Sir] Michael (original- 
ly Michele) (1808-1884) : b. Naples, d. 
Brighton, England; studied under 
Zingarelli; composed for the theatre 
in Naples; sent by Zingarelli to Eng- 



land in 1829, and there spent the rest 
of his life. He was operatic conductor 
in London; director of the Philhar- 
monic Society and the Sacred Har- 
monic Society; conductor of the new 
Italian opera, Covent Garden; conduct- 
ed Birmingham, Bradford, Leeds and 
Handel Festivals; was director of mu- 
sic, composer and conductor at Her 
Majesty's opera; composed operas, ora- 
torios, etc. Rcf.: VI. 139, 283f. (2) 
Carlo (1826-1888): b. Naples, d. there; 
teacher of theory in the Cons, at 
Naples. (3) Mario (1838- ): b. 
Taranto; wrote two pantomimes and a 
number of popular songs, mostly in 
the Neapolitan dialect. Ref.: VII. 401. 

COSYN, Benjamin (17th cent.) : Eng- 
lish composer of lessons for virginals. 
His name is given to a virginal-book 
containing 95 pieces for virginals by 
himself, Orlando Gibbons and others. 
Ref.: VII. 18. 

COTTA, Johann (1794-1868): b. 
Ruhla, d. Willerstedt; comp. Was ist 
des Deutschen Vaterland? 

COTTLOW, Augusta (1878- ): 

b. Shelbyville, Illinois; concert pian- 
ist; debut Chicago, 1888; studied in 
Berlin, 1896; toured Europe; appeared 
at the Worcester Festival, 1900; solo- 
ist with the Boston Symphony Orches- 
tra, 1902. 

COTTO (or Cottonius), Johannes 
(llth-12th cent.) : early writer on mu- 
sic, whose treatise Epistola ad Ful- 
gentium reprinted in Gerbert's Scrip- 
tores, contains valuable information on 
the beginnings of notation and on sol- 
misation. Ref.: I. 172f. 

COTTON, John. Ref.: TV. 17, 20f. 

COUCY, Kegnault, Chatelain de, d. 
Palestine, 1192; troubadour who ac- 
companied Richard Cceur de Lion to 
the Holy Land. Of his poems (MSS. of 
which are in the Bibliotheque Na- 
tionale) several modern versions have 
been pub., of which the Chansons du 
Chatelain de Coucy, by Francisque- 
Michel (Paris, 1830), is the most valu- 

COUPERIN (1) Louis (1630-1665) : 
d. Paris; dessus de viole to Louis XIII; 
died as organist of St. Gervais. Com- 
posed 3 suites of clavecin pieces 
(MS.). (2) Francois Sieur de Crouil- 
ly (1631-1701) : brother of (1) ; pupil 
of Chambonnieres ; was organist of St. 
Gervais, 1679-98. Wrote Pieces d'orgue 
consistantes en deux messes, etc. 
(MS.). (3) Charles (1638-1669): or- 
ganist at St.-Gervais as successor to 
his brother Francois (2), 1665. (4) 
Francuis (surnamed le Grand, be- 
cause of his superiority in organ-play- 
ing) (1668-1733): b. Paris, d. there; 
son of Charles (3). He was a pupil of 
the organist, Louis-Jacques Thomelin; 
successor to his uncle Francois (2) at 
Saint-Gervais, 1698; claueciniste de la 
chambre du roi, et organiste de sa 
chapelle, 1701. C. is acknowledged by 
eminent critics to be the first great 


composer for the harpsichord specifical- 
ly, since, unlike his predecessors, he 
wrote only for that instrument; thus 
he may be regarded as the founder of 
a new art. His manner of writing was 
peculiar because of his effort to repro- 
duce the pieces as he played them, 
with all the ornaments, etc. He pub. 
4 Livres de pieces de clavecin (Paris, 
1713, 1716, 1722, and 1730), of which 
the third contains U concerts a Vusage 
de toutes sortes d' instruments ; Les 
Gouts reunis, ou Nouveaux Concerts, 
etc. (1724) ; L'Apotheose de Vincom- 
parable, etc. [Lulli] ; Lecons des 
tenebres a une et deux voix; L'art de 
toucher du clavecin (1717), also trios. 
Ref.: I. 398, UiOff, 485; II. 60, 351; VII. 
8, 36, 41, 51ff, 63, 86, 207, 267f, 398, 
484; VIII. 285; mus. ex., XIII. 100, 102; 
portrait, VII. 110. (5) Nicholas (1680- 
1748): b. Paris, d. there; son of 
(2) ; organist of St. Gervais. (6) 
Armand-Louis (1772-1789) : b. Paris, 
d. there; son of (5); organist to the 
king, of St. Gervais, St. Barthelemy, 
Ste.-Marguerite, and one of the four 
organists of Notre-Dame. He was a 
brilliant virtuoso, and wrote much 
technically good but otherwise medi- 
ocre music (sonatas, trios, church- 
music). (7) Elisabeth- Antoinette 
(nee Blanche! ), wife of Armand- 
Louis (6), was a remarkable organist 
and clavecinist, who played up to the 
age of 81. (8) Pierre-Louis (d. 
1789) : assistant to his father, Armand- 
Louis (6) at St. Gervais. (9) Gervais- 
Francois (d. after 1823): son of 
Armand-Louis (6) and his successor 
at St. Gervais. He was the last of the 
famous family, but hardly did justice 
to the great tradition. 

COUPPEY. See Le Couppey. 

COURTOIS, Jean (early 16th cent.) : 
noted contrapuntist; comp. motets, 
masses and psalms. 

COURVOISIER, Karl (1846- ): 
b. Basel; violinist; studied at Leip- 
zig Cons, and in Berlin; conductor of 
the Diisseldorf Theatre orchestra; 
taught at Liverpool since 1885; comp. a 
symphony, concertos and other instru- 
mental music; has pub. various books 
on violin technique. 

COUSSEMAKER, Charles-Edmond- 
Henri de (1805-1876): b. Bailleul, 
Nord, d. Bourbourg; famous music his- 
torian and editor; studied law at 
Paris with Pellegrini and harmony 
with Payer and Reicha, later counter- 
point with V. Lefebvre at Douai. He 
composed some music in leisure hours, 
but pub. only some songs and ro- 
mances. While acting as judge in 
Hazebrouck, Dunkerque, and Lille he 
pursued historico-musical research. 
Among his highly valuable publica- 
tions are: Memoire sur Hucbald 
(Paris, 1841) ; Notices sur les collec- 
tions musicales de la bibliotheque de 
Cambrai, etc. (1843) ; Essai sur les in- 
struments de musique au moyen age 



(illustrated) ; Histoire de Vharmonie 
au moyen dge (1852) ; 3 chants his- 
toriques (1854) ; Chants populaires des 
Flamands de France (1856) ; Drames 
liturgiques du moyen dge (1861) ; Les 
harmonistes de XII e et XIII e siecles 
(1864), and Scriptores de musica 
mediieevi, nova series (1864-76, 4 vols.), 
intended to supplement Gerbert's Scrip- 
tores. He also edited L'art harmonique 
aux XII° et XIII* siecles (1865), and 
(Euvres completes d'Adam de la Halle 

COUSSER. See Kusser. 

COUWENBERGH, H. V.: author 
of articles on the organ. Ref.: VI. 

COWARD, Henry (1849- ): b. 
Liverpool ; conductor ; lecturer on music 
at Sheffield University; conductor of 
Sheffield Musical Union, Leeds Choral 
Union, Huddersfleld Festival Choral 
Society, Newcastle and Gateshead 
Choral Society, and various festivals; 
has composed cantatas, anthems, glees, 
etc.; Mus. Doc, Oxon. Ref.: III. 422; 
VI. 368. 

COWEN, [Sir] Frederic Hymen 
(1852- ): b. Kingston, Jamaica; 
English composer; was a pupil of Bene- 
dict and Goss in London; of Haupt- 
mann, Moscheles, Reinecke, Richter, 
and Plaidy, at Leipzig, and Kiel at 
Berlin. He was director of the Edin- 
burgh Academy of Music in 1882; con- 
ductor of the Liverpool Philharmonic, 
1887; mus. director of the Melbourne 
Centennial Exhibition (1888-9); con- 
ductor of the Liverpool Philharmonic, 
and of the Manchester Concerts. He 
composed 2 operettas, 4 operas, 3 ora- 
torios ('The Deluge,' 'Ruth' and 'The 
Veil'), 8 cantatas and other choral 
works, 6 symphonies, 4 orchestral 
suites, 3 overtures, an Indian Rhap- 
sody, a sinfonietta, a ballet suite, a 
piano concerto, a piano Konzertstiick, 
a piano trio, a piano quartet, over 300 
songs and piano pieces. Ref. : III. xiv, 
415, kl8; V. 327; VI. 314, 369f. 

CRABBY, Armand (1884- ): b. 
Brussels; dramatic baritone; studied 
at the Brussels Cons.; debut at the 
Kursaal, Ostend; sang at Covent Gar- 
den, Metropolitan Opera House, also in 
Philadelphia and Boston. 

CRAEN, Nlkolaus (16th cent.) : 
singer in Bruges (1504) ; composer of 
motets, some few of which are pre- 

CRAIG, Gordon. Ref.: (cited) X. 

CRAMER (1) Johann Baptist (1771- 
1838) : b. Mannheim, d. London, where 
he lived since infancy. He was his 
father's pupil in violin, piano and har- 
mony, but later stud, with Benser 
Schroeter, Clementi and C. F. Abel, 
and was chiefly self-taught as a com- 
poser. He travelled as piano virtuoso, 
beginning in 1788, playing in most 
European capitals. Together with Ad- 
dison he established a music-publish- 


ing house (now Cramer & Co.), in 1828, 
managing it until 1842. He spent much 
time in Paris in his later years. His 
writings include Grosse praktische 
Pianoforte-Schule, in 5 parts, of which 
the last contains the great 84 Etudes 
(op. 30), of which Billow edited a fine 
selection of fifty, and A. Henselt an- 
other selection, with accompaniment of 
a second piano. These eludes are still 
considered a technical classic. Die 
Schule der Fingerfertigkeit (op. 100) 
is also a valuable part of the same 
work. He also composed 7 piano con- 
certos, 105 piano sonatas, and many 
other piano pieces; 1 piano quartet 
(op. 28), and 1 piano quintet (op. 
61). Ref.: II. 259; VII. 64, 132, 176, 
178, 285, 318. (2) Karl Friedrich 
(1752-1807): b. Quedlinburg, d. Paris; 
professor at Kiel. He pub. Flora 
(piano pieces and songs), Polyhymnia 
(operas in piano score), and the 
Magazin fur Musik (1783-89), all with 
critical prefaces; also a Kurze ubersicht 
der Geschichte der franzosischen Musik 
(1786), and transl. Rousseau's writings 
into German. (3) Wilhelm (1745- 
1799) : b. Mannheim, d. London ; was 
a pupil of Stamitz the elder, and 
Cannabich, a member of the Mannheim 
orchestra, 1761-72, and conductor of 
the King's Band in London; later leader 
at the Opera, Pantheon and other con- 
certs in Paris; also conducted the Han- 
del Festivals (1784 and 1787), and the 
Gloucester Festival (1799). He wrote 
8 violin concertos, trios and violin 
solos. Ref.: VII. 418. (4) Franz: b. 
Munich, 1786; flutist, nephew of Wil- 
helm; first flute in the Munich orches- 
tra and composer of flute concertos, 
variations, etc. 

CRANACH, Lucas (16th cent.): 
German painter. Ref. : VI. 427. 

CRANG & HANCOCK (18th cent.): 
London organ builders. 

CRANZ, August Heinrich (1789- 
1870) : founder of music publishing 
firm in 1813 at Hamburg. It was ex- 
tended by his son Alwyn (b. 1834) and 
his grandson, Oskar, until to-day it 
has branches in Vienna, Brussels, 
London and Leipzig. 

CRAYWINCKEL, Ferdinand Man- 
uel de (1820- ) : b. Madrid; from 
1825 an inhabitant of Bordeaux, where 
he studied with Bellon and became a 
composer of masses, motets and other 
church music. 

CRECQUILLON (or Crequillon), 
Thomas U?]-1557): b. near Ghent(?), 
d. Bethume; an eminent contrapuntist; 
maestro to Charles V of Spain ca. 1544- 
47; later canon at Namur, Termonde 
and Bethune. He wrote masses, motets, 
cantiones, and 4-, 5- and 6-part chan- 
sons, which rank high among the music 
of the period. Ref.: VI. 421. 

CRESCENTINI, Girolamo (1766- 
1846) : b. Urbania, d. Naples; mezzo- 
soprano; debut in Rome, 1783; pro- 
fessor of singing in the Royal Cons, of 



Naples, 1816; pub. collections of ari- 
ettas, and a treatise on vocalization. 

CRESSENT, Anatole (1824-1870) : b. 
Argenteuil, d. Paris; lawyer and music 
dilettante who left 100,000 francs as 
a fund for a prize to be given 
every three years to the writer of the 
libretto and score of an opera (prix 

CRISTOFORI, Bartolommeo (incor- 
rectly called Cristofali and Cristo- 
fani) (1653-1731): b. Padua, d. Flor- 
ence; inventor of the first practical 
hammer-action for keyboard-instru- 
ments. After working in Padua as a 
clavicembali maker, he removed to 
Florence about the year 1690, when he 
had (according to Maffei) already made 
3 gravecembali col piano e forte, which 
had, instead of the usual jack plucking 
the strings with quills, a row of little 
hammers striking the strings from be- 
low. The hammer-action was adopted 
in principle by Gottfried Silbermann, 
the Streichers, and by Broadwood, be- 
cause of which it is called the 'English' 
action. The new instrument was named 
Piano-forte by its inventor. C. was 
made instrument-maker to Prince Fer- 
dinando de' Medici in 1716, and on the 
latter's death, custodian of the court 
collection of instruments by Cosimo 
III. Ref.: VII. 155. 

CRIVELLI (1) Arcangelo (1546- 
1617): b. Bergamo; tenor singer in 
Papal Chapel, 1583; comp. masses, 
psalms and motets. (2) Giovanni 
Battista ([?]-1682) : b. Scandiano, d. 
Modena; maestro di cappella to the 
court of Ferrara, also at Modena and 
Bergamo; pub. motets and madrigals. 
(3) Gaetano (1774-1836): b. Ber- 
gamo, d. Brescia; famous tenor; sang 
on all the principal stages of Italy, 
also in Paris and London. (4) Do- 
menico (1793-1857): b. Brescia, d. 
London ; composer. 

CROCE, Giovanni della (surnamed 
<il Chiozotto') (ca. 1560-1609): b. 
Chioggia, d. Venice; pupil of Zarlino; 
chorister and (1603) maestro at San 
Marco. He composed a number of im- 
portant works, including Sonatas a 5 
(1580) ; a 8 (2 vols., 1509, 1590) ; mad- 
rigals a 5 (2 vols., 1585, 1588) ; Triacca 
musicale (caprices, or humorous songs 
in Venetian dialect, a 4-7), his most 
popular work, containing famous ex- 
amples of descriptive (program) mu- 
sic (cf. Jannequin), experienced 4 edi- 
tions (1597-1609) ; also madrigals a 5-6 
(1590, 1607) ; Cantiones sacrae a 8, can- 
zonette a k (1595); masses; Lamenta- 
tions, Magnificats, Vesper psalms, etc. 
A selection of his church-music en- 
titled Musica sacra, Penetentials for 6 
voyces, with English words, was pub. 
in London (1608). Ref.: VI. 70. 

CROCHE, Monsieur, pen name for 
Claude Debussy. Ref.: III. 332. 

CROES, Henri Jacques (1705-1786) : 
b. Antwerp, d. Brussels; violinist, 
church conductor in Antwerp, Ratisbon 


and Brussels, composer of instrumental 
and church music. 

CROFT (or Crofts), William (1678- 
1727) : b. Nether-Eatington, Warwick- 
shire, d. Bath; chorister in the Chapel 
Royal, under Dr. Blow; Gentleman of 
Chapel Royal, 1700, and later organist 
(at first jointly with J. Clarke) ; or- 
ganist of Westminster Abbey, Master of 
the Children, composer to the Chapel 
Royal in 1708. He wrote anthems, vio- 
lin sonatas, flute sonatas, etc. His 
Musica sacra (30 anthems, 2 vols., 
1724) was the first church music en- 
graved on plates in England. Ref.: 
VI. 451. 

CROGER, T. R. Ref.: (cited) Vni. 

CROISEZ, Alexander (1816- ) : b. 
Paris; composer and writer. 

CROMER (1) Jos6 Antonio (1826- 
1888) : b. Lisbon, d. there; solo flutist 
at the San Carlo Theatre, teacher of 
flute at the Conservatory. (2) Raphael 
Jose (1828-1884) : b. Lisbon, d. Cas- 
caes; performer on the clarinet, the 
saxophone and the oboe. 

CROMWELL, Oliver. Ref.: IV. 13; 
VI. 452. 

CROTCH, William (1775-1847) : b. 
Norwich, d. Taunton; English organist 
and composer; became assistant to Dr. 
Randali, organist of Trinity and King's 
Colleges, Cambridge, at age of 11; or- 
ganist of Christ Church, Oxford, 1790, 
of St. John's College and professor of 
music, Oxford Univ. (1797) ; music lec- 
turer at the Royal Institute, London 
(1820) ; principal of the Royal Academy 
of Music (1822) ; composed oratorios, 
anthems, chants, glees, fugues and con- 
certos for organ, pianoforte pieces, etc., 
and wrote several theoretical works, 
Ref.: VI. 474. 

CROUCH, Frederick Nicolls (1808- 
1896): b. London, d. Portland, Maine; 
'cellist and singing teacher; comp. 2 
operas and wrote songs, including 
'Kathleen Mavourneen.' 

CROWEST, Frederick J. (I860-) : 
b. London, England; writer and editor; 
planned and edited 'Master Musicians' 
and the 'Music Story Series'; author of 
numerous books on music; general 
manager and editor Walter Scott Pub- 
lishing Co., Ltd. Ref.: VI. 252. 

CROWNE, John (17th cent.) : Eng- 
lish masque writer. Ref.: X. 83. 

CRttGER, Johannes (1598-1662) : b. 
Gross-Breesen, n. Guben, d. Berlin; 
composer of chorales; student at Wit- 
tenberg, 1620; pupil of Paulus Hom- 
burger at Ratisbon; organist of the St. 
Nikolauskirche, Berlin, from 1822. 
Among his famous chorales are Jesu, 
meine Freude; Jesus, meine Zuversicht; 
Nun danket alle Gott, etc. He also pub. 
several celebrated collections of cho- 
rales and valuable theoretical works, in- 
cluding Synopsis musica (1630; en- 
larged 1634) ; Praecepta musicae flgur- 
alis (1625) ; and Quaestiones musicae 
practicae (1650). Ref.: VI. 86. 



CRUVELLI (1) Priederika Marie 

(1824-1868): b. Westphalia, d. there; 
dramatic contralto; sang in London, 
1851. (2) Johanne Sophie Charlotte 
(1826-1907): b. Westphalia, d. Monaco; 
sister of (1) ; debut as contralto in Ven- 
ice, 1847; sang at the Opera, 1854. She 
married Count Vigier, 1856. 

CSERMAK (1771-1822) : Hungarian 
composer. Ref.: III. 188. 

CUCUEL, Georges (1884- ) : b. 

Dijon; studied at the Sorbonne; sent 
to Italy by the government for musi- 
cal research, 1914; pub. Etudes sur un 
orchestre, La Poupliniere et la musique 
de chambre au xviii e siecle (1913), and 
Les cr&ateurs de Vopera francais (1914). 

CUI, Cesar Antonovitch (1835-) : 
b. Vilna; composer; is a graduate of 
the Engineering Academy of St. Peters- 
burg, and professor of fortification 
there; studied music with Moniuszko 
and Balakireff; musical editor of the 
'St. Petersburg Gazette' (1864-1868) ; 
contributed to the Paris Revue et Ga- 
zette a series of articles entitled La 
musique en Russie (pub. in book form, 
1880). His compositions include the 
operas 'The Prisoner in the Caucasus' 
(1857), 'The Mandarin's Son' (1859), 
'William Ratcliff' (1868), 'Angelo' 
(1876), 'The Filibuster' (1889), 'The 
Saracen' (1889), 'Mamzelle Fifi' (1900), 
'Matteo Falcone' (1908), 'The Captain's 
Daughter' (1913) ; 2 scherzi and 4 
suites for orchestra; a string quartet, 
over 200 songs, and salon pieces for 
piano, 'cello and violin. Ref.: III. 
xvi, 131 ff, 157; V. 366; VII. 330, 331; 
VIII. 461, 251, 457f ; LX. 398, 412f. 

CULBERTSON, Sasha (1893- ): 

violinist, studied with Suchorukoff and 
Sevcik; after her debut in Vienna 
(1908) she toured Europe and America. 

CUIiP, Julia: b. Amsterdam; studied 
at the Cons, there and with Etelka 
Gerster; contemp. mezzo-soprano, es- 
pecially successful as an interpreter 
of Lieder (Schubert, Schumann, Franz, 
Brahms, Wolf, Strauss and contemp. 
composers) in European and American 
tours, made in conjunction with her 
accompanist, Coenraad V. Bos. Ref.: 
portrait, V. 364. 

CULWICK, James C. (1845-1907) : 
b. Bromwich, d. Dublin; in 1881 he be- 
came organist at the Royal Chapel in 
Dublin, taught in Alexandra College 
there, composed church music, works 
for organ and piano, a dramatic can- 
tata, etc. He wrote two books on the 
study of music (1882), 'The Work of 
Sir R. Stewart' (1902), and a pamphlet 
on the first production of the 'Mes- 

CUMMINGS, William Hayman 
(1831-1915): b. Sidbury, England; d. 
London; tenor, organist and teacher; 
founder of the Purcell Society; pub. 
a 'Biographical Dictionary of Musi- 
cians' (1892) ; comp. a cantata, sacred 
music and songs. 

CUPIS (1) [de Camargo], Fran- 


eois (1719-ca. 1764): b. Brussels, d. 
Paris; violinist in orchestra of Paris 
Opera and composer of violin sonatas. 
(2) Maria Anna de: b. Brussels, 1710; 
sister of Francois (1) ; dancer. (3) 
Jean Baptiste (ca. 1741-after 1794): 
b. Paris, d. Italy; 'cello virtuoso, 
travelled and performed in orchestra 
of the Opera. He wrote methods for 
'cello and viola, and composed sonatas 
and solos for his instrument. 

CURCI, Giuseppe (1808-1877): sing- 
ing teacher and dramatic composer. 

CURRY, Arthur Mansfield (1866-) : 
b. Chelsea, Mass.; Boston teacher and 
conductor, whose overture 'Blomidon' 
was produced at the Worcester Fes- 
tival (1902), a symphonic poem by the 
Boston Symphony (1911). 

CURSCH-BUHREIV, [Franz] Theo- 
dor (1859-1908) : b. Troppau, d. Leip- 
zig; conductor, editor of the Chorge- 
sang and critic for the Tageblatt; 
comp. Singspiele, choruses and instru- 
mental pieces. 

CURSCHMANN, Karl Priedrich 
(1804-1841) : b. Berlin, d. Langfuhr, near 
Danzig; abandoned law for music, 
which he studied with Hauptmann and 
Spohr. He wrote a one-act opera (prod, 
in Cassel, 1828), but is best known for 
his many songs, the quality and popu- 
larity of which rivalled those of Abt. 
Ref.: III. 19; V. 256. 

CURTI, Franz (1854-1898): b. Kas- 
sel, d. Dresden; gave up the study 
of medicine for music; comp. a num- 
ber of operas prod, between years of 
1887 and 1898. 

CURTIS, Natalie: b. New York 
City; writer and lecturer on folk mu- 
sic; studied in New York, Berlin and 
Paris; also at the 'Wagner-Schule' in 
Bayreuth; has pub. collections of 

CURWBN (1) Rev. John (1816- 
1880): b. Yorkshire, England; d. near 
Manchester; founded the Tonic Sol-fa 
College in 1862 and pub. numerous 
books relating to the system. (2) 
John Spencer (1847-1916): b. Plais- 
tow, d. London; president of the 
Tonic Sol-fa College, 1880; pub. mu- 
sical studies and 'Memorials of John 
Curwen,' 1882. 

CURZON, £manuel-Henri-Parent 
de (1861- ): b. Havre; music critic 
on the Gazette de France since 1889, 
editor of Guide musical and Rulletin 
de la Societe de Uhistoire du thedtre; 
has written numerous works on musi- 
cal subjects, including a biography of 
Mozart (1914). 

CUSANINO. See Carestini. 

CUSCINA, Alfred (1881- ) : con- 

temp. Italian opera composer. Ref.: 
III. 384. 

CUSI1VS, Sir William George (1833- 
1893) : b. London, d. Remonchamps, 
Ardennes; studied with Fetis, Brus- 
sels, and at the London Academy; 
King's Scholar, 1847-49; organist to the 
Queen and violinist in the orch. of the 



Italian opera; became professor of 
piano at the Royal Academy of Music 
and cond. of the Philharmonic; com- 
posed concert-overtures, a concerto, an 
oratorio, piano pieces and songs. 

CUTELL, Richard (15th cent.) : Eng- 
lish musician, author of a treatise on 
counterpoint, a fragment of which is 
preserved at Oxford. 

CUZZONI, Francesca (1700-1770) : 
b. Parma, d. Bologna; famous operatic 
contralto; pupil of Lanzi. She sang 
in Venice, 1719, and in London un- 
der Handel's direction, 1722-26, where 
she was superseded by Faustina Bor- 
doni (Hasse) ; then joined the oppo- 
sition, and until 1826 engaged in bit- 
ter contest with her rival. She mar- 
ried the pianist and composer, San- 
doni; sang at Vienna, in Italy and 
Holland, and again in London (1748), 
but there failed to please. She died in 
poverty. Ref.: I. 437; IX. 76. 

CYBELE, Greek goddess. Ref.: X. 

CZAPEK (1) Joseph (1825-1915): 
b. Prague, d. Gotenburg; student at 
Prague Cons.; went to Gotenburg as 
band-master, became opera conductor, 
organist in church and synagogue, con- 
ductor of the Philharmonic and leader 
of a quartet; composed symphonies, 
cantatas, masses, etc.; Swedish acade- 
mician from 1857. (2) See Hat- 

CZARTORYSKA, Marcelline (nee 
Princess Radziwill) (1817-1894) : b. 
Vienna, d. near Cracow; pianist, pupil 
of Czerny; resident of Paris from 1848. 

CZARWENKA, Joseph (1759-1835) : 
b. Bemadek, Bohemia, d. Vienna; oboist 
and professor of his instrument. 

CZERNOHORSKY, Bohuslav (1684- 
1740): b. Nimburg, Bohemia, d. Graz; 
Franciscan monk whose monastic 
name was Padre Boenio. He was 


choirmaster in Padua, organist at 
Assisi, where he taught Tartini; di- 
rector of church music in Prague, and 
a distinguished composer and teacher 
there; Gluck, Seeger, and Zach were 
among his pupils. Of his compositions 
which were highly valued in his day, 
only a four-part offertory, Laudatur 
Jesus, some preludes and fugues for 
the organ still exist. Ref.: II. 19. 

CZERNY, Carl (1791-1857) : b. Vien- 
na, d. there; pupil of his father, Wen- 
zel C, and of Beethoven (being one of 
the master's favorites). He was also in- 
fluenced by Clementi and Hummel. He 
early became famous both as pianist and 
teacher, though circumstances prevent- 
ed his touring as a virtuoso. Among 
his pupils were Liszt, Dohler, Thal- 
berg, Jaell, and many others of promi- 
nence. Of more than 1,000 published 
works, only his etudes have survived. 
They include: Die Schule der Gelau- 
figkeit (op. 299), Die Schule des Legato 
und Staccato (op. 335), Tdgliche 
Studien (op. 337), Schule der Ver- 
zierungen (op. 355), Schule des Vir- 
tuosen (365), Schule der linken Hand 
(op. 399), Schule des Fugenspiels (op. 
400), Schule der Fingerfertigkeit (op. 
740). He was the author of an outline 
of musical history (1851) and an auto- 
biography. Ref.: II. 162; VII. 44, 64, 
182; VIII. 208; portrait, VII. 182. 

CZERSKI. Pseudonym for Tschirch. 

CZERVENY, Baclav Frantisek 
(1819-1896) : b. Dubec, Bohemia, d. 
Koniggratz; famous maker of brass in- 
struments; introduced improvement in 
the valve system. 

CZIAK. See Schagk. 

CZIBUL.KA, Alphous (1842-1894) : b. 
Szeges-Varally, Hungary, d. Vienna; 
army band master in Vienna, who 
wrote 6 operettas and a great deal of 
ephemeral but popular dance music. 



DAASE, Rudolf (1822- ) : b. Ber- 
lin; studied with A. W. Bach and oth- 
ers; conductor, teacher and orchestral 
composer in Berlin. 

DACHS, Joseph (1825-1896): b. 
Ratisbon, d. Vienna; studied with 
Halms and Czerny in Vienna; was 
teacher of piano at the Conservatory 

DAPPNER, Hugo (1882- ): b. 

Munich; studied in the Munich Royal 
Academy and with Reger and Staven- 
hagen, also studied musical science in 
Munich (Dr. phil., 1904) ; assistant con- 
ductor at the court opera there, music 
critic in Konigsberg, Dresden; now in 
Berlin. He wrote Die Entwickelung 
des Klavierkonzerts bis Mozart (Leip- 
zig, 1908) and other studies, edited 
Nietzsche's remarks on Carmen (1912), 
C. P. E. Bach's Versuch tiber die wahre 
Art, das Klavier zu spielen (1904) and 
Leopold Mozart's letters (4 vols.). He 
composed 2 symphonies, 2 piano quin- 
tets, 2 string quartets, 2 trios, 2 violin 
sonatas, a 'cello sonata, a piano sonata, 
piano pieces for 2 and for 4 hands, 
a sonata, a fantasy and fugue for or- 
gan, church music and over 300 songs; 
also 3 operas (not perf.) 

DAHL, Balduin (1834- ): b. 
Copenhagen; d. Charlottenlund ; leader 
of the Tivoli Concerts in Copenhagen; 
composer and director; writer of dance 

Nicholas (1753-1809) : b. Muret (Haute 
Garonne), d. Paris; composer of comic 
operas. Despite paternal opposition, 
he learned harmony from Langle in 
1774; prod, in all 61 operas, including 
Le petit Souper (1781), Les Deux Savo- 
yards, and Raoul de Crequi. He was 
made a chevalier of the Legion of Honor 
by Napoleon. Ref.: V. 180; IX. 225. 

DALBERG, Johann Friedrich 
Hugo von (1752-1812) : b. Aschaffen- 
burg, d. there; composer and author. 
He composed sonatas for the piano and 
cantatas, variations and chamber mu- 
sic. Among his writings are Die Xols- 
harfe, ein allegorischer Traum, and 
uber die Musik der lnder, a translation 
of 'Indian Music' by Sir William Jones. 

DAL CROZE, fimile Jaques. See 

DALE (1) Joseph, prominent Lon- 
don music publisher and composer. His 
house, founded before 1778, lasted un- 
til after 1885, and at the opening of 
the 19th cent, was the most flourishing 
in London. (2) Benjamin James 


(1885- ): b. Crouch Hill, London; 
studied in the Royal Academy of Music, 
wrote symphonies, 2 overtures, a piano 
sonata, considerable chamber music, 
etc. Ref.: III. 442; VII. 598. 

DALHEIM, Pierre Baron (1862-) : 
b. Laroche, Dep. Yonne; French jour- 
nalist, influential in introducing Rus- 
sian music into France. His wife, 
Marie Olenina (1872- ), is famous 
as a singer of the songs of Moussorg- 
sky; pub. Les legs de Mussorgski (1908; 
Russian, 1910). 

DALLANS) (17th cent.) : English organ 
builders. The father and three sons 
built, among others, organs at Cam- 
bridge and Oxford, and at Worcester, 
Canterbury and St. Paul's Cathedrals. 
In 1600 Thomas Dallam presented to 
the Grand Turk at Constantinople a 
mechanical clock-organ. 

DALL, Roderick (18th cent): 
Scotch minstrel, one of the last of the 
'wandering harpists.* 

DALLERY (18th cent.) : organ build- 
ers at Amiens. Pierre, nephew of the 
founder of the family, worked with 
Clicquot in the production of the or- 
gans of Notre Dame and of the Sainte 
Chapelle in Paris and of that in the 
Palace of Versailles. 

DALMORfiS, Charles (1872- ): 

b. Nancy, France; operatic tenor, who, 
after study in the conservatories of 
Lyons and Paris, sang in France and 
at the Manhattan and Metropolitan 
Operas of New York, specializing in 
modern French operas. 

DALVIMARE, Martin Pierre (1772- 
1839) : b. Dreux, Eure-et-Loire, d. 
Paris; virtuoso on harp in Versailles to 
Louis XVI, at the Opera in 1800, and 
to the Empress, 1806. He wrote sonatas 
for harp, duos for harp with piano 
and with horn, etc. 

DAM (1) Mads Gregers (1791- ) : 
b. Svendborg; violinist and member of 
the Berlin Royal Kapelle. (2) Her- 
mann Georg (1815-1858) : b. Berlin, 
d. there; son of (1); composed over- 
tures, entr'actes, 2 operas and 2 ora- 

DAMASCENE, Alexander ([?]- 
1719) : b. France, of Italian parentage, 
d. in England; alto singer and song- 
writer. In 1695 he succeeded Purcell 
as Gentleman of the Chapel Royal. 

DAMCKE, Berthold (1812-1875): b. 
Hannover, d. Paris; studied with 
Schmitt and Ries; directed the Potsdam 
Philharmonic, singing societies and 



concerts; taught in St. Petersburg, 
Brussels, and Paris; an accurate but 
unoriginal composer of oratorios, cho- 
ruses, and piano pieces; revised an edi- 
tion of Gluck opera scores. 

DAMM, G. See Steingraber. 

DAMON (or DAMAN), William (ca. 
1540-ca. 1593) : chapel organist to Queen 
Elizabeth and composer of sacred mu- 
sic. He made the 4-part arrangement 
of psalm tunes used m the Protestant 
church (The Psalm Tunes in English 
Meter, 1579, 1591). 

DAMOREAU, Lame Cinthie Mon- 
talant (Mile. Cinti) (1801-1863) : b. 
Paris, d. there; operatic soprano; sang 
at the Opera, 1826-35, in parts written 
for her by Rossini, and in 1829 she 
sang in Matrimonio Segreto with Son- 
tag and Malibran. She sang at the Ope- 
ra Comique in parts created for her by 
Auber, 1835-43; also gave concert tours 
in the United States, Holland, St. Pe- 
tersburg and Belgium and until 1856 
was professor of singing at the Paris 
Conservatoire. She was the author of 
an Album de romances and a Methode 
de chant. 

DAMROSCH (1) Leopold (1832- 
1885): b. Posen, Prussia, d. New York; 
composer, conductor and violinist. He 
received his M.D. from Berlin Univer- 
sity in 1854, but discarded medicine 
for the study of music. After a concert 
tour of Germany, he was appointed by 
Liszt violinist in the Grand Ducal Or- 
chestra in Weimar. In 1858-60 he con- 
ducted the Philharmonic Society in 
Breslau, made concert tours with Bil- 
low and Tausig, established quartet 
concerts in Breslau, founded the Or- 
chesterverein and a choral society, there, 
also conducted the Society for Classical 
Music and for two years was conduc- 
tor at the Stadttheater. In 1871 he be- 
came conductor of the New York Arion 
Society, and from then until his death 
was influential in New York musical 
circles, both as the founder of the 
Oratorio and Symphony Societies and 
as the conductor of German Opera at 
the Metropolitan from 1884. He mar- 
ried the singer Helene von Heimburg 
(1835-1904) in Weimar. He composed 
a concerto, serenades, romanzas, etc., 
for violin, a festival overture, choral 
work with orch., songs, duets, etc. 
Ref.: III. 237; IV. 138f, 183, 185, 210; 
VI. 220; portrait, IV. 210. (2) Frank 
Heino (1859- ): b. Breslau; son and 
pupil of (1), also of Pruckner, Vogt 
and X. Scharwenka ; conductor of choral 
societies in Denver, Newark, Bridge- 
port, Philadelphia and , New York, 
where he founded the Musical Art So- 
ciety and in 1898 was made supervisor 
of music in the public schools. He be- 
came director of the newly founded 
Institute of Musical Art in 1905. In 
1894 he published a 'Popular Method 
of Sight Singing,' and in 1916 'Some 
Principles of Music Teaching'; con- 
tributor to 'The Art of Music' Ref.: 


rV. 187, 211ff, 246, 256ff. (3) Walter 
Johannes (1862- ) : b. Breslau, son 
of (1) ; pupil of Rischbieter and 
Draeseke in Berlin, von Inten, etc., in 
New York. He became assistant con- 
ductor under his father at the Metro- 
politan Opera and continued under 
Seidl; succeeded (1) as conductor of the 
N. Y. Oratorio Society (to 1898) and 
the Symphony Society (to 1894). He 
directed an independent opera enter- 
prise in various cities, 1894-99, con- 
ducted German Opera at the Metro- 
politan, 1900-02, then the New York 
Philharmonic, 1902-03, and again the 
N. Y. Symphony, for which he secured 
a permanent endowment. He prod. 2 
operas, 'The Scarlet Letter' (Boston, 
1896) and 'Cyrano' (New York, 1913), 
an operetta, orchestral works, violin 
sonata and songs. Ref.: IV. 140, 142ff, 
184ff, 395; portrait, IV. 276. 

DAMSE, Joseph (1788-1852): b. 
Sokolov, Galicia, d. Rudno, near War- 
saw; composer and clarinettist; com- 
posed 4 operas, popular Polish songs 
and dances and 2 masses. 

DANA (1) Charles Henshaw (1846- 
1883) : b. West Newton, Mass., d. 
Worcester, Mass.; pianist, organist and 
composer. (2) William Henry (1846-) : 
b. Warren, Ohio; studied with Haupt 
and Kullak and at the London Royal 
Academy; founder and director of a 
musical institute in his home city, 
writer of text-books on music and 
composer of an orchestral De Pro- 

DANBfi, Jules (1840-1905) : b. Caen, 
d. Vichy; studied at the Conservatoire; 
violinist in the Theatre Lyrique, Opera 
Comique and Opera; conductor of the 
Theatre Lyrique and succeeded Lamou- 
reaux at the Comique; played in the 
Conservatoire concerts till 1892; com- 
posed violin pieces, etudes; pub. a 
'Violin Method.' 

DANBY, John (1757-1798): d. Lon- 
don; organist and composer. He was 
organist at the chapel of the Span- 
ish Embassy, composed glees, catches, 
and canons, four books of which 
were published, and wrote La guida 
alia musica vocale (1798). 

DANCE, William (1775-1840) : b. in 
London, d. in London; musician. In 
1771 he was violinist in Drury Lane, 
and later in the Opera orchestra. In 
1790 he acted as band leader at the 
Handel Commemoration. He was an 
initiator and afterward a director of 
the London Philharmonic Society. 

DANCHET, Antoine (1671-1740) : b. 
Riom, Auvergne, d. Paris as librarian 
of Bibliotheque Royale; librettist of 
several of Campra's operas. Ref.: IX. 

DANCKERTS. See Dankers. 

DANCLA (1) Jean-Baptiste- 

Charles (1818-1907): b. Bagneres-de- 
Bigorre, d. Tunis; violinist and com- 
poser. A pupil of Baillot, Halevy, and 
Berton at the Conservatoire, he later 



became professor there; popular com- 
poser for violin, and author of five 
technical books on music. His 150 
works are ephemeral in character, but 
his quartet soirees were famous. (2) 
Arnaud (1820-1862): brother of Jean; 
'cellist, writer of a method and com- 
poser of etudes, duos, etc., for 'cello. 
(3) Leopold (1823-1895) : brother of 
above, b. at Bagneres-de-Bigorre, d. 
Paris; composer. He, like Jean, was 
professor at the Conservatoire, a vio- 
linist and the writer of Mudes and 

DANDO, Joseph Haydn Bourne 
(1806-1894) : b. in Somers Town, d. at 
Godalming, London; violinist. In 1831 
he became a member of the Philhar- 
monic Orchestra and four years later 
introduced the first genuine chamber 
music concert, consisting solely of in- 
strumental quartets and trios. Dando's 
annual Quartet Concerts lasted from 
1836 to 1853. He was music master to 
Charterhouse School from 1875 until 
shortly before his death. 

D'ANDRIEU. See [d']Andrieu. 

DANEL, Louis - Albert - Joseph 
(1787-1875): b. Lille, d. there; music 
printer and inventor. In 1856 he re- 
tired from business to work on his 
method, which he analyzed in his 
Methode simpliflee pour Venseignement 
populaire de la musique vocale and to 
introduce this 'Langue des sons' in 
northern France. He established courses 
at his own cost. He was made Cheva- 
lier of the Legion of Honor. 

D'ANGELI. See Angelis. 

DANHAUSER, Adolphe-Leopold 
(1835-1896): b. Paris, d. there; taught 
solfege at the Conservatoire, where he 
had formerly studied; composed cho- 
ruses and operas, and wrote a Theorie 
de la musique. 

DANIEL (1) Hermann Adelbert: 
German theologian and writer, whose 
Thesaurus Hymnologicus (5 vols. 
Loschke, Leipzig) is an invaluable sec- 
ondary source for early church music 
and the collection of hymns. (2) Sal- 
vador, for a few days before his death 
director of Paris Conservatoire under 
the Commune in 1871; writer of numer- 
ous musical monographs. 

DANIELS, Mabel: b. Swampscott, 
Mass.; studied with Chadwick and 
Ludwig Thuille; contemp. American 
composer of orchestral pieces, songs, 
etc. Ref.: IV. 403. 

DANJOU, Jean-Louis -Felix (1812- 
1866): b. Paris, d. Montpellier; wrote 
on church and secular music and as- 
sisted in popularizing the French organ 
in Germany, Holland and Belgium; af- 
filiated himself with the Daublaine and 
Callinet firm. 

Ghiselin (16th cent.) : b. at Tholen, 
Zeeland; composer. He was a singer at 
the Papal chapel, writer of motets and 
madrigals, several of which are still 
extant. His fame in great part rests 


on his share in the Vincentino-Lusitano 
dispute, where he acted as judge, later 
defending his verdict against Vin- 

DANKS, Hart Pease (1834-1903): 
b. New Haven, Conn., d. Philadelphia; 
director of music and bass singer in 
churches, composer of one operetta and 
more than 1,200 hymns. 

DANNEHL, Franz (1870- ): b. 

at Rudolstadt; composer. He studied 
composition in Brussels, Weimar, and 
Berlin and wrote chiefly songs and 
choir pieces, as well as some chamber 

DANNELEY, John Feltham (1786- 
1836) : b. at Oakingham, Berkshire, d. 
in London; organist of the Church of 
St. Mary of the Tower at Ipswich; 
author of 'Elementary Principles of 
Thorough-bass,' 'Encyclopaedia of Mu- 
sic' and a 'Musical Grammar.' 

(1844-1905) : b. Strassburg, d. London. 
He studied music at Cincinnati and at 
Leipzig, became pianist, composer and 
music critic in London, where in 1872 
he founded the Wagner Society, con- 
ducted its concerts the following years, 
and supported the Wagner Festival in 
1877. He wrote extensively, both in ap- 
preciation of the old school and in de- 
fense of the new, and is considered an 
authority on musical ornamentation. 
In 1905 he wrote the 6th vol. of the 
Oxford History of Music — 'The Roman- 
tic Period.' Ref.: III. 91, 430; (quoted) 
II. 170, 174. (2) Gustav (1853- ): 
b. Cincinnati; violinist, brother of Ed- 
ward (1). He studied the violin under 
de Ahna and Joachim in Berlin, lived 
in London until 1877, three years later 
became a member of the Boston Sym- 
phony Orchestra. He founded the Bee- 
thoven String-Quartet of New York and 
is the author of 'Chord and Scale 
Studies for Young Players.' 

DANNSTROEM, Isidor (1812-1897): 
b. at Stockholm, d. there; singer and 
composer. He studied under Dehn in 
Berlin, and Garcia in Paris, composed 
songs, an operetta, Doctor Tartaglia, 
and was also well known as teacher. 

DANTE. Ref.: I. 260f, 264; II. 259f; 
VII. 318; VIII. 304, 371, 372; (cited) 
X. iii. 

DANZI (1) Innocenz: father of 
Franz; 'cellist in Elector's orchestra. 
(2) Franz (1763-1826) : b. Mannheim, 
d. Karlsruhe; 'cellist and composer, 
produced 'Azakiah' (1780), and Die Mit- 
ternachtsstunde (Munich, 1801). In 
1791 he began a six years' professional 
tour with his wife, during which he 
conducted at Leipzig, Prague and 
throughout Italy. He held successively 
the positions of Vice- Kapellmeister to 
the Elector, Kapellmeister to the King 
of Wurttemberg and Kapellmeister at 
Carlsruhe, where he remained until his 
death. Of his eleven operas, his ora- 
torio, and his orchestral, chamber and 
church music, none has survived. 


Da Ponte 

DA PONTE, Lorenzo (1749-1838): 
b. in Venice, d. in New York; writer 
of opera texts. A Hebrew by birth, his 
original name was Emanuele Conegli- 
ano, which was changed by the Bishop 
of Cenado in 1763 upon his conversion. 
In 1784 he became the poet dramatist 
at Vienna under Joseph II, where he 
stayed until 1792 ; during this time he 
wrote the text for Mozart's Don Gio- 
vanni and Cosi fan tutte, and Le 
nozze di Figaro. Upon the accession of 
Leopold, he went to London and from 
there to New York, at neither place 
was he successful. He finally became 
teacher of Italian at Columbia Univer- 
sity, where he published his memoirs. 
Ref. : TV. 121ff, 127 ; IX. 88, 94, 107 ; por- 
trait, IV. 122. 

DAQXTIN, Louis-Claude (1694- 
1772): b. Paris, d. there; organist 
and composer; a pupil of Marchand, 
organist of St. Antoine at twelve and 
of St. Paul from 1727 to his death. 
He pub. Pieces de clavecin (1735), 
Noels pour Vorgue ou le clavecin, and 
a cantata La Rose; and is considered 
one of the most interesting harpsichord 
composers. Ref.: VII. 61. 

DARBY, W. Dermot (1885- ) : 
b. Athboy, Ireland; studied music with 
Brendan Bogers, also Benj. Lambord, 
New York; secretary Modern Music 
Soc, 1916; contributing editor, 'The 
Art of Music. 5 

DARGOMIJSKY, Alexander Ser- 
gievitch (1813-1869) : b. Govt. Tula, 
Bussia, d. St. Petersburg; appeared as 
pianist and began composing in youth; 
living in St. Petersburg from 1835, 
he became president of the Imperial 
Bussian Mus. Soc, 1867, but was dis- 
missed in 1869. Confined by illness, 
he made his house the centre of the 
neo-Bussian School. His works include 
the operas Esmeralda (Moscow, 1847), 
Russalka (after Pushkin, 1856), Ka- 
menno'i gost [The Stone Guest] (posthu- 
mous, orchestrated by Bimsky-Korsa- 
koff, prod, with postlude by Cui, 1872), 
also sketches of a few scenes of a 
fourth, Rogdana; a ballet, 'The Feast 
of Bacchus' (1845, prod. 1867), a series 
of 3-part choruses, a Tarantelle Slave 
for piano 4 hands, a Finnish Fantasy, 
a 'Little Bussian Cossack Dance' and 
'Baba Yaga' for orch. ; also a number 
of songs that have become popular. 
Ref.: III. 46ff; songs, V. 364f; opera, 
IX. 384ff; mus. ex., XIV. 16; port., III. 
48. See also individual indexes. 

DARWIN, Charles. Ref.: I. 4f; 
V. 87. 

LndwiK (ca. 1525-1589) : b. Munich, d. 
Stuttgart; conductor and composer. 
From 1552 to 1559 he was court Kapell- 
meister, when Orlando di Lasso suc- 
ceeded him. He was called to a similar 
position in Stuttgart in 1571. He com- 
posed a 'Passion' for 4 parts in 1578, 
some motets, hymns, etc. 

DAL BE, Johann Friedrich (1730- 


1797) : b. at Cassel, d. in Vienna; com- 
poser and writer. His theoretical 
works are Generalbass in drei Ak- 
korden and Anleitung zur Erflndung der 
Melodie und ihrer Fortsetzung. 

DAUBERVAL: French dancer. Ref.: 
X. 89, 91, 101. 

firm of organ builders, founded in 1838 
at Paris, which still exists at the pres- 
ent date under the name of Merklin, 
Schutze & Company with its headquar- 
ters at Lyons. In 1843 Callinet dis- 
solved the partnership and the firm 
carried on business as Ducroquet et Cie. 
(1845-1855), when it changed into its 
present ownership. 

DAUCRESME, Lucien (1826-1892): 
b. at Elbeuf, Normandy, d. in Paris; 
composer of two operas. 

DAUDET, Alphonse (1840-1897): b. 
Nlmes, d. Paris; novelist and librettist; 
his L'Arlesienne has been set to music 
by Bizet and an Italian version by 
Cilea; Poise, Pessard and Massenet 
(Sapho) have used his works as libret- 
tos. Ref.: II. 391; IX. 247. 

DAUNEY, William (1800-1843): b. 
Aberdeen, d. Demerara; music-histo- 
rian. He discovered the Skene Manu- 
script in the Advocates' Library at 
Edinburgh, and republished it as 
'Ancient Scottish Melodies from a 
Manuscript of the Beign of James VI' 
with a lengthy historical introduction to 
Scottish music. 

DAUPRAT, Louis-Francois (1781- 
1801): b. in Paris, d. there; horn- 
player and composer. He studied un- 
der Kenn, Catel and Gossec. In 1806 
he became first horn at the theatre 
at Bordeaux and two years later suc- 
ceeded Kenn and Duvernoy at the Paris 
Opera, and became chamber musician 
to Napoleon and to Louis XVIII. He 
retired from the Opera in 1831 and 
from the Conservatoire in 1841. He 
wrote a Methode pour cor alto et cor 
basse, also a concerto and chamber en- 
sembles with horn. Symphonies, and a 
Theorie analytique de la musique re- 
main in manuscript. 

DAURIAC, Lionel Alexandre 
(1847- ) : b. Brest, France; theorist; a 
psychologist whose researches have led 
him into the realms of music. From 
1896 to 1903 he studied aesthetics and 
tone psychology at the Sorbonne. He was 
the first president of the Paris division 
of the International Society, and since 
his retirement in 1907 has ranked as 
honorary president. Among his writ- 
ings are La psychologic dans Vopera 
francais; Rossini, biographie critique 
(in Les musiciens celebres, 1905) and 
Le musicien-poete Richard Wagner 

seph (1790-1875) : b. Givet, in Ar- 
dennes; d. Liege; composer. At the 
Conservatoire he studied under Catel 
and Mehul, received the Grand prix de 
Borne and tried his hand at operatic 



composition, which, after only mod- 
erate success, he abandoned. In 1827 
he became director of the conservatory 
at Liege. 

DAUTRESME, Lucien (1826-1892): 
b. Elbeuf, Normandy, d. Paris; senator 
and musical amateur who composed 2 
operas and smaller works. 

DAUVERGNE. See Auvergne. 

DAVARI, Stefano: contemp. writer; 
author of a monograph, La musica a 
Mantova (1884). 

DAVAUX, Jean-Baptiste (1737- 
1822): b. Cote-St.-Andre, d. Patis; one 
of the Parisian composers who fol- 
lowed the style of the Mannheim 
school. He wrote symphonies, espe- 
cially concertante, with 2 solo violins 
and, oboes and horns in the tutti; also 
string quartets (pub. Paris, Amsterdam, 
London) and some operas prod, in 

DAVENANT, Sir William (17th 
cent.): English masque writer. Ref.: 
X. 84. 

DAVENPORT, Francis William 
(1847- ) : b. Wilderslowe, near 
Derby, England; composer. He studied 
under Macfarren, later his father-in- 
law; in 1879 became professor of the 
Royal Academy of Music; in 1882 took 
the professorial chair at the Guildhall 
School of Music. His compositions in- 
clude an overture, an orchestral prel- 
ude and fugue, 2 symphonies, cham- 
ber music and songs. He is the author 
of 'Elements of Music' (1884), 'Ele- 
ments of Harmony and Counterpoint' 
(1886) and 'Guide for Piano-forte Stu- 
dents' (1891). 

DAVEY, Henry (1853- ): b. 
Brighton; studied musical theory three 
years at Leipzig Cons., teacher at 
Brighton, contributor to musical jour- 
nals and to the 'Dictionary of National 
Biography'; author of a 'History of 
English Music' (since Purcell) (1895), 
and other books on musical history; 
also lectured on the history of the Pas- 
sion Music (1903-4). Ref.: III. 430. 

DAVID, King of Israel. Ref.: X. 10. 

DAVID (1) FSlicien-Ctesar (1810- 
1876) : b. Cadenet, Vaucluse, d. St. Ger- 
main-en-Laye ; chorister in the Cathe- 
dral of Aix, where he studied at the 
Jesuit College, assisted in conducting 
the theatre and (1829) became maitre 
de chapelle. In 1830 he studied at the 
Paris Conservatoire (with Reber, Mil- 
lot, Fetis), the following two years 
joined the Saint-Simonists at Menil- 
montant and from 1833-1835 toured 
France from M^nilmontant to Mar- 
seilles, also going to Constantinople, 
Smyrna and Egypt. In 1869 he was 
chosen Academician and librarian at 
the Conservatoire. Of his many com- 
positions the most famous is the sym- 
phonic ode Le Desert (1844) ; others 
which met with unmodified approval 
were his operas, La Perle du Bresil 
(1851) and Lalla Rookh (1862) ; La fin 
du monde, though later adjudged the 


20,000 franc prize of the state under 
the title Herculaneum, was refused by 
the Theatre Lyrique. Besides these 
David wrote La captive (opera), an 
oratorio 'Moses on Sinai,' a mystery, an 
ode-symphony 'Columbus,' 2 sympho- 
nies, 24 string quintets, 2 nonets for 
wind, songs, etc., mostly imbued with 
the atmosphere of the Orient, whose 
spirit no other European has more 
sympathetically and comprehendingly 
portrayed. Ref.: II. 390; III. 7; V. 
315; VI. 175ff; IX. 238, 445; VI. 175f, 
Le Desert, 176f; portrait, VI. 176. (2) 
Ferdinand (1810-1873): b. Hamburg, 
d. Switzerland; studied with Spohr 
and Hauptmann; violinist at the Ge- 
wandhaus, the Berlin Konigstadt the- 
atre, in the home of Baron von Lip- 
hardt at Dorpat (later his father-in- 
law), at concerts in St. Petersburg, 
Moscow and Riga. As leader of the 
Gewandhaus, then in the Leipzig Cons., 
he trained the most celebrated contem- 
porary violinists. His 50 works in- 
clude 5 violin concertos, variations, 
etc., for violin, a sextet, a quartet, 2 
symphonies, an opera, also an impor- 
tant 'Violin School,' and edited the 
Hohe Schule des Violins piels. Ref.: 
VII. 409, 412, 443f, 451, 458. (3) Sam- 
uel (1836-1895): b. Paris, d. there; 
studied at the Conservatoire with 
Bazin and Halevy, where he won the 
prix de Rome with Jephtha (1858), 
and the following year a second 
prize for an orchestral work per- 
formed with a men's chorus of 6,000. 
In 1861 he became professor at the 
College de Sainte-Barbe, in 1872 di- 
rector of the music of all Parisian 
Synagogues. His compositions include 
several operas and operettas, prod, in 
Paris, others unperformed, 4 sympho- 
nies, choruses, songs, etc., and L'Art de 
jouer en mesure (1862). (4) Peter 
Paul (1840- ): b. Leipzig; son of 
Ferdinand; conductor of Carlsruhe or- 
chestra, now teacher of violin in Eng- 
land. Ref.: (quoted) VII. 449. (5) 
Adolphe-Isaac (1842-1897) : b. Nantes, 
d. Paris; successfully prod. 3 panto- 
mimes, a comic opera, and piano 
pieces. (6) Ernest (1844-1886) : b. 
Nancy, d. Paris; music critic on Paris 
journals, joint author with Lussy of a 
history of musical notation; also au- 
thor of La vie et les oeuvres de J. S. 
Bach. (7) Fanny (1861- ): b. 
Guernsey, Eng. ; studied with Reinecke 
and Clara Schumann; pianist in Lon- 
don, Berlin, Leipzig, etc. 

DAVIDE (1) Giacomo, called Da- 
vid le pfere (1750-1830) : b. Presezzo, d. 
Bergamo; famous tenor, sang in opera, 
concert and church music in Naples, 
Paris, London, Florence and Bergamo. 
(2) Giovanni (1789-ca. 1851): d. St. 
Petersburg, son of Giacomo, tenor with 
compass of 3 octaves; sang Brescia, 
Venice, Naples, Milan, Rome, Vienna, 
Rologna, London, Genoa, Florence, 
Cremona, Modena, etc.; founded music 



school at Naples; managed St. Peters- 
burg opera. 

DAVIDOFF (1) Charles (1838-1889) : 
b. Goldingen, Courland, d. Moscow; 
'cellist; studied with Schmidt, K. G. 
Shuberth and Griitzmacher, whom he 
succeeded as teacher in the Leipzig 
Cons. He made an extraordinarily suc- 
cessful debut in Leipzig, 1859, and at 
once became solo 'cellist of Gewand- 
haus orchestra. Later he occupied a 
similar position in the Imperial Or- 
chestra, St. Petersburg, where he taught 
at the Cons. (1862), and also became 
conductor of the Russian Musical So- 
ciety (1862) and director of the Cons. 
(1876-87). He composed a symphonic 
poem, an orch. suite, 4 'cello concertos, 
a Russian Fantasy ('cello and orch.) 
and many popular solo pieces for 
'cello; also a piano quintet, a string 
quartet, and a string sextet. He was 
the author of a Violoncello Method. 

(2) Alexi (1867- ): nephew of (1) ; 
studied 'cello and comp. at the St. 
Petersburg Cons. (Rimsky-Korsakoff, 
etc.) ; won the Relaieff prize for a 
string quartet and prod, an opera, 
'The Sunken Rell,' in St. Petersburg 
(1903) and Germany. 

DAVIDSON, G. F.: London music 
publisher, who pioneered in cheap mu- 
sic publishing, collecting Dibdin's 
songs, and publishing sheet music un- 
der the name of 'The Musical Treasury.' 

DAVIE, James (ca. 1783-1857): d. 
Aberdeen; choir-director at St. An- 
drew's Church, where he made collec- 
tions of psalms for 4 voices, also duets, 
trios, glees, etc. He arranged a 'Cale- 
donian Repository' of the most favor- 
ite Scottish slow airs, marches, strath- 
speys, reels, jigs, hornpipes, etc., and 
these he arranged for the violin. 

DA VIES (1) Ben (Benjamin Grey 
D.) (1858- ) : b. Ponadawz, near 
Swansea, Wales; operatic and concert 
tenor. A pupil of Randegger's, he won 
bronze, silver and gold medals and the 
Evill prize; made his first appearance 
as Thaddeus in Ralfe's 'Bohemian Girl* 
at the Royal Theatre in London, and 
since then has sung both on the Con- 
tinent and in the United -States, in 
opera and recitals in London, and in 
many festivals in the English prov- 
inces. (2) Fanny. See David, Fanny. 

(3) Henry Walford (1869- ): b. 
Oswestry, Shropshire; studied at the 
Royal Coll. of Music, having received 
a scholarship for composition; organ- 
ist at St. Anne's, Soho, then Christ 
Church, Hampstead, and since 1898 at 
the Temple Church; Mus. Doc. Cam- 
bridge 1898. He composed 2 sympho- 
nies, 'Holiday Times,' Festival Over- 
ture, 'Parthenia,' Woodworm Suite (all 
for orch.) ; a choral ballad 'Herv6 
Riel,' an oratorio, a 'sacred sym- 
phony,' a choral suite, etc., and a very 
popular setting of 'Everyman' (moral- 
ity-play) ; also chamber music, piano 
and violin sonatas, songs, etc. Ref.: 


III. 426 ; VI. 377f . (4) James A. Ref. : 
(cited) I. 40. (5) Ffrangcon. See 

DAV1LL1EH, Baron. Ref.: quoted 
(on Spanish folk-dance), X. 106; (on 
mediaeval church dance), X. 79; (on 
Seguidilla), X. HOf. 

DAVIS (1) John David (1869- ) : 
b. at Edgbaston; pupil at the Raff and 
the Brussels conservatories and in 1889 
became a teacher at Birmingham. He 
is the composer of an opera, 'The 
Cossacks,' chamber music, symphonic 
ballade, poem and variations. (2) 
John (early 19th cent.) : pioneer opera 
manager in America. Ref.: IV. 115, 
161. (3) T. Kemper. Ref.: IV. 242. 

DAVISON (1) Arabella. See God- 
dard. (2) James William (1813- 
1885): b. in London, d. at Margate; 
pianist, critic, composer. He studied 
music under W. H. Holmes and G. A. 
Macfarren. After writing many compo- 
sitions for orchestra, piano and voice, 
he abandoned that field for musical 
criticism, and from 1844 to his death 
he was editor of the 'Musical World.' 
As music critic of the 'Times' his in- 
fluence was widespread, and it is to 
him that England owes her 'Monday 
Pops.' (3) William Duncan, brother 
of James (1816-1903): London music 
publisher, founder of the 'Musical 

DAVY (1) Richard (15th cent.) : or- 
ganist and music teacher at Magdalen 
College, Oxford. (2) John (1764-1824) : 
b. Upton-Helion, Exeter, d. London; 
violinist at Covent Garden; was a pop- 
ular light opera composer in London, 
1800-19. Ref.: V. 172. 

DAVYDOW, Stepan Ivanovitch 
(1777-1825) : composer of one opera, 
concert-overture and choruses; also 
widely accepted sacred compositions; 
and general musical director of the Im- 
perial Theatre at Moscow. 

DAWSON, Frederick H. (1868-) : 
b. Leeds; pianist, taught by his father 
and by Halle, played in the concerts 
given by Halle and in the London Mon- 
day Popular Concerts. 

DAY (1) John (1522-1584) : b. Dun- 
wich, Suffolk, d. London; music pub- 
lisher, whose collection of psalms, 
'Whole Book of Psalms in 4 Parts,' 
(1563), included settings by Edwards, 
Heath, Shepherd, Southerton, Tallis, 
etc. He also pub. a popular psalter 
(1557) and a 4-part 'Morning and Eve- 
ning Prayer.' Ref.: VI. 91. (2) Alfred 
(1810-1849): b. London, d. there; stud- 
ied in London, Paris and Heidelberg; 
wrote a 'Treatise on Harmony.' (3) 
Charles Russel (1860- ): b. Hor- 
stead, Norfolk; studied music with 
Barnby and wrote, as a result of his 
sojourn in India with his regiment, 2 
books on the musical instruments of 
India. Ref.: (cited) I. 49. 

DAYAS, William Humphrey (1863- 
1903): b. New York, d. Manchester; 
studied with Haupt and Ehrlich, then 



taught at the conservatories of Hel- 
singfors and Wiesbaden, also in Diis- 
seldorf and the Manchester Musical 
College. He composed for organ, 
stringed instruments and piano. Ref.: 
VI. 500. 

DAZA, Esteban (16th cent.) : Span- 
ish author of Libro de musica en cifras 
para Vihuela entitulado el Parnaso, a 
revision of motets and chansons into 
tablature for the lute, among them 
compositions of Fr. Guerrero, Maillart, 
Crequillon and others. 

DE. Names preceded by de are usu- 
ally found under the second word, ex- 
cept when the two are joined. Dutch 
and expatriated French names are re- 
corded under D. 

DE AHM. See Ahna. 

DEAKIN, Andrew (1822-1903): b. 
Birmingham, d. there; newspaper mu- 
sic critic, writer of a musical bibliog- 
raphy and composer of a Stabat Mater 
and masses. 

DEANE, Thomas (17th cent.) : Eng- 
lish organist, violinist and composer. 
He received his degree as Doctor of 
Music from Oxford in 1731. His com- 
positions are mostly church music, 
though compositions for the violin are 
contained in the 'Division Violin.' 

DE ANGELIS. See Angelis. 

D E B A I IV , Alexandre - Francois 
(1809-1877): b. at Paris, d. there; in- 
strument maker. After working for 
Sax and for Mercier, he started for 
himself in 1834, and six years later 
patented the Harmonium, which he in- 
vented and later improved by the 'Pro- 
longement.' He also constructed auto- 
matic instruments and perfected the 

DEBEFVE, Jules (1863- ) : b. at 
Liege; pianist and composer. At first 
pupil, and now for many years teacher 
at the Royal Conservatory, he is 
also the author of church and secular 
songs, an orchestral rhapsody, an or- 
chestral suite, a comic opera, and piano 

DEBIL.L.EMONT, Jean - Jacques 
(1824-1879): b. Dijon, d. Paris; studied 
at the Conservatoire, wrote operas, op- 
erettas, and cantatas, and acted as the- 
atre and concert conductor in Paris. 

DEBL.OIS, Stephen: 18th cent. Amer. 
musical pioneer. Ref.: rv. 57f. 

DE BOECK, Auguste (1865- ): 

b. Merchtem, Belgium; student, later 
teacher, at the Brussels Conservatory; 
wrote an orchestral rhapsody, a sym- 
phony, songs, operas, and pieces for 
organ and pianoforte. 

DEBOIS, Ferdinand (1834-1893): b. 
Brunn, d. there; founded a male choral 
society and composed male choruses. 


DEBUSSY, Claude [Achille] (1862-) : 
b. St. Germain-en-Laye ; studied with 
Guiraud at the Conservatoire, where he 
took the prix de Rome with the can- 
tata L'enfant prodigue (1884), his 


Demoiselle Hue having been rejected as 
too iconoclastic. He is the acknowl- 
edged leader of the ultra-modern im- 
pressionistic school; and technically 
his works are distinguished by the 
effective use of higher primary over- 
tones. Among his best-known and 
most distinctive compositions are set- 
tings of texts by Baudelaire, Verlaine 
and Mallarme, two tone poems, 
L'apres-midi d'un faune, La Mer, and 
3 Images (Gigues, Rondes de Printemps, 
Iberia) ; the opera (lyric drama) Pel- 
leas et Melisande (Opera-Comique, 
1902) ; 3 nocturnes for orchestra and 
women's chorus, a string quartet (G 
min., op. 10) ; a fantasy, for piano and 
orchestra, many highly poetic and 
characteristic piano pieces (Estampes, 
Suite Rergamasque, Proses Igriques, 
Rallades, Dances, etc.), also for 4 hands 
{Petite Suite) ; also three more operas 
(in MS.), incidental music to Gasquet's 
antique drama, Dionysos (1904) and 
d'Annunzio's Le Martgre de Saint-Se- 
bastien (1911) ; 3 ballets, Jeux, Kham- 
ma, La boite aux joujoux; a cappella 
settings of 3 Chansons of Charles d'Or- 
leans; songs with piano ace, etc. He 
has also contributed critical articles to 
the Revue Blanche and Gil Bias. Ref.: 
III. 318ff ; songs, V. 358ff ; choral works, 
VI. 387f; piano comps., VII. 353ff; 
chamber music, VII. 561ff, 604; orches- 
tral works, VIII. 436ff ; opera, IX. 470ff ; 
ballet, X. 232; mus. ex., XIV. 96; por- 
trait, III. 334; facsimile MS., VIII. 114. 
For general references see individual 

DECHERT, Huso (1860- ): b. 

Dresden; 'cello virtuoso, who toured 
Russia, Austria and Italy; solo-'cellist, 
Berlin Royal Orchestra, 'cellist to the 
court, and teacher. 

DECHEVRENS, Antoine, S. J. 
(1840- ): b. Chene, near Geneva; 
conductor in the Jesuit College of Paris, 
professor of philology and philosophy 
at Angers University and writer on 
Gregorian chant. 

DECKER, Konstantin (1810-1878): 
b. Fiirstenau, Brandenburg, d. Stolp, 
Pomerania; teacher, pianist and com- 
poser in St. Petersburg and Konigsberg; 
composer of 3 operas, chamber music, 

(1826- ): b. Vienna; noted virtuoso 
on guitar, tenor and theatre conductor 
in St. Petersburg. He composed music 
for guitar, mandolin and balalaika, 
etc.; also operas and operettas. 

DECREUS, Camille (1876- ): b. 
Paris; studied at the Conservatoire; 
debut as pianist at Paris, 1906; toured 
England, France and the United States; 
private teacher in Washington since 

DECSEY, Ernst (1870- ): b. 
Hamburg; studied with Bruckner, 
Fuchs and Schenner; music critic and 
editor in Graz; author of a biography 
of Hugo Wolf (3 vols., 1903-06). 



DEDEKIND (1) Henning ([?]- 
1628) : cantor and pastor at Langen- 
salza, Thuringia, and Gebesee; writer 
of musical theory and text books. (2) 
Constantin Christian (1628-[?]) : b. 
Reinsdorf; court musician at Meissen, 
concert conductor and composer of 
popular church songs with instru- 
mental accompaniment. 

DEDLER, Rochus (1779-1822): b. 
Oberammergau, d. Oberfohring, Vi- 
enna; school teacher and composer of 
the music for the Passion Play given 

PEERING (or DERING), Richard 
( -1630): d. London; organist at 
Brussels, court organist to the English 
Queen, 1625; composed sacred can- 
tiones, canzonets, etc. 

DE FESCH, Willem (ca. 1725-ca. 
1760) : Flemish organist in Antwerp 
and London, 'cello virtuoso; composer 
of 2 oratorios, an orchestral mass, 
canzonets, 7-part concertos, trio sona- 
tas, violin sonatas, 'cello sonatas, etc. 

DEFERS, Louis Pierre (1819-1900) : 
b. Toulouse, d. there; studied in Tou- 
louse and at the Paris Conservatoire; 
directed the Toulouse Cons., composed 
15 comic operas and operettas, masses, 
a cantata, etc. 

DEGELE, Eusen (1834-1866): b. 
Munich, d. Dresden; studied at the 
Munich Conservatory, sang as baritone 
in Munich, Hanover and at the Dres- 
den court, and composed songs. 

DE GIOSA. See Giosa. 

DEGNER, Erich Wolf (1858-1908): 
b. Hohenstein-Ernstthal, d. Berka, near 
Weimar; studied at Chemnitz, Weimar 
and Wiirzburg, taught in Ratisbon, 
Weimar and Gotha, and was director 
of music societies and schools in Pet- 
tau and Weimar; composed a sym- 
phony for organ and orchestra, an over- 
ture, violin and piano pieces; also 2 
symphonies with organ, Martha und 
die Mutter, for chorus (MS.), a sere- 
nade, etc. (MS.). D. pub. directions 
and examples for the construction of 

DEGTAREFF, Stepan Ankievitch 
(1766-1813): studied in St. Petersburg 
and Italy, was conductor and church 
composer for Count Sheremetieff, 
wrote 60 concertos, part-songs and Rus- 
sian choruses, very few of which were 

DE HA AN, Willem (1849- ): 
b. Rotterdam; taught by Nicolai, de 
Lange, Bargiel, and at the Leipzig Cons. ; 
choral conductor in Bingen and at 
Darmstadt, where he was also court 
Kapellmeister. He wrote works for 
male chorus and orchestra, mixed cho- 
rus and orchestra, 2 operas, Die Kaisers- 
tochter (Darmstadt, 1885), Die Inka- 
sohne (1895), also songs, duets, piano 
pieces, etc. 

DEHMEL, Richard: poet. Ref.: 
III. 274; V. 331. 

DEHN, Siegfried Wilhelm (1799- 
1858): b. Altona, d. Berlin; studied 

De liange 

'cello and theory with Paul Wineber- 
ger, the organist Drob and B. Klein; 
became librarian of the music division 
of the Berlin Royal Library (1842), 
which he first catalogued and enlarged. 
He was made royal professor, and 
edited the periodical Cdcilia, 1842-48. 
He wrote Theoretisch-praktische Har- 
monielehre (1840, sev. editions) ; Ana- 
lyse dreier Fugen aus J. S. Bach's 
Wohltemp. Klavier, etc. (1858), and 
edited a collection of music of the 
16th and 17th centuries (2 vols., 1837). 
A Lehre vom Kontrapunkt, dem Kanon 
und der Fuge, was posthumously pub. 
(1859, ed. by B. Scholz). Among D.'s 
famous pupils were Rubinstein, Glinka, 
Hofmann, Kullak, Cornelius and Kiel. 
Ref.: III. 16. 

DEICHMANN, Carl (1817-1908) : 
English violinist. 

DEISS, Michael (18th cent.): Im- 
perial musician to Ferdinand I, com- 
poser of motets, among them one on 
the death of his master. 

DEITERS, Hermann [Clemens 
Otto] (1833-1907) : b. Bonn, d. Co- 
blentz; pupil of Otto Jahn, studied in 
Berlin and Bonn; taught and directed 
schools at Bonn, Duren, Konitz, and 
Posen, and became provincial school 
commissioner in Coblentz, 1885. He 
wrote critical articles in the Deutsche 
Musikzeitung, the Allgem. musikal. Zei- 
tung, and the Vierteljahrsschrift fur 
Musikwissenschaft, on Schumann as 
litterateur, Otto Jahn, Bruch's Odysseus, 
many studies of Brahms, and a sketch 
of Beethoven, etc. He also wrote 
on Greek music theoreticians. He 
edited the 3rd and 4th editions of 
Jahn's 'Mozart' and — his chief work — 
'Thayer's Biography of Beethoven' 
(from the English MS., vol. I. 1866 and 
rev. 1901; II. 1872; III. 1879; TV. 1907 
[with additions by Riemann]). Vol. V. 
was edited by Riemann and pub. 1908. 

DE KOVEN, Reginald (1859- ): 

b. Middletown, Conn.; studied in Ox- 
ford, pupil of the Stuttgart Cons., of 
Hauff in Frankfort-on-Main, also of 
Vannucini (singing) in Florence, Genee 
in Vienna and Delibes in Paris. He 
was for a time conductor of the Wash- 
ington Philharmonic, then critic of the 
New York 'World.' He composed a num- 
ber of tuneful operettas, incl. the pop- 
ular 'Robin Hood' (1890), 'Maid Mar- 
ian,' 'Rob Roy,' 'The Highwayman,' 
'The Fencing Master,' 'The Tsigane,' 
'The Red Feather,' 'Happy Land' and 
'The Student King'; also a grand op- 
era, 'The Canterbury Pilgrims' (New 
York Met. Opera, 1917), an orchestral 
suite, a piano sonata and many songs. 
Ref.: TV. 353, U8ff ; IX. 235; mus. ex., 
XIV. 231; portrait, IV. 458. 

DELACROIX, Joseph. Ref. : IV. 66f. 

DELACOUR, Vincent-Conrad-Fe- 
lix (1808-1840): b. Paris, d. there; 
harpist and composer. 

DE LANGE (1) Samuel (1811- 
1884) : b. Rotterdam, d. there; organist, 



teacher and composer of organ sonatas. 
(2) Samuel (1840-1911): b. Rotterdam, 
d. Stuttgart; organist and composer; 
son of (1) ; studied in Rotterdam, 
Vienna and Lemberg; made concert 
tours throughout Europe; organist and 
teacher at Rotterdam Music School 
(1863-1874) : teacher in Music School 
at Rasel (1874-1876); teacher at Co- 
logne Cons., and conductor of Manner- 
gesangverein and Gurzenichchor (1876- 
1885) ; conducted Oratorio Society at 
The Hague (1885-1893); teacher and 
vice-director, Stuttgart Cons. (1893- 
1895); conductor Stuttgart Society for 
Classical Church Music from 1895; 
composed an oratorio, 'Moses,' a sym- 
phony, a piano concerto, organ sonatas, 
chamber music works, etc. Ref.: VI. 
458, 469. (3) Daniel (1841- ): b. 
Rotterdam: brother of (2); studied in 
Lemberg and Paris; organist and 
teacher in Lemberg, teacher in Amster- 
dam; director of choral societies in 
Leyden and Amsterdam, with which he 
produced old Netherland a cappella 
music with sensational success, also 
in London and Germany. He became 
director of the Amsterdam Cons, in 
1895; music critic and composer of 
2 symphonies, several cantatas, an 
opera, a mass, a Requiem, an overture, 
a 'cello concerto, songs, etc. He also 
wrote an Expose" d'une thiorie de 

DELATRB (1) Olivier. Little is 
known of him save that he published 
music in Paris, Lyons and Antwerp. 
The pieces were chiefly songs and mo- 
tets and we have impressions of them 
from 1539 to 1555. (2) [Claude] Petit- 
Jan, also a Netherlander of the 16th 
century. He led the boys' choir at the 
Cathedral of Verdun, was Kapellmeis- 
ter to the Rishop of Liege, and a com- 
poser of songs and motets. (3) Roland. 

DE L'AULNAYE. See [de P] Aul- 


DELDEVEZ, fidouard-BIaric-Er- 
nest (1817-1897): b. Paris, d. there; 
studied at the Conservatoire, where he 
took the first and second prizes; vio- 
linist; gave a concert of his own com- 
Sositions in 1840, became second con- 
uctor of the Opera and the Conserva- 
toire concerts, chief conductor of the 
latter, 1872, and the former, 1873; also 
professor of the orchestral class at the 
Cons.; retired 1885. He wrote 3 sym- 
phonies, chamber music, ballets, lyric 
scenes, cantatas, church music (Req- 
uiem for Habeneck), and edited CEuvres 
des violinistes cilebres (4 vols.) ; pub. 
L'art du chef d'orchestre (1878), 
also theoretical and historical writ- 

DE LEVA, Enrico (1867- ): b. 

Naples; pianist, song composer; prod, 
an opera, La Camargo (Turin, 1898) ;" 
also wrote a serenata, and E spingole 
frangese, which made his fame. 
, DELEZEJVNE, Charles -fidouard- 


Joseph (1776-1866): b. Lille, d. there; 
professor of mathematics and physics 
and writer on musical theory. 

DELHASSE, Felix (1809-1898): b. 
Spaa, d. Rrussels; founder and editor 
of the Guide musical, contributor to 
journals and writer of biographies of 

DELIBES, [Clement-Philibert-] 
Leo (1836-1891) : b. St. Germain du 
Val, Sarthe, d. Paris; studied at the 
Conservatoire; accompanied at the 
Theatre-Lyrique, organist of a Paris 
church and assistant chorus master at 
the Grand Opera; composed several 
operettas, including his first, Deux sous 
de Charbon (1855), La Source (1866), 
Coppelia (1870) and Sylvia (1876); 3 
ballets, 5 comic operas, Maltre Griffard 
(1857), Le jardinier et son seigneur 
(1863), Le roi Va dit (1873), Jean de 
Nivelle (1880) and Lakmi (1883) ; a dra- 
matic scene, La Mort d'Orphee (1878), 
and a number of pleasing romances. 
An unfinished opera, Kassya, was com- 
pleted by Massenet and prod, in 1893. 
He wrote also incidental music to Le 
roi s'amuse, and ballet music for 
Adam's Corsair. In 1881 he was made 
professor at the Conservatoire, and 
three years later a member of the 
Academy. Ref.! II. 389; III. 7, 278; 
VII. 462; opera, IX. 238, 445; ballet, 
X. 151, 152, 167; mus. ex., XIV. 10. 

DELICATI, Margherita: an Italian 
soprano in London with her husband 
in 1789. 

DELIDICQUE, Leonard (1821- ) : 
b. at La Haye; violinist and composer. 
He studied at the Paris Conservatoire, 
and later founded and conducted the 
'Societe des Symphonistes.' His com- 
positions were exclusively for the 

DELIOUX, [de Savignac] Charles 
(1830- ) : b. Lorient; studied by 
himself, and with Rarbereau and with 
Halevy; wrote chiefly for pianoforte, 
also a Cours complets d'exercises (pi- 
ano) and a one-act comic opera. 

DELIUS, Frederick (1863- ): b. 
at Rradford, England, of German par- 
ents who intended him for a mer- 
chant. In 1883 he became a planter 
in Florida. Having taught himself the 
rudiments of music, he then went to 
Leipzig, to study with Jadassohn and 
Reinecke at the Conservatory, and 
in 1890 settled in France. He has 
composed for orchestra, a fantasy- 
overture, 'Over the Hills and Far 
Away'; Norwegian Suite; 'Rrigg Fair,' 
and 'hi a Summer Garden' (symph. 
poems) ; 'Paris' (nocturne) ; 'Life's 
Dance,' 'Legend' (for violin and orch.), 
a piano concerto, the operas 'Koanga' 
(Elberfeld, 1904), 'The Village Romeo 
and Juliet' (Rerlin, 1907) and Margot 
la Rouge; also 'Appalachia' (for or- 
chestra and chorus) ; 'Sea-Drift' (bar., 
chorus and orch.) ; 'Mass of Life' 
(1905) ; Dance Rhapsody (bar., chorus 
and orch.) and other choral works; 


Delia Maria 

also songs and a music drama in 11 
scenes, 'Two Episodes from the Life 
of Niels Lyhne' (after J. P. Jacobsen). 
Ref.: III. x, xi, xiv, xix, 424/; VIII. 
474, 476f. 

DKL.L.A MARIA, Pierre-Antoine- 
Domenique (1769-1800): b. Marseilles, 
d. Paris; studied in Italy, performer on 
mandolin and 'cello; produced in 
Italy and Paris, 3 opere buffe, a can- 
tata, and 7 operas comiques. 

DELLER, Florian (ca. 1730-1774): 
b. Drosendorf, d. Munich; was mem- 
ber of the court orchestra, concert con- 
ductor and court composer at Stutt- 
gart; lived also in Vienna and Munich. 
He wrote singspiele, comic operas, trio 
sonatas and symphonies. 

DELLE SEDIE, Enrico (1826-1907) : 
b. Leghorn, d. Paris; received train- 
ing from Galeffl, Persanola, and Do- 
meniconi; sang first in Verdi's Nabu- 
co; sang in opera in Italy and Paris, 
then became professor of singing at 
the Conservatoire; wrote 2 books on 
dramatic singing. 

BELLINGER, Rudolf (1857-1910): 
b. Graslitz, Bohemia, d. Dresden; stud- 
ied in the Conservatory of Prague; 
clarinettist, conductor and director; 
conducted in Hamburg and Dresden, 
where he produced 7 operettas. 

DELMAS, Jean-Francois (1861-) : 
b. Lyons; studied at the Paris Con- 
servatoire, bass opera singer at Paris 

DELMOTTE, Henri-Florent (1799- 
1836): b. Mons, d. there; author of the 
Notice biographique sur Roland Delat- 
tre (Orlando de Lasso). Ref.: (cited) 
VI. 58. 

DELPRAT, Charles (1803-1888) : d. 
Pau, the Pyrenees; singing teacher in 
Paris; writer on the art of singing and 
the history of the Paris Conservatoire. 

DELSART, Jules (1844-1900): b. at 
Valenciennes, d. in Paris; violoncellist. 
He studied at the Paris Academy of 
Music and at the Conservatoire, and in 
1884 succeeded Franchomme as pro- 
fessor of violoncello there. 

DELSARTE, Francois [-Alexan- 
dre-Nicolas-Chcri] (1811-1871) : b. 
Solesme, d. Paris; studied with Choron, 
Garaude and Ponchard; sang in Opera 
Comique and the Varietes, then turned 
St. Simonist and became church choir 
director at the church of Abbe Chatel; 
established teaching courses, gave his- 
torical concerts in which he inter- 
preted the vocal works of Lully, Gluck 
and Rameau with great success, and 
was in high demand as vocal teacher. 
He collected and edited Les archives du 
chant (reproducing the original edi- 
tions with the bass written out). Ref.: 
X. 207, 211f, 214. 

DEL.UNE, Louis (1876- ): b. 

Charleroi, Belgium; studied in Brus- 
sels, composer of choruses, violin and 
'cello sonatas, and songs. 

DEMACHI, Giuseppi (18th cent.) : 
b- at Piedmont; violinist. During 1740 


he was a member of the court orchestra 
at Turin, and in 1771 he was instru- 
mental composer in Geneva. Orchestral 
quartets, violin sonatas and concert 
symphonies are among his works. 

DEMANTIUS, Christoph (1567- 
1643) : b. Reichenberg, d. Freiberg, Sax- 
ony ; composer of sacred and secular mu- 
sic ; Te Deums, magnificats, masses, can- 
zonettas, villanelles, etc., also a 'Ger- 
man Passion.' He wrote 2 theoretical 

DjGMAR, Joseph Sebastian (1763- 
1832): b. at Gauaschach, Bavaria; d. 
Orleans; pupil of F. X. Richter, organ- 
ist, conductor and writer of concertos 
for violin, piano, clarinet, horn; also 
sonatas and instrumental text-books. 

DEMAREST, Clifford, contempo- 
rary American organist and composer. 
Ref.: IV. 358f. 

DEMELIUS, Christian (1643-1711): 
b. at Schlettau, Saxony; d. at Nord- 
hausen; composer. In 1700 he wrote 
4-part motets and arias. He is the 
author of a book on elementary music 

DEMENYI, Desiderius (1871- ): 
b. Budapest; founded Zenekozlony, the 
leading musical journal of Hungary; 
comp. sacred music, an operetta, sev- 
eral melodramas and many songs. 

DEMETRIUS. Ref.: (mysteries) X. 
61, 67, 69. 

DEMEUR (1) Anne Arsfcne (ne'e 
Charton) (1827-1892) : b. Saujon, Cha- 
rente ; d. Paris ; operatic and concert so- 
prano; sang in Toulouse, Brussels, Lon- 
don, St. Petersburg, Vienna, Paris and 
America; sang comic and Italian opera, 
also in three of Berlioz's operas. (2) 
Jules Antoine (1814-[?]): b. Hodi- 
mont-les-Verviers ; studied at the Brus- 
sels Conservatory and with Dorus; flut- 
ist at Brussels Opera and at Drury Lane; 
accompanied his wife (1) on her tours. 

DEMOL (1) Ranlequin (15th cent.) : 
Flemish composer of church music. 
(2) Pierre (1825-1899): b. Brussels, d. 
Alost; studied in Brussels, 'cellist and 
teacher at Besancon, composed 3 can- 
tatas, a mass, 12 string quartets, an 
opera and an oratorio. (3) Francois- 
Marie (1844-1883) : b. Brussels, d. 
Ostend; studied at the Brussels Con- 
servatory, organist in Brussels and 
Marseilles, professor in Marseilles and 
conductor in Brussels. He was nephew 
of Pierre. (4) Willem (1846-1874) : b. 
Brussels, d. Marseilles; brother of 
Francois, organist and student in Brus- 
sels, composer of popular cantatas and 
songs to Flemish texts. 

DEMUNCK (1) Francois (1815- 
1854): b. Brussels, d. there; student 
and professor of the 'cello at Brussels 
Conservatory 1 ; 'cellist also in London; 
wrote a fantasy and variations. (2) 
Ernest (1840-1915) : b. Brussels, d. 
there; son of Francois; virtuoso on 
'cello in Great Britain and Paris; 'cel- 
list at the Weimar court, professor 
of the 'cello in the London Royal 



Academy of Music since 1893. In 1879 
he married Carlotta Patti (q.v.). 

DEMUTH, Leopold (1861-1910) : b. 
Briinn, d. Czernovitz; baritone; pupil 
of Gansbacher at the Vienna Cons. 
He has sung at Halle, Leipzig and 
Hamburg, and in 1897 became a mem- 
ber of Viennese court opera. 

DENEPVE, Jules (1814-1877): b. 
Chimay; studied at Brussels, became 
professor at the tcole de Musique, and 
'cellist at the theatre in Mons; later 
he directed the Ecole, concerts and 
choral societies. He composed 3 operas, 
cantatas, male choruses, etc. 

DENGREMONT, Maurice (1866- 
1893) : b. Bio de Janeiro, d. Buenos 
Ayres; violin prodigy at 11, who held 
the attention of Europe for several 

DENNfiE, Charles [Frederick] 
(1863- ) : b. Oswego; studied at New 
England Cons, and from 1883 piano- 
forte instructor there; composed com- 
ic operas; violin, 'cello and piano 
suites, salon pieces, character studies, 
songs, etc. His 'Progressive Technique' 
is a detailed study of technique for 
the pianoforte. 

DENNER, Johann Christopfc (1655- 
1707): b. at Leipzig, d. at Nuremberg; 
instrument-maker. About the end of 
the seventeenth century he became the 
inventor of the clarinet, by virtue of 
his discovery of the over-blow hole, 
to which he was led by attempts to 
improve the old French chalumeau (of 
cylindrical bore and single reed). He 
established a factory which was con- 
tinued very successfully by his sons. 
Ref.: VIII. 85. 

DENT, Edward James (1876- ) : 
b. at Bibston, Yorkshire; music his- 
torian; Mus. Bac, 1899, and fellow at 
King's College, Cambridge, 1902. He 
is the author of 'Alessandro Scarlatti, 
His Life and Works' (1905) and 'Mo- 
zart's Operas' (1913) ; and has con- 
tributed largely to the 'Encyclopedia 
Britannica' and 'Grove's Dictionary.' 
Ref.: III. 431. 

DENTICE, Scipio (1560-1633): d. 
Naples; an Italian composer who wrote 
five books of 5-part madrigals and one 
book of motets. 

DENZA, Luigi (1846- ) : b. Cas- 
tellammare di Stabbia; studied in the 
Naples Conservatory; wrote one opera, 
W aliens tein, and about 500 songs, 
among them the well-known Funiculi- 
funicula; director of the London Acad- 
emy of Music and singing teacher at 
the Boyal Academy there. Ref.: HI. 
401; V. 323. 

DEPPE, Lndwig (1828-1890): b. 
Alverdissen, Lippe, d. Bad Pyrmont; 
studied in Hamburg and Leipzig, taught 
in Hamburg and conducted the Berlin 
Boyal Opera, also the Boyal Kapelle 
concerts. He wrote a symphony and 
2 overtures, also a well-known piano 
method and a biographical account of 
his years as court conductor. 


DEPRES. See Josquin. 

DEPROSSE, Anton (1838-1878) : b. 
Munich, d. in Berlin; composer. He 
studied in the Boyal Music School and 
under Stunz and Herzog. From 1861- 
1864 he taught at the same school. 
Among his compositions are songs, 
piano pieces, an oratorio and, in manu- 
script, operas. 

DERCKS, Emil (1849-1911) : b. at 
Donnerau, Silesia; organist and com- 
poser. He was a pupil of the Boyal 
Institute in Berlin, and later studied 
under d' Albert; founded oratorio and 
concert societies at Koslin and at Bres- 
lau director of the Waetzoldtsche So- 
ciety, etc. His songs are worth spe- 
cial mention, also a song book for 
high schools and a pamphlet, Kirchen- 
chor und Dirigent. 

DE RESZKE. See Beszk£. 

DEREPAS, Gustave: (quoted on 
Franck) II. 472. 

DEREYNE, Fely (1883- ) : b. 

in Marseilles; opera singer; a pupil of 
Blasini, and since her debut, in 1903, 
has sung at Covent Garden, at the Bos- 
ton Opera House, the Metropolitan Op- 
era House, in South America and in 

DERING. See Deering. 

DERUYTS, Jean Jacques (1790- 
1871) : b. Liege, d. there; instructor and 
composer. His compositions consist of 
church music, a Te Deum, masses, mo- 
tets and offertories. He taught Cesar 
Franck while the latter was at Liege. 

DE SANCTIS, Cesare (1830- ): 
b. at Albano, Borne; Italian composer. 
He wrote fugues, an overture and a 
Bequiem mass, and has published 
treatises on music. 

DfiSAUGIERS, Marc-Antoine (1742- 
1793) : b. at Frejus, d. in Paris ; com- 
poser. He was a self-taught musician, 
who prod, little operas of natural 
charm in Paris theatres. He celebrated 
the storming of the Bastille in a festi- 
val cantata, Hierodrame. He was a 
friend of Gluck and Sacchini, and 
when the latter died he wrote a 
Bequiem for him. 

DESCARTES, Rene (Renartus 
Cartesius) (1596-1650): b. at La Haye, 
Touraine; d. at Stockholm; celebrated 
philosopher. Among his writings is a 
small Compendium musices (1618), 
which shows him to have had an ex- 
traordinary understanding of music. 
His letters also contain short references 
to music. 

DESLANDRES, Adolpn-£douard 
Marie (1840-1911): b. Paris, d. there; 
organist and composer. He was a 
pupil at the Paris Conservatoire un- 
der Leborne and Benoist, and in 1862 
became the organist at Ste. Marie at 
Batignolles. Among his works are a 
number of noted choral works, includ- 
ing the Ode a I'harmonie, masses, 'The 
Seven Words on the Cross,' and can- 
tatas; also concertante instr. pieces. 
Several of his small operas were pro- 



duced, among them Dimanche et Lundi 
(1872), Le Chevalier Bijou (1875) and 
Fridolin (1876). 

DESMARETS, Henri (1662-1741) : 
b. Paris, d. Luneville; French courtier 
and composer, wrote 6 operas and 3 
ballets. As he had secretly married 
the daughter of a high official he was 
condemned for abduction; banished 
from the court of Louis XIV, he be- 
came maitre de musique to Philip 
V in Spain and later intendant for 
the Duke of Lorraine at Luneville. 
He also wrote church music, a 
Te Deum, motets, etc., which were pub- 
lished under the name of Goupillier. 

DESMOND, Olga. Ref.: X. 22, 193, 

DESORMES, Louis C. (1845-1898): 
b. Algiers, d. Paris; composer and con- 

DESPRES, Desprgs, Desprez, Jos- 
quin. See Josquin. 

DESSAU, Bernhard (1861- ): b. 
in Hamburg; violinist. He studied un- 
der Schradieck, Joachim, and Wieni- 
awski; held successive positions as 
concert-master at Gorlitz, Ghent, K6- 
nigsberg, etc., and at Rotterdam was 
teacher at the Conservatory. Since 
1898 he has been active as concert- 
master at the Berlin Hofoper. He is 
the author of compositions for the 

DESSAUER (1) Josef (1798-1876) : 
b. Prague, d. Modling; studied 
with Tomaschek and Weber; wrote 
popular songs, string quartets, over- 
tures and 5 operas. (2) Heinrich 
(1863- ): b. Wiirzburg; studied in 
Munich and Berlin; violinist; taught 
in Breslau and Linz; devoted much 
time to the problem of enlarging the 
viola without changing the finger- 
board. He wrote Universal-Violinschule 

DESSOFF, [Felix] Otto (1835- 
1892) : b. Leipzig, d. Frankfort-on- 
Main; studied with Moscheles, Haupt- 
mann and Rietz at the Leipzig Cons. ; 
conductor of theatres in Chemnitz, Al- 
tenburg, Diisseldorf, Aachen, Magde- 
burg, and of the Vienna court opera, 
where he also taught at the Cons, of 
the Gesellschaft der Musikfreunde, and 
cond. of Philharmonic concerts; court 
conductor in Carlsruhe and chief con- 
ductor at Frankfort Stadttheater. He 
published some chamber music, a 
piano sonata, etc. 

DESSOIR (1) Max (1867- ) : b. 
Berlin; author and philosopher. In 
his Zeitschrift fur Asthetik und allge- 
meine Kunstw is sense haft he treats ex- 
tensively of music. (2) Susanne 
(1869- ) : (nee Triepel) ; b. Grxin- 
berg, Silesia; wife of Max; pianist, 
singer and author. As a pupil of 
Amalia Joachim, she studied for, ora- 
torio and opera. She made a reputa- 
tion as champion of modern composers, 
and for exemplary song-recital pro- 


DESTINN (Kittl), Emmy (1878-) : 
b. at Prague; dramatic soprano. She 
discarded her own name to adopt that 
of her teacher. She made her debut 
as Santuzza in the Berlin Hofoper, 
lived afterward in Prague and has 
sung with success at Bayreuth, the Met- 
ropolitan Opera House in New York, 
at Covent Garden and the Berlin Royal 
Opera. She is the author of a drama, 
'Rahel,' of poems and stories. Ref.: 
IV. 153. 

DESTOUCHES (1) Andre-Cardinal 
(1672-1749): b. Paris, d. there; studied 
at the Paris Jesuit School, and later 
with Campra, for whose Europe galante 
he wrote several numbers. After the 
success of his opera Isse, D. became 
general inspector of the Academie 
(1713) and maitre de chapelle-musique 
(1726) and chief intendant (1728). He 
wrote further the operas Amadis de 
Grece (1699); Marthesie (1699); Om- 
phale (1701) ; Callirhoe (1712) ; TeU- 
maque et Calypso (1714) ; Semiramis 
(1718) ; also the ballets Le Carnaval et 
la Folie (1704); Les Elements (1725) 
and Les stratagemes de Vamour (1726) ; 
also the two solo cantatas Oenone 
(1716) and SimeU (1719), which were 
printed; and some church compositions, 
incl. a Te Deum several times per- 
formed. D. was much admired by 
Louis XIV, who considered him the 
only substitute for Lully. (2) Franz 
Seraph von (1772-1844) : b. Munich, 
d. there; conductor and teacher in Wei- 
mar and court conductor in Hamburg; 
composed 1 opera, 1 comic opera and 1 
operetta, and the music to Schiller's 
Wallensteins Tod, Macbeth, Turandot, 
Braut von Messina, Jungfrau von Or- 
leans and Tell; to 2 plays by Kotzebue; 
also piano sonatas, etc., a piano con- 
certo and a trio. 

DESTRANGES, Louis-Augustin- 
£tienne-RouiIle- (1863- ) : b. Nan- 
tes; editor and contributor to musical 
journals, wrote several books on Wag- 
ner, Franck, Meyerbeer, Verdi, Saint- 
Saens, etc., and a number of thematic 
guides to modern operas (d'Indy, Cha- 
brier, Bruneau, Humperdinck, etc.) ; 
also Berlioz's Troyens. 

DESVIGNES, Victor Francois 
(1805-1853) : b. at Treves, d. at Metz; 
composer. For many years he directed 
theatres for operettas in French prov- 
inces. In 1832 he founded the conserva- 
tory at Metz, which quickly became a 
succursale of the Paris Conservatory. 
His pieces include chamber music, 
church chorales, and several operas in 

DESWERT (de Swert) (1) Jules 
(1843-1891): b. Louvain, d. Ostend; 
conductor, 'cellist and composer. He 
studied with Servais in Brussels, con- 
cert-master at Diisseldorf, was first 
'cellist at Weimar, and in Berlin 
taught, appeared as virtuoso and 
was Royal concert-master. In 1873 
he became director of the Ostend 



School of Music; teacher at Ghent 
and Bruges Cons.; composed 3 'cello 
concertos, 'cello pieces, a symphony; 
prod. 2 operas. (2) Jean Cas- 
par Isidore (1830-1896): b. Brussels, 
d. there; brother of Jules and pro- 
fessor of the 'cello at the Cons, of 

DETHIER (1) Gaston: contemn. 
Belgian organist resident in New York. 
Ref.: VI. 501. (2) fidouard (1885-) : 
b. Liege; concert violinist; studied at 
the conservatories of Liege and Brus- 
sels; debut Brussels, 1903; toured 
United States and Canada; professor 
at the Institute of Musical Art, New 
York, since 1906. 

DETTMER, Wilhelm (1808-1876) : 
b. at Breinum near Hildesheim, d. 
at Frankfort; singer. He was the son 
of a farmer, and after completing his 
education joined a troupe of wander- 
ing actors. After a long apprentice- 
ship in minor roles at Hanover, Bres- 
lau, Cassel, he became a leading oper- 
atic bass in Dresden. He was distin- 
guished as a leading comedian. 

DEVIENNE, Francois (1759-1803): 
b. at Joinville, d. at Charenton ; flutist, 
bassoonist, writer and composer; pro- 
fessor at the Conservatoire until 1902. 
He wrote many operettas, 11 operas, 
concertante pieces for wind instr. and 
orchestra, symphonies, flute concertos, 
chamber music and sonatas for vari- 
ous instruments. He also published a 
Flute Method (1795). 

DEVRIENT (1) Eduard (1801- 
1877): b. Berlin, d. Carlsruhe; bari- 
tone at the Berlin Royal Opera, di- 
rected the court operas of Dresden and 
of Carlsruhe; author of 5 books on 
drama and music. Ref.: VI. 242 (foot- 
note) ; IX. 216. (2) Wilhelmine. See 

DEWEY, Ferdinand (1851-1900) : b. 
at Montpelier, d. at Beverley, Mass. 
(U.S.) ; pianist, composer and teacher. 

DEYO, Ruth Lynda (1884- ) : b. 

Poughkeepsie, New York; concert pi- 
anist; debut Berlin, 1904; toured Eu- 
rope and the United States, with 
Casals, 1915-16. 

DEZfiDE, (Desaides) (ca. 1740- 
1792): b. in Lyons, d. in Paris; comic 
opera composer. From 1772 he wrote 18 
pieces of from one to three acts, given 
both in Paris and in Germany (Julie, 

DIARELLI, Antonio (1781-1858) : b. 
at Mattsee, near Sulzburg, d. in Vienna; 
instructor and composer; pupil of 
Michael Haydn; monk at Raiten- 
haslach, then piano and guitar teacher 
in Vienna, late publisher (at first assoc. 
with Cappi, then independent, 1824-54, 
selling out to C. A. Spina). He was a 
prolific writer of masses, cantatas, and 
chamber music, but only his educa- 
tional works (sonatas, 2 and 4 hand, 
sonatinas, etc.) still deserve recogni- 
tion. He was Schubert's chief pub- 
lisher and was acquainted with Beetho- 


ven, who wrote a set of variations on a 
waltz by D. (op. 120). Ref.: VII. 165. 

DIAGHILEFF, Serge; contemp. 
Russian ballet impresario; b. Novgo- 
rod, educated at Moscow Univ., court 
counsellor; founded an art journal in 
St. Petersburg and formed a circle of 
modernists in various art branches; in- 
troduced Russian paintings (Bakst) and 
Russian opera in Paris; organized a 
Ballet Russe which champions reform 
principles in the unity of action, music 
and decorations, created ballets enlist- 
ing the services of Bakst and other 
painters, Stravinsky among the musi- 
cians, and Fokine, Karsavina, Nijinsky, 
etc., among the dancers. The organi- 
zation appeared with great success in 
Paris from 1912 and in London, also 
1915-16 in the United States. Ref.: 
X. 219f; (Russian ballet) III. 331, 340; 
X. 176, 185, 200. 

DIANA, Greek goddess. Ref.: X. 54. 

DIAZ [de la PEvAL] Eugene- 
[fimilel (1837-1901) : b. Paris, d. Cole- 
ville, France; composer. He studied 
at the Conservatoire under Halevy and 
Reber and has written songs and 3 
operas, one of which, La Coupe du Roi 
de Thule, received the great prize of 
the state in 1869. 

DIBBERN, Karl (1855- ) : b. Al- 
tona; conductor and composer of light 
operas, also 2 serious ones. 

DIBDIN (1) Charles (1745-1814): b. 
Southampton, d. in London; composer, 
singer, actor and manager. He was 
the author as well as the composer of 
a large number of light operas, and 
well known in his day through his 
'table entertainments,' called first 'The 
Whim of the Moment,' later 'The Oddi- 
ties,' and which included a large num- 
ber of sea songs very popular in Eng- 
land during her war with France. Dib- 
din wrote on musical subjects in two 
volumes called 'The Musical Mentor' 
and 'Music Epitomised,' also a didactic 
poem 'The Harmonic Preceptor.' Ref.: 
V. 172. (2) Henry Edward (1818-1866) : 
b. at Sadler's Wells, d. in Edinburgh; 
organist and composer. He was the 
youngest son of Charles, and a profi- 
cient student of the organ and the 
violin and harp. In 1857 he published 
'The Standard Psalm Tune Book,' the 
most complete and authentic of collec- 
tions, most of the material for which 
he drew from ancient psalters. His 
other compilation is called the 'Praise 
Book' and was published in 1865. 

DICKINSON (1) Edward (1853-) : 
b. Springfield, Mass.; studied music in 
Boston and Berlin; organist in Spring- 
field; organist, teacher, director in 
Elmira College, N. Y.; professor in 
Oberlin College and Cons.; author of 
'Music in the History of the Western 
Church' (1902), 'The Study of the His- 
tory of Music' (1905) and 'The Educa- 
tion of a Music Lover' (1911). Ref.: 
(quoted, etc.) II. 130; VI. 38, 63, 122. 
(2) Clarence (1873- ) : b. Lafayette, 



Indiana; organist and conductor; wrote 
a comic opera, organ pieces and songs. 

DICKONS, Mrs. (nee Poole) (1770- 
1833) : b. in London; soprano. She was 
a pupil of Rauzzini, and appeared first 
at the age of seventeen at Covent Gar- 
den Theatre as Ophelia. In 1812 she 
played the Countess in Mozart's Nozze 
di Figaro and spent the next six years 
at Italian opera in France and Italy. 
She returned to England in 1818 as 
Rosina in Bishop's version of Rossini's 
'Barber of Seville,' and a few years 
later withdrew from public life on 
account of ill health. 

DIDELOT, Charles Louis. Ref.: X. 
151, 154, 161, 164f, 180f. 

DIDEROT, Denis (1713-1784): b. 
Langres, d. Paris; the celebrated editor- 
in-chief of the 'Encyclopedic' (1751-65), 
was also author of Principes d'acous- 
tique and Memoires sur differents su- 
jets de mathematique. His opinions 
on music are contained in his Neveu 
de Rameau, which was first pub. in 
German (translated from the original 
MS. by Goethe, 1805), then in French 
re-translation, and in the original ver- 
sion not till 1821. In Grimm's Corre- 
spondence litteraire are also articles 
by D., and his correspondence with 
Grimm is likewise interesting. 

DIDYMUS (1st cent. B. C.) : b. Alex- 
andria, d. there; theoretician. Besides 
voluminous references to music in his 
other works, he wrote a treatise on 
harmony, which is cited in the works 
of Porphyry and Ptolemy. He calcu- 
lated the relations of tones in the 
tetrachord, mathematically fixing the 
relation of the major third as 4:5 in 
all classes of scales. The difference 
between the major and minor second 
(9/8:10/9) is called, after D., the Di- 
dymic, otherwise 'syntonic,' comma 

DIEBOLD, Johann (1842- ): b. 
Schlatt; organist and choir director. 
His compositions include masses, mo- 
tets and works for the organ. 

DIECKMANN, Ernst (1861- ): 
b. Stade; organist. He studied under 
Haupt, Loschhorn and Alsleben, or- 
ganist at the cathedral in Verden 
(Aller) ; also conductor of an oratorio 
society. He composed songs and choral 

DIEMER (1) Philip Henry (1839-) : 
b. Bedford; pianist, organist and com- 
poser. A pupil of Holmes and Mac- 
farren at the London Royal Academy 
of Music; he was organist of Trinity 
Church and music teacher, at Bedford. 
He led the chamber music and was 
pianist for the Music Society at Bed- 
ford, which he himself organized, and 
is remembered as the composer of can- 
tatas, anthems, part-songs and piano 
works. (2) (Diemer), Louis (1843-) : 
b. Paris; noted pianist. He studied 
pianoforte with Marmontel, the organ 
with Benoist, and was also a pupil of 
Bazin and of Thomas at the Conserva- 


toire. In 1888 he was made professor 
of the piano at the Cons, as Marmon- 
tel's successor. He gave a series of 
very successful historical piano reci- 
tals during the Paris Exposition of 
1889, later founded the Society des 
anciens instruments, and edited a 2 vol. 
collection Clavicinistes francais. He 
composed a piano concerto, concert 
pieces for piano and for violin, cham- 
ber music, and many piano pieces. 

DIENEL, Otto (1839-1905): b. Tie- 
fenfurth, Silesia; d. Berlin; organist 
and composer. He studied at Gorlitz 
and at Bunzlau, and the Royal Insti- 
tute of Berlin; was organist at the 
Marienkirche and author of Die mo- 
derne Orgel (1889) ; also composer of 
sacred music, organ pieces, etc. 

DIE1VER, Franz (1849-1879): b. 
Dessau, d. there; violinist and tenor. 
He played in Dessau and in Berlin, and 
sang first at Berlin, then Cologne, Ber- 
lin, Nuremberg, Hamburg and Dres- 

DIEPENBROCK, A. J. M. (1862-) : 
b. Amsterdam; noted teacher and com- 
poser of church music; wrote 2 Stabat 
Mater, a Te Deum, a mass, and spir- 
itual songs. 

DIERICH, Carl (1852- ): b. 
Heinrichau; noted tenor. He was a 
pupil of Graben-Hoffmann in Dresden, 
sang there, in Weimar and in Berlin. 
He married Meta Geyer, well-known 
lieder singer (soprano). 

DIfiS, Albert K. (1755-1822): b. 
Hanover, d. Vienna; a landscape paint- 
er, who wrote Riogr aphis che Nachrich- 
ten von Joseph Haydn, nach mund- 
lichen Erzdhlungen desselben (1819). 

DIET, Edinond-Marie (1854- ): 

b. Paris; operatic composer. He stud- 
ied with Franck and Guiraud, wrote 
ballets, pantomimes, operettas and 
comic operas. 

DIETER, Christian Ludwig (1757- 
1822) : b. Ludwigsburg, d. Stuttgart; 
violinist and composer. He composed 
8 Singspiele, 2 comic operas and a 
grand opera, Laura Rosetti, and has 
left in manuscript for violin, horn and 
flute, etc. 

DIETGER. See Theogerus. 

DIETRICH (1) Sixtus (Xistus 
Theodoricns) (ca. 1490 or '95-1548) : 
b. Augsburg, d. St. Gallen; teacher and 
composer in Strassburg, Constance and 
Wittenberg. Of his works 4-part Mag- 
nificats (1535), 4-part antiphonies 
(1541), 4-part Hymns (1545) are pub. 
separately, while motets, songs, etc., 
by him occur frequently in German col- 
lections from 1535 to 1568. (2) Albert 
Hermann (1829-1908): b. Golk, near 
Meissen; d. Berlin; studied with Julius 
Otto, and with Rietz, Moscheles, etc.. 
at the Leipzig Cons., then was a pupil 
of Schumann (1851-54). He was con- 
ductor of the Bonn subscription con- 
certs from 1854 and court Kapellmeister 
in Oldenburg, 1861. In 1890 he went 
to Berlin, and became member of the 



Royal Academy and royal professor 
(1899). His compositions include a 
symphony in D minor, overture Nor- 
mannenschlacht, choral works with 
orchestra, romance for horn and or- 
chestra; violin concerto, 'cello concerto, 
'cello sonata, 4-hand piano sonata; 
trios, duets, songs, piano pieces, etc.; 
also 2 operas ('Robin Hood' and Das 
Sonntagskind) . He wrote Erinnerungen 
an J. Brahms (1898). Ref.: III. 14, 
257; (quot. on Rrahms) II. 451; VIII. 
251. (3) Marie: b. Weinsberg; color- 
atura soprano who studied with Viar- 
dot-Garcia, then sang in Stuttgart court 
opera and the Rerlin opera. 

(1775-1864): b. Vienna, d. there; com- 
poser and court librarian. 

DIETTER. See Dieter. 

DIETSCH, Pierre-Lonis-Philippe 
(1808-1865): b. Dijon, d. Paris; studied 
at the Conservatoire, choirmaster at 
St. Eustaches, the 'Madeleine,' later con- 
ductor of the Opera; composer of 
church music and works for the or- 
gan. D. made a setting of Wagner's 
'Flying Dutchman' text (in Fr. trans- 
lation) which its author had sold after 
his own setting was refused. Ref.: 
III. 291; EX. 267. 

DIETZ (1) Johann Christian (1788- 
1845) : b. Darmstadt, d. Holland; instru- 
ment maker and inventor of melodeon. 
(2) Christian: son of (1), piano- 
maker and inventor of the polypi ec- 
tron. (3) Friedrich Wilhelm (1833- 
1897): b. Marburg, d. Soden; violinist 
and composer. He studied with Spohr 
and Kraushaar, taught violin in 
Frankfort-on-Main, composed chamber 
music, also pieces for piano, violin and 
'cello. (4) Philipp: author of the 
'Restoration of Evangelical Church Mu- 
sic, etc' (in German, 1903). (5) Max 
(1857- ): b. Vienna; scholar and 
author of Geschichte des musikalischen 
Dramas in Frankreich wahrend der 
Revolution bis zum Direktorium (1885) ; 
became Dozent (1886), then professor 
(1908) in musical science at the Vi- 
enna Univ.; contributed to periodicals 
and edited old music. (6) Johanna 
Mars are tha (1867- ) : b. Frankfort- 
on-Main; soprano. She studied at the 
Raff Conservatory, and became noted 
for concert singing, also for oratorio 
and songs. 

DIEUPART, Charles ([?]-1740) : 
London player of harpsichord under 
Handel, composer of piano pieces, a 
suite, songs and dance music for piano, 
violin, flute, bass-viol and arch-lute. 

DIEZ, Sophie (nee Hartmann) 
(1820-1887): b. Munich, d. there; so- 

DIGNUM, Charles (1765-1837) : Eng- 
lish singer and composer. 

DIL.L.IGER, .Joliann (1593-1647): b. 
Eisfeld, d. Coburg; deacon, theoretician 
and composer of sacred compositions 

DILLON, Fanny, contemp. American 



composer of piano pieces, etc. Ref.: 
IV. 405. 

DIM A, George (1847- ) : b. Kron- 
stadt; director of Rumanian musical 
societies in Hermannstadt and Kron- 
stadt, also church choirmaster and 
composer of vocal and instr. works. 

DIMLER, Anton (1753-1819) : b. 
Mannheim, d. Munich; bassoonist and 
composer. He studied under Zywny 
and Abbe Vogler, produced sympho- 
nies, concerts, and quartets, also three 

Jenny (1816-1877) : b. Prague, d. Vien- 
na; opera-singer in Prague and Vienna. 

DINGER, Hugo (1865- ): b. 

Colin; critic, professor of dramatic art 
at Jena; author of Richard Wagners 
geistige Entwicklung and Die Meister- 
singer von Niirnberg. 

DIODORUS. Ref.: (cited) X. 13. 

DIONYSIUS of Syracuse. Ref.: X. 

DIONYSOS, in Greek mythology the 
god who personifies the forces of Na- 
ture. His cult symbolizes Creation and 
also Decline, and therefore comprises 
the element of tragedy, finding expres- 
sion in the Dithyramb. Contrary to 
the Apollonic idea (the contemplative 
enjoyment of the beauty of form) the 
Dionysian signifies in aesthetics the sub- 
ordination of the form to the spirit; 
thus in expressing the extremes of 
emotion the Dionysian becomes orgi- 
astic. The typical Dionysian or orgi- 
astic instrument was the aulos, while 
the kithara was specifically connected 
with the cult of Apollo. (After Rie- 
mann). Ref.: X. 56, 67, 69, 74. 

DIPPEL, Andreas (1866- ): b. 
Cassel; studied in Rerlin, Milan and 
Vienna; operatic tenor in Rremen, New 
York, at the Vienna court opera, in 
Rayreuth and in London. In 1908 he 
became associate manager of the New 
York Metropolitan Opera, later director 
of the Chicago and Philadelphia Opera 
Company. More recently he devoted 
himself to the management of modern 
opera comique in the U. S. Ref.: IV. 
147, 152ff, 154, 171f, 179. 

DIPPER, Thomas (18th cent.) : or- 
ganist of King's Chapel, Roston. Ref.: 
IV. 57f. 

DIRUTA (1) Girolamo (ca. 1560- 
[?]): b. Perugia; studied with Porta, 
Zarlino, Gabrieli and Merulo; entered 
the Minorite Cloister at Corregio; or- 
ganist in Venice, at the Chioggia Cathe- 
dral and at Gubbio; pub. II Transit' 
vano o Dialogo sopra il vero modo di 
sonar organi e instrumenti da penna 
(1st part 1593; 2nd part [Sopra il vero 
modo di intavolare ciascum canto sem- 
plice diminuito] 1609), containing tech- 
nical directions for organ, a counter- 
point treatise, etc. Ref.: VII. 422f. (2) 
Agostino: Augustine monk, born in 
Perugia, maestro di cappella in Asola, 
Rome and Perugia; composer of church 
music and poesie heroiche (1617-47). 


DISTIN (1) John (1793-1863): Eng- 
lish trumpeter, who invented the key- 
bugle. (2) Theodore (1823-1893): b. 
Brighton, d. London; son of John, 
singer (baritone and bass), and com- 

DITSON, Oliver (1811-1888): found- 
er in Boston, Mass., of the first large 
American music publishing firm, now 
with branches in Philadelphia (con- 
ducted by his son, J. Edward), in New 
York (under the direction of his son, 
Charles H.) and in Chicago under the 
name of Lyon & Healy. 

Carl (1739-1799) : b. Vienna, d. Neuhof, 
District of Pilgram, Bohemia; stud- 
ied with Konig, Ziegler, Trani, Bono; 
violinist in the orchestra of Prince Jo- 
seph of Hildburghausen, then at the 
Vienna court theatre, toured Italy with 
Gluck, winning great fame as violin- 
ist; Kapellmeister to the Bishop of 
Grosswardein, Hungary (1764-69) ; to 
the Prince-Bishop of Breslau at Johan- 
nesburg, Silesia, where a theatre was 
erected for the production of his op- 
eras. In 1770 he received the papal 
Order of the Golden Spur, three years 
later was ennobled by the Emperor; 
though, being prodigal of his means, he 
was obliged to accept the hospitality 
of the Baron von Stillfried in his 
castle Bothlhotta. Among his 28 op- 
eras (Singspiele) the best are Dokter 
und Apotheker, Betrug durch Aber- 
glauben, Liebe im Narrenbaus,Hieronv- 
mus Knicker and Rothkappchen, Of 
which the first still appears on the 
Viennese stage. In a sense it stamps 
him as Mozart's forerunner in Ger- 
man opera. Ditters also wrote can- 
tatas, oratorios, 12 orchestral sympho- 
nies on Ovid's 'Metamorphoses' which 
are remarkable examples of early or- 
chestral program music (the six yet 
extant being reprinted, Leipzig, 1899), 
over 40 other symphonies (mostly MS.), 
violin concertos, string quartets, diver- 
tissements for 2 violins and 'cello, so- 
natas (4 hands) and preludes for piano, 
etc. Ref.: II. 2, 49, 63, 67, 11, 94, 114; 
VII. 419; VIII. 167ff; IX. 83, 99; por- 
trait, VIII. 166. 

DITTERSDORF. See Ditters. 

DIVIT1S, Antonius (de Rijcke, 
Antoine le Riche) (16th cent.): 
singer in the Bruges chapel, and in 
the court chapels of Brussels and 
Paris; composer of motets, chansons, 
masses, and other church music. 

D'lVRY. See Ivry. 

DIXON (1) George (1820-1887): b. 
Norwich, d. Finchley; organist at 
Grantham, Betford and Louth, Mus. 
D. Oxon. ; composer of church music 
(Psalm 121, chorus and orch., etc.). (2) 
George Washington: Amer. negro 
minstrel. Ref.: IV. 318. 

DIZI, Francois Joseph (1780-ca. 
1840): b. Namur, d. Paris; became a 
protege of £rard in London after he 
had lost all his belongings through an 


attempt to save a man from drowning; 
became a renowned teacher of harp, 
and composed much for the instrument. 
He also improved its mechanism, in- 
vented the perpendicular harp and 
estab. a harp factory in Paris with 
Pleyel (1830). This enterprise lacked 
success and D. became teacher to the 
Royal princesses. 

DJEMIL BEY (1858- ) : b. Con- 
stantinople; Turkish court 'cellist. 

DLABACZ, Gottfried Joliann 
(1758-1820) : b. Cerhenitz, Bohemia, d. 
Prague; choir director and librarian in 
Prague; wrote a Bohemian biograph- 
ical dictionary and articles on the his- 
tory of art. 

DLUGORAJ, Adalbert (ca. 1550-ca. 
1603) : performer on the lute at the 
Polish court, composer of villanelles, 
of which 10 are pub. in Besard's 
Thesaurus musicus (Cologne, 1603). 

DLTJSKI, Erasmus (1857- ): b. 

Podolia; studied at the St. Petersburg 
Cons, with Rimsky-Korsakoff, etc. He 
is the composer of a string quartet, 
Slavic rhapsodies, and 2 operas, also 
of many songs. 

DOBBER, Johannes (1866- ) : b. 
Berlin; studied and taught in Berlin, 
theatre conductor there, in Darmstadt, 
Coburg, and Hannover; produced 6 
operas, also operettas, a Tanzmarchen; 
also wrote a symphony and numerous 

DOBRZYNSKI (1) Ignaz: conduc- 
tor to Senator Ilinsky; composer of 
polonaises, published by his son. (2) 
Ignaz Felix (1807-1867) : b. Romanoff, 
Volhynia; d. Warsaw; studied with his 
father and with Eisner as fellow-stu- 
dent of Chopin; was opera and concert 
conductor hi Warsaw, and concertized 
in Germany. He composed 2 sympho- 
nies, a Suite characteristique and or- 
chestral fantasy, a piano concerto, 
chamber music, violin, 'cello and piano 
pieces, and one opera, 'The Filibus- 
ters.' (3) Johanna, nee Miller: wife 
of Ignaz Felix D.; singer and teacher 
at the dramatic school of Warsaw. 

DOEBBER, Johannes. See Dobber. 

DoHLER, Theodor [von] (1814- 
1856): b. Naples, d. Florence; pianist, 
studied with Benedict, Czerny and 
Sechter; pianist at the Naples court, 
in Germany, Austria, Denmark, Hol- 
land, England, France and Russia, 
where he devoted himself to composi- 
tion and married a Russian countess, 
being himself ennobled by the Duke of 
Lucca. He wrote nocturnes, variations, 
transcriptions, fantasies, etc., for the 
piano, which have elegance but lack 
depth; also one opera, Tancreda. Ref.: 
VII. 64. 

DOHNANYI, Ernst von (1877- ) : 
b. Pressburg; composer; studied with 
Karl Forstner in Pressburg, with Tho- 
man and Hans Koessler at the Acad- 
emy of Music in Pesth, and for a 
short time with d' Albert; was teacher 
of piano at the Royal High School for 



Music, in Berlin, and became profes- 
sor there in 1908. His compositions in- 
clude 2 symphonies, the overture 
Zrinyi, a suite for orchestra, variations 
for piano and orchestra, a piano quin- 
tet, 2 piano concertos, a Konzertstiick 
for 'cello, 4 rhapsodies, 2 string quar- 
tets, a serenade for string trio, 2 'cello 
sonatas, a string sextet, 2 piano so- 
natas, variations for piano and 'cello, 
a 'cello sonata, a violin sonata, Pas- 
sacaglia, humoresques, etc., for piano, 
a piano suite, a ballet pantomime, Der 
Schleier der Pierrette (1910), a one act 
opera, Tante Simone (1912), songs, etc. 
Ref.: III. 195f; VII. 338, 589; VIII. 419; 
X. 166; portrait, III. 192. 

DOHRN (1) Georg (1867- ): b. 

Bahrendorf, near Magdeburg; studied 
at the Cologne Conservatory, chorus 
repetitor at the Munich opera, opera 
conductor in Flensburg, Weimar and 
Munich; director of the Breslau Or- 
chesterverein and Singakademie. (2) 
Wolf and Harald. Ref.: X. 234. 

DOLBY, Charlotte. See Sainton, 

DOL.CI, painter. Ref.: X. 45. 

DOL.ES, Johann Friedrich (1715- 
1797) : b. Steinbach-Hallenberg, d. 
Leipzig; pupil of J. S. Bach, became 
cantor at Freiberg (1744) and munici- 
pal cantor at the Thomasschule, Leip- 
zig, from 1756 to 1789. He published 
considerable church music, including 
Neue Lieder (1750), Melodien zu Gel- 
lerts geistlichen Oden und Liedern 
(1758), also a book of chorales, songs 
with easy melodies for beginners, 4 
vols, chorale preludes, Psalm 46, and 
6 sonatas per il clavicembalo. He 
also wrote masses, passion music, Te 
Deum, etc. (MS.). Ref.: II. 107; VI. 
457; IX. 80. 

DOMANIEVSKI, Boleslaus (1859-) : 
b. Gronovek, Bussian Poland; studied 
piano with Wieniawski and Bubin- 
stein; professor of pianoforte at Cra- 
cow Conservatory, director of the War- 
saw Music School, author of piano- 
forte technique manuals (Vademecum 
pour le pianiste, 2 vols., one of the 
most important of its kind), etc. 

DOMANOWECZ, Nicolaus Zme- 
skall von. Ref.: VII. 492, 518. 

DOMARTO, Petrus de (late 16th 
cent.) : composer of the 4-part mass 
Spiritus Almus in Codex 14 of the papal 
chapel, long supposed to be his only 
extant work, but another mass (3 
parts) was found by Haberl in Codex 
88 in Trent (now Vienna) also a 3-part 
Et in terra in Codex B80 of the chapter 
archives of St. Peter's, Borne. 

DOMINICETI, Cesare (1821-1888) : 
b. Desenzano, Largo di Garda, d. Sesto 
di Monza; composer of 6 Italian operas 
and professor in Milan Conserva- 

DOMINIQ,TJE, Parisian harlequin. 
Ref.: X. 100. 

DOMMER, Arrey von (1828-1905): 
b. Danzig, d. Treysa, Thuringia; stud- 


ied under Schellenberg, Bichter and 
Lobe; music critic and secretary to the 
city library, Hamburg, lived later in 
Marburg and wrote 3 books on musical 
history, theory and biography. He pub- 
lished a psalm for 8 voices. 

DOMNICH (1) Heinrieh (1767- 
1844): b. Wiirzburg, d. Paris; horn 
player at Mayence and in Paris, where 
he studied with Punto; then teacher at 
the Conservatoire. He wrote concertos, 
concertantes, and romances for horn 
and piano. (2) Jakob (1758- ) : 
horn player, brother of (1), settled in 
America. (3) Arnold (1771-1834): b. 
Wiirzburg, d. Meiningen; brother of 
(1) and (2) ; horn player. 

DONATI (1) Baldassare ([?]- 
1603) : d. Venice, where he sang in St. 
Mark's, conducted the 'little chapel' 
(which prepared singers for the great 
chapel) ; was seminary director, and, 
after Zarlino's death (1590), chapel- 
master at St. Mark's. He was one of 
the most important writers of madri- 
gals and motets of his time. His works 
include 5- and 6-part Madrigals (1553), 
2 books 4-part Villanesche alia Neapol- 
etana and Madrigals (1550) and a book 
of motets (5-8 parts, 1597). (2) Igna- 
zio (early 17th cent.) : b. Casalmag- 
giore near Creniona; maestro di cap- 
pella in various Italian cities (Milan, 
1631-33), composer of church con- 
certos, masses, motets, madrigals, etc. 

DONAUDY, Stefano (1879- ): b. 
Palermo; wrote 4 operas, produced in 
Palermo and in Hamburg. 

DONE, William (1815-1895) : b. 
Worcester, d. there; English organist 
and conductor. 

DONGEIiLI, Domenico (1790-1873) : 
b. Bergamo, d. Bologna; tenor. 

DONI (1) Antonio Francesco (1519- 
1574) : b. Florence, d. Monselice, near 
Padua; entered the Servite Monastery 
but left it in 1539. He wrote, among 
other (non-musical) works, a 'Dialogue' 
on music (Latin, 1534, Ital. 1541, etc.), 
also a Libreria, important as a cata- 
logue for historians. (2) Giovanni 
Battista (1593-1647): a Florentine 
nobleman who studied literature and 
philosophy at Bologna and Bome; law 
in France, taking his degree at Pisa. 
He went to Paris with Cardinal Cor- 
sini, then to Bome at the invitation of 
Cardinal Barberini, who was passion- 
ately fond of music, and with whom he 
travelled. He engaged chiefly in the 
study of ancient music, but also in- 
vented the Lyra Barberina, or Amphi- 
chord, a kind of double lyre, which he 
dedicated to Pope Urban VIII. He 
finally settled in Florence (1640) where 
he married and became ducal profes- 
sor. He wrote Compendio del trattato 
del generi e modi della musica (Bome, 
1635) ; Annotazioni on the above 
(Bome, 1640) ; De preestantia musicee 
veteris libri tres, etc. (Florence, 1647), 
and several minor essays in MS. Ref.: 
(quoted) I. 335. 



DONIZETTI (1) Gaetano (1797- 
1848) : b. Bergamo, d. there. Though 
intended for the law his natural bent 
was toward art. He studied architecture 
and literature, and in music became a 
pupil of Salari (singing), Gonzales (pi- 
ano) and Mayr (harmony) at Bergamo, 
later of Pilotti and Padre Mattei in Bo- 
logna. To satisfy his father he entered 
the army, but while stationed in Venice 
composed and produced his first opera 
Enrico di Borgogona (1819), which was 
successful, as was II Falegname di 
Livonia (1820), but Le nozze in Zilla, 
given in Mantua in 1820, failed. With 
the success of Zoraide di Granata 2 
years later, D. obtained his release from 
the army. In 1830 after a too pro- 
lific production of operatic scores (23 
in 7 years) he composed and produced 
with great success Anna Bolena in 
Milan, thus gaining the upper hand in 
his rivalry with Bellini. He now pro- 
duced, among other operas, L'Elisir 
d'amore (Milan, 1832), the tragic Lu- 
crezia Borgia (La Scala, Milan, 1833), 
and the immensely popular Lucia di 
Lammermoor (Naples, Teatro S. Carlo, 
1835). Enjoying European celebrity, he 
now visited Paris in 1835, and pro- 
duced Marino Faliero at the Theatre 
des Italiens. He succeeded Zingarelli 
as Director pro tern, of the Naples 
Cons, in 1837. Shortly after, the cen- 
sor's veto on the production of Poliuto 
(written for Ad. Nourrit after Cor- 
neille's Polgeucte) so angered him 
that he forsook Milan for Paris. Here 
he prod. La Fille du regiment (Opera- 
Comique, 1840), Les Martyrs, an ampli- 
fication of the forbidden Poliuto 
(Opera, 1840) and La Favorite (Opera, 
1840), which were sensationally suc- 
cessful. Again in Italy, he brought out 
Adelasia (Rome, 1841) and Maria 
Padilla (Milan, 1841) with success and 
in Vienna during 1842 he composed 
Linda di Chamounix, which aroused 
such enthusiasm that the Emperor con- 
ferred on him the titles of court com- 
poser and master of the Imperial chapel 
for which D. had also written a 
Miserere and an Ave Maria. Don Pas- 
quale was prod, in Paris, 1843. At the 
pinnacle of favor, D. continued his 
ceaseless labors to the detriment of his 
health, brought out his last work, 
Caterino Cornaro (Naples, 1844), and in 
1845 became a victim of paralysis 
caused by overwork. Aside from his 
67 operas, he wrote many songs, ari- 
ettas, duets, and canzonets; also masses, 
a Requiem, cantatas, vespers, psalms, 
motets; also 12 string quartets and 
piano pieces. Bef.: II. 187, 192ff; op- 
eras, IX. xii, 137, 142, 144, 347; mus. 
ex., XIII. 248; portrait, II. 200. (2) 
Alfredo (1867- ): b. at Smyrna; 
conductor and teacher of counterpoint 
at Milan. In 1889 he produced the one- 
act operas Nana and Dopo I'Ave Maria 
with good results. Aside from sev- 
eral unperformed operas he wrote pi- 


ano pieces and many songs, a sym- 
phony and other orchestral works of 
which he pub. piano arrangements. 

DONT, Jakob (1815-1888) : b. at 
Vienna, d. there; violinist and com- 
poser, teacher at an Academy of Music, 
then the Paedagogium of St. Anna, and 
from 1873 at the Cons, in Vienna. He 
wrote extensively for the violin, chief 
among his works being the studies 
called Gradus ad Parnassum. 

DONZELLI, Domenico (1790-1873): 
b. Bergamo, d. Bologna; a tenor for 
whom Rossini wrote the part of Tor- 
valdo; first visited England in 1829 
(simultaneously with Mendelssohn). 

DOOR, Anton (1833- ) : b. Vi- 
enna; taught by Czerny and Sechter; 
pianist in Baden-Baden, Wiesbaden, the 
Stockholm court, Austria-Hungary, 
Leipzig, Berlin and Amsterdam; taught 
at the Moscow Conservatory and was 
professor at the Viennese Gesellschaft 
der Musikfreunde. 

DOPPL.ER (1) [Albert] Franz (1821- 
1883) : b. Lemberg, d. Baden, near Vi- 
enna; flutist in Pesth and Vienna; as- 
sistant ballet director at Vienna court 
opera and composer of 5 operas. (2) 
Karl (1825-1900): b. Lemberg, d. 
Stuttgart; virtuoso on flute in Paris, 
Brussels and London; conductor at the 
Stuttgart court and director of music 
at Pesth; wrote pieces for flute, Hun- 
garian operas and music for popular 
Hungarian plays. (3) Adolf (1850- 
1906) : b. Graz, d. there ; student, teach- 
er, critic and composer in his native 
town, wrote choruses and piano so- 
natas. (4) Arpad (1857- ) : son of 
Karl (2), b. Pesth; student, teacher 
and Royal professor at the Stuttgart 
Conservatory, choir director of the court 
opera, composer of an opera, works for 
orchestra, choruses and songs. 

DORATI, Nicola (16th century) : 
composer, probably of the Venetian 
school ; published 6 books of madrigals. 

DORET, (Justave (1866- ): b. 

Aigle; studied with Joachim, Marsick 
and Massenet; directed the concerts of 
the National Exposition at Geneva; di- 
rected the Concerts Harcourt and the 
historical concerts established by him 
and Bordes; succeeded Gabriel Marie as 
chef d'orchestre of the Societe Nationale 
de musique. He composed 4 operas, an 
oratorio, orchestral pieces, cantatas, 
male and mixed choruses and songs. 

DORPPEL, Alfred (1821-1905) : b. 
Waldenburg, Saxony, d. Leipzig; stud- 
ied with Fink, Miiller and Mendels- 
sohn; custodian of the music depart- 
ment of the Leipzig City Library; ed- 
itor for Breitkopf & Hartel and Peters, 
whose editions of the classics owe their 
accuracy largely to his ability. He 
also produced a thematic catalogue, 
Fiihrer durch die musikalische Welt, 
and wrote a history of the Gewandhaus 
concerts, etc. He was a music critic 
and honorary doctor of philosophy at 
Leipzig University. 



DORING (1) Gottfried (1801-1869): 
b. Pomerendorf, d. Elbing; cantor. He 
studied under Zelter at the Royal In- 
stitute of Church-Music, from 1828 was 
cantor at the Church of Mary in Elbing, 
and has published collections of cho- 
rales and musical essays. (2) Karl 
Heinrich (1834- ) : b. Dresden; mu- 
sic teacher and composer. He studied 
at the Leipzig Conservatory, and later 
under Hauptmann and Lobe. From 
1858 he taught at the Dresden Conserva- 
tory. His works include many educa- 
tional works for piano, simple sonatas, 
technical exercises, etudes, etc. 

DORN (1) Heinrich Ludwig Eg- 
mont (1804-1892) : b. Konigsberg, d. 
Berlin; studied with Berger, Zelter and 
Klein; taught at Frankfort, Konigsberg 
and Leipzig; conductor in Leipzig, 
Hamburg, Riga, Cologne, where he 
founded a music school; court op- 
era conductor in Berlin, also ac- 
tive as teacher and critic; titu- 
lar professor, member of the Acad- 
emy of Arts. He was teacher and critic 
in Berlin and wrote 8 operas, an oper- 
etta, a ballet, piano and orchestral 
pieces. He wrote also 4 books of mu- 
sical criticism and an autobiography. 

(2) Alexander Julius Paul (1833- 
1901) : b. Riga, d. Berlin; music teacher 
in Poland, at Cairo, Alexandria, and 
the Berlin Royal High School; director 
of music societies in Cairo, Alexandria, 
and Crefeld. He composed more than 
100 works, including operettas, masses, 
works for orchestra, piano and voice. 

(3) Otto (1848- ): b. Cologne; son 
of Heinrich; studied in Berlin, France, 
and Italy; taught at the Stern Cons., 
Berlin; music critic and royal music 
director in Wiesbaden; royal professor; 
composer of overtures, a 'Prometheus' 
symphony and 3 operas, also piano 
pieces, 2 and 4 hands, and songs. 

D6RNER, Arnim W. (1851- ): 

b. Marietta, Ohio; pianist. He was a 
pupil of Kullak, Bendel and Weitz- 
mann in Berlin. After further instruc- 
tion at Stuttgart and Paris, he returned 
to the United States to become pro- 
fessor of piano at the Cincinnati Col- 
lege of Music. He pub. technical exer- 
ciscs etc. 

DORJfHECKTER, Robert (1839- 
1890) : b. Franzburg, Pomerania, d. 
Stralsund; organist, teacher and found- 
er of singing societies, composer for 
organ, pianoforte pieces and choruses. 

DORUS-GRAS, Julie - Aimee - Jo- 
sephe. See Steenkiste. 

DOSS, Adolf von (1825-1886): b. 
Pfarrkirchen, Lower Bavaria; d. Rome; 
dramatic composer. He studied in 
Munich, entered the Jesuit order in 
1843 and worked in Germany, Belgium 
and Rome. He wrote 6 operas, 2 op- 
erettas, a mass, 11 oratorios, cantatas, 
3 symphonies and 3 large collections. 

DOSTOIEVSKY. Ref.: III. 40, 108; 
X. 104. 

DOTZAUER (1) [Justus Johann] 


Friedrich (1783-1860): b. Hildburg- 
hausen, d. Dresden; 'cellist and com- 
poser. He was the pupil of Kriegck at 
Meiningen and himself taught Kummer, 
Drechsler and C. Schuberth and his son 
(3). He wrote an opera, masses, over- 
tures, a symphony, 9 quartets, 12 con- 
certos, sonatas, variations, etc., and 
pub. a 'Cello Method. (2) [Justus Ber- 
nard] Friedrich (1808-1874) : b. Leip- 
zig, d. Hamburg; son and pupil of the 
elder Friedrich; pianist and noted 
teacher. (3) Karl Ludwig ('Louis') 
(1811-1897): b. Dresden, d. Cassel; son 
and pupil of Justus (1) ; 'cellist at 

DOUAY, Georges (1840- ): b. 
Paris; dramatic composer. He studied 
under Duprato and is known as the 
composer of many one-act operettas. 

DOURLEN, Victor- Charles-Paul 
(1780-1864) : b. at Dunkirk, d. Batig- 
nolles, near Paris; dramatic composer. 
He studied at the Paris Conservatoire, 
in 1850 won the Prix de Rome and 
from 1816 to 1842 was professor at the 
Conservatoire. His compositions in- 
clude small operas and some chamber 
music. He also published a Tableau 
synoptique des accords, a Traite d'har- 
monie (1834) and Traite d'accompagne- 
ment (1840). 

DOW, Daniel (1732-1783): b. Perth- 
shire, d. Edinburgh; musician. While 
teaching at Edinburgh he produced sev- 
eral collections of Scottish melodies. 

DOWLAND (1) John (1562-1626) : 
b. Westminster, London, d. London; 
travelled and studied in France, Ger- 
many and Italy; court chamber lutenist 
in Denmark, and in England; pub- 
lished collections of songs with ac- 
companiments of lute and viols, includ- 
ing 'The First Booke of Songs or Ayres, 
etc.' (1600, 1603, 1608, 1613; Musical 
Antiquarian Society, 1844) ; 'Lachry- 
mae, or Seven Teares Figured in Seven 
Passionate Pavans, etc' (1605) ; 'A Pil- 
grim's Solace' (1612). Ref.: I. 306; IV. 
4; VII. 394. (2) Robert, son of John 
(17th cent.) : lutenist to English court, 
produced pedagogical books for the 

DRAESEKE, Felix August Bern- 
hard (1835-1913) : b. Coburg, d. Dres- 
den; pupil of Rietz in Leipzig Cons., 
and disciple of Liszt at Weimar. After 
a time at Dresden he went to Lausanne 
as teacher in the Cons. (1864-74), also 
spending one year teaching in the 
Royal Music School, Munich, under 
Biilow. In 1875 he went to Geneva 
and finally succeeded Wullner in 1884 
as professor of composition in the 
Cons, at Dresden, where he had made 
his home. He composed 4 operas; 
Sigurd (fragment prod. Meiningen, 
1867), Gudrun (Hanover, 1884), Rert- 
rand de Rorn (MS., both text and mu- 
sic by D.), and Herrat (Dresden, 1892) ; 
3 symphonies (op. 22, in G; op. 25, in 
F; op. 40, Tragica in C) ; Akad- 
emische Festouvertiire ; symphonic prel- 



udes to Calderon's 'Life a Dream,' and 
Kleist's 'Panthesilea' (both MS.) ; Sere- 
nata in D, for small orch., op. 49; 
piano concerto, op. 36; violin-concerto; 
Konzertstuck for 'cello and orch.: Ad- 
ventlied (soli, chorus and orch.) op. 
30; Requiem in B min., op. 22; Easter 
scene from Faust (bar. solo, mixed 
chorus and orch.), op. 39; quintet (vio- 
lin, viola, 'cello, and horn), op. 48; 
string quintet; 3 string quartets, piano 
canons, 6 to 8 parts, op. 37; Canonic 
Riddles, 6 fugues; Ghaselen and a so- 
nata for piano; also songs, etc. He 
wrote Anweisung zum kunstgerechten 
Modulieren (1876) ; Die Beseitigung des 
Tritonus (1876) ; and a versified Har- 
monielehre (1884). Ref.: III. 235, 241; 
VI. 355; VIII. 251; portrait, III. 202. 

DRAGHI (1) Antonio (1635-1700): 
b. Rimini, d. Vienna; dramatic com- 
poser. He conducted the Hofkapelle in 
Vienna, wrote no less than 172 operas, 
43 oratorios and cantatas, 2 masses, a 
Stabat Mater, hymns, some in collabo- 
ration with the emperor, etc. Ref.: 
IX. 45. (2) Giovanni Battista (late 
17th-early 18th cent.) : perhaps brother 
of (1) ; pianist, court teacher in Lon- 
don and collaborator with Lock, on 
'Shad well,' 'Psyche,' d'Urfey's 'Won- 
ders in the Sun,' etc. He composed 
educational pieces for piano. 

DRAGONETTI, Domenico (1763- 
1846): b. Venice, d. London; virtuoso 
on the double-bass. He was self- 
taught, excepting a few lessons from 
Berini, player at St. Mark's, whom he 
succeeded in 1782 (after having played 
in opera orchestras 5 years, and hav- 
ing composed concertos, etc., for dou- 
ble-bass which could be played by no 
one but himself). He appeared at Lon- 
don in 1794: and was immediately en- 
gaged for the King's Theatre. He also 
played at the Antient Concerts and the 
Philharmonic, together with his friend 
Lindley (q.v.). At the unveiling of the 
Beethoven monument in Bonn in 1845 
D. still led the double-bass players (in 
the Fifth Symphony). He left a re- 
markable collection of scores, engrav- 
ings, and old instruments to the British 
Museum, and his favorite 'cello (a Gas- 
paro da Salo) to St. Mark's, Venice. 

DRAGONI, Giovanni Andrea (ca. 
1540-1598): b. Mendola, d. Rome; stud- 
ied with Palestrina, maestro di cappella 
of the Lateran, composed madrigals, 
villanelles, motets, etc. 

DR1SEKE, P. A. B. See Draeseke. 

DRATH, Theodor (1828- ): b. 
Winzig, Silesia; pupil of Marx, studied 
as cantor at Bunzlnu Seminary, royal 
Musikdirektor, composer and theorist. 

DRAUD, Geor« (1573-ca. 1636): b. 
Davernheim, Hesse, d. Butzbach; au- 
thor of 3 large bibliographies, musi- 
cally as well as otherwise important 
(all titles in Latin, 1611, 1625). 

DRECHSLER (1) Joseph (1782- 
1852) : b. Wallisch-Birken, Bohemia, d. 
Vienna; theatre leader at Baden and 


Pressburg, organist and conductor in 
Vienna, composed operas, Singspiele, 
masses, sonatas, quartets, and method 
for organ and harmony. (2) Karl 
(1800-1873): b. Kamenz, d. Dresden; 
studied in Dresden, 'cellist and con- 
ductor in Dessau; and teacher there. 

DREGERT, Alfred (1836-1893) : b. 
Frankfort-on-Oder, d. Elberfeld; stud- 
ied in Berlin, director of opera and 
male choral societies in Stralsund, Co- 
logne and Elberfeld; royal musical di- 
rector and composer of male choruses. 

DRESE, Adam (1620-1701) : b. Thu- 
ringia, d. Arnstadt; studied in Weimar 
and Warsaw; conductor in Weimar, 
Jena and Arnstadt, produced dance 
music, ballets, arias, and wrote chorale 

DRESEL, Otto (1826-1890) : b. An- 
dernach, d. Beverley, near Boston; 
studied under Hiller and Mendelssohn, 
pianist in New York and Boston, com- 
posed chamber music, piano works and 
songs; he revised an edition of Bach's 
Well-Tempered Clavichord, arranged 
Beethoven's symphonies for 4 hands, 
and did much for the appreciation of 
German music (especially Franz's 
songs) in America. 

DRESSLER (1) Gallus (16th cent.) : 
b. Nebra; cantor and composer of 
church music (motets, magnificats, 
psalms, Cantiones sacrae, etc.) ; also 
author of pedagogical works for the 
Magdeburg schools. (2) Ernst Chris- 
toph (1734-1779): b. Greussen, Thurin- 
gia, d. Cassel; chamber musician at 
Bayreuth and Gotha; opera singer in 
Vienna and Cassel, composer of songs, 
etc. (3) Louis Raphael (1861- ): 
b. New York; son of William D., a 
conductor; organist, pianist and com- 
poser of church music, etc.; editor of 
Chas. H. Ditson & Co., New York. 

DRESZEK, Anastasius Vitalis 
(1845-1907) : b. Kalisch, Poland, d. 
Halle; studied in Dresden Conservatory, 
in Leipzig and Berlin; founder and 
director of a music school cultivating 
choral song in Halle; composer of 2 
symphonies, an opera, a string quartet 
and pianoforte sonatas. 

DREVES, Guido Maria (1854- ): 
b. Hamburg; lived in Vienna and Hol- 
land; hymnologist and historian of the 
Middle Ages ; wrote six books of musi- 
cal history, including Analecta hymnica 
medii sevi (1886-1904, 45 volumes) ; 
also O Christ hie merkl Ein Gesang- 
biichlein geistlicher Lieder (1885), 
Archaismen im Kirchenliede (1889), etc. 

DREYER, Alexis de (1857- ) : b. 
Russia; composer of berceuse and bur- 
lesque, prelude and etude for the piano, 

DREYSCHOCK (1) Alexander 

(1818-1869): b. Zak, d. Venice; studied 
at Prague with Tomaschek, toured 
Europe, became piano professor at St. 
Petersburg, director of the dramatic 
music school there; wrote brilliant but 
ephemeral works for the pianoforte. 



(2) Raimund (1824-1869) : b. Zak, d. 
Leipzig, brother of Alexander; violinist, 
teacher of the violin at Leipzig Con- 
servatory, assistant concert conductor 
at the Gewandhaus. (3) Elizabeth 
{nie Nose) (1832-1911): b. Cologne, d. 
there; concert contralto, wife of Rai- 
mund (2), retired upon the death of 
her husband. (4) Felix (1860-1906): 
b. Leipzig, d. Berlin; studied at the 
Berlin Royal High School and with 
Ehrlich; successful concert pianist, 
teacher of pianoforte at the Stern Con- 
servatory, and composer of a violin 
sonata and piano pieces. 

DRIEBERG, Friedrich Joliann von 
(1870-1856): b. Charlottenburg, d. 
there; composer of several operas, 
never produced, and author of 8 books 
on Greek music, which, however, are 
amateurish, his theories being over- 
thrown by the writings of Bellermann 
and Fortlage (1847). One of his op- 
eras is supposed to be composed ac- 
cording to Greek principles. 

DRIGO. Ref.: X. 186. 

DROBISCH (1) Moritz Wilhelm 
(1802-1896): b. Leipzig, d. there; pro- 
fessor of mathematics, then philosophy, 
at Leipzig Univ.; wrote 5 treatises on 
the mathematical determination of rela- 
tive pitch. Originally Drobisch sup- 
ported the theory of 12 semitones, but 
his last book changed in viewpoint and 
advocated the principle of 'pure tem- 
perament.' (2) Karl Lndwig (1803- 
1854): b. Leipzig, d. Augsburg; studied 
with Drobs and Weinlig; music teacher 
in Munich and evangelical church con- 
ductor at Augsburg. He wrote masses, 
Requiems, 3 oratorios, etc. (3) Theo- 
dor (1838-1905) : b. Augsburg, d. 
Osnabriick, son of (2) ; Musikdirektor 
in Minden (1853-5) ; published a hu- 
morous musical calendar. 

DROBS, Johannes Andreas (1784- 
1825): b. near Erfurt, d. Leipzig; or- 
ganist, teacher and composer (for organ 
and for piano) of sonatas, fugues, etc. 

DROUET, Louis Francois Philippe 
(1792-1873): b. Amsterdam, d. Bern; 
studied at the Conservatoire; flutist at 
the courts of Holland, of Napoleon and 
Louis XVIII; manufacturer of flutes in 
London, court Kapellmeister at Coburg; 
lived in New York, Frankfort-on- 
Main, and Berne. He wrote concertos, 
fantasies, etc., for his instrument. 

DROZDOWSKI, Jan (1858- ) : b. 
Cracow; pupil at the Conservatory of 
Vienna, teacher at the Cracow Cons.; 
wrote on piano technique, a general 
music text-book, and a musical history 
in Polish. 

DRUPFEL, Peter (1848- ): b. 
Wiedenbruck, Westphalia; writer on 
music, composer of ballads, songs, the 
old German Liederspiel, Der Erloser; 
ecclesiastical music, and editor of me- 
diaeval vocal works (German songs, 
15th-16th cent., Palestrina, etc.). 

DRYDEN, John (1631-1700) : the 
great poet who wrote the 'Ode to St. 


Cecilia' and 'Alexander's Feast,' poems 
set to music by Handel and Purcell. 
Ref.: VI. 110, 141, 210. 

DRYSDALE, F. Learmont (1866- 
1909): b. Edinburgh; wrote a prize 
overture, after study at the Royal Acad- 
emy of Music; composed also a mystic 
play and light operas. 

DRYVERS, L.. Ref.: VI. 409. 

DUBARRY. See Barry, Marie du. 

DCBEN (1) Andreas (1558-1625): 
b. Liitzen, d. Leipzig; organist of St. 
Thomas's, Leipzig. (2) Andreas 
(ca. 1590-1662): son of (1), d. Stock- 
holm, where he was conductor and or- 
ganist at the court. (3) Gustaf (1624- 
1690): b. Stockholm, d. there; son of 
Andreas (2) ; the superior artist of the 
family; court musician, organist of 
German Church and royal conductor; 
published an important collection of 
spiritual and secular songs of the late 
17th cent. (4) Gustaf (1659-1726): b. 
Stockholm, d. there, son of Gustaf (3) ; 
succeeded his father as conductor. (5) 
Andersen (1673-1738) : conductor in 
Stockholm; brother of (4), was enno- 
bled and made court marshal. 

DUBOIS (1) [Francois-Clement-] 
Theodore (1837- ) : b. Rosnay, 
Marne; studied at the Conservatoire 
(Marmontel, Benoist, Bazin, A. 
Thomas), 1853; took the Grand Prix de 
Rome, 1861; maitre de chapelle and or- 
ganist in Paris, where he became pro- 
fessor and director of the Conserva- 
toire and member of the Academie, also 
officer of the Legion of Honor. Dubois 
is both prolific and versatile; he has 
written oratorios, 'The Seven Words of 
Christ' and 'Paradise Lost' (prize of 
the City of Paris) ; a lyric scene 'The 
Rape of Proserpina'; comic operas, La 
Guzla de I'emir (1873), Le pain bis 
(1892); ballet La Farandole (1883); 
also orchestral suites, symphonic over- 
ture, 'Frith j of overture, symphonic 
poem, Notre Dame de la Mer (1897), a 
piano concerto, piano pieces and songs; 
also organ pieces and sacred works, 
'Chlodwig's Baptism' (Latin Ode by Leo 
XIII), motets, masses, etc. Ref.: III. 
336; VI. 206, 305f, 479, 485; VIII. 335; 
X. 151. (2) Leon (1859- ) : b. Brus- 
sels; studied at Brussels Cons, where 
he won the Grand Prix de Rome; as- 
sistant conductor Theatre de la Mon- 
naie, Brussels, conductor of the Vaux- 
hall summer concerts; composed 4 op- 
eras, a ballet, a symphonic poem, etc., 
music for a mimodrame, Le mort, etc. 
He also wrote a manual of harmony. 
He succeeded Tinel as director of Brus- 
sels Cons., 1912. 

DUBURG, Matthew (1703-1767): b. 
London, d. there; violinist and con- 

DUG, Philippe (16th cent.): Nether- 
land composer who pub. 3 books of 
madrigals in Venice, 1570, 1574, 1586. 

DUCANGE, Charles Dufresne, 
Sieur (1610-1688): b. Amiens, d. Paris; 
wrote Glossarium ad scriptores mediae 



et infimse latinitatis (3 vols.), repub- 
lished by the Benedictines of St. Maur 
(1733-36 and 1840-50), also by Favre 
(1883-88, 10 vols.), containing valuable 
descriptions of musical instruments of 
the middle ages. 

DUCHEMIN, Nicolas (16th cent.) : 
Paris music printer ca. 1549-71, who 
pub. a 17 vol. chanson collection (a 
sort of continuation of Attaignant's), 
also masses and motets. 

DUCHESNE. Ref.: (cited) I. 146. 

DUCIS, Benoit (BenedictusDucis): 
real name Herzog, Benedikt. See 
Herzog (1). 

DUCROQTJET. See Daublaine. 

DUDEVANT, Madame. See Sand, 

DUPAU, Jennie: b. Rothau, Alsace; 
soprano; debut at Weimar, 1906; mem- 
ber of the Chicago Opera Company 
since 1911. 

DUPAY, Guillaume (ca. 1400-1474): 
b. Chimay, Hainault, d. Cambrai; one 
of the three great 15th cent, contra- 
puntists; papal singer (1428-1437); in 
1433-35 was with Eugenius IV in Pisa 
and Florence, later probably in Paris 
and in the chapel of the anti-pope 
Felix V. (Amadeus VIII. of Savoy), fi- 
nally became canon at Cambrai. F. X. 
Haberl's list (in the Vierteljahrsschrift 
fiir Musikwissenschaft, 1885) of Du- 
fay's compositions extant in Rome, Bo- 
logna and Trieste, include about 150 
numbers (masses, motets, church mu- 
sic, chansons, etc.). There are still 
other examples in Paris, Cambrai, Mu- 
nich and Brussels. To Dufay is at- 
tributed the introduction of open or 
white notes, and Adam de Fulda credits 
him with many other changes in nota- 
tion. D.'s music has real charm and 
great clarity. With him the prefer- 
ence for 4-part writing begins. Ref.: 
I. 235f, 2Wff; V. 148; VI. 42 (footnote), 
47f ; mus. ex., XIII. 17, 19. 

DUPRANNE, Hector: b. Belgium; 
dramatic baritone; debut Brussels, 
1896; sang at Covent Garden, Opera- 
Comique and Manhattan Opera House, 
New York; member of the Chicago 
Opera Company, 1910-13. 

DUGAZON, Louise-Rosalie (1753- 
1821): b. Berlin, d. Paris; singer in 
comic opera known as two distinct per- 
sonalities, 'Jeunes' and 'Meres' Dugazon 
through her charm and adaptability in 
both types of roles. 

DUIPPOPRUGCAR (properly Tief- 
fenbriicker), Caspar (1514-1572): b. 
Freising, d. Bavaria. The date of his 
birth was established by Dr. Coutaigne 
of Lyons in his work Gaspard Duiffo- 
proucart et les luthiers lyonnais du 
XVII s siecle (Paris, 1893). He was re- 
puted to be the first maker of violins; 
but according to Vidal (in Les instru- 
ments a archet) the violins said to be 
made by him are spurious, having been 
made by Vuillaume, who, in 1827, used 
D.'s model of a viola da gamba for his 
violins. D. probably learned his trade 


in Italy, settled in Lyons in 1553, and 
was naturalized in 1559. Ref.: VIII. 

DUJARDIN, Jean. See Orto, G. 

DUKAS, Paul (1865- ): b. Paris; 
studied with Dubois, Mathias, and 
Guiraud at the Conservatoire; won the 
prix de Rome with a cantata, Velleda 
(1888) ; professor at the Conservatoire 
since 1909; music critic of Revue 
Hebdomadaire and Gazette des Beaux- 
Arts; composer of 3 overtures, a sym- 
phony in C, a symphonic poem L'Ap- 
prenti-Sorcier (1897), piano sonata, 
prelude and variations on a theme by 
Rameau, Prelude elegiaque; prod, an 
opera, Ariane et Barbe-Bleue (Paris, 
1907; New York, 1911), a ballet, La Peri, 
etc. ; revised several ballet-operas of Ra- 
meau for the complete edition. Ref.: 
III. viii, ix, x, xi, xiv, xviii, 321, 334, 
357 ff; VI. 392; VIII. 440ff; IX. 443, 

DULCKEN (1) Lnise (nee David) 
(1811-1850): b. Hamburg, d. London; 
sister of Ferdinand David; concert 
pianist and teacher in London. (2) 
Ferdinand (1837-1902) : b. London, d. 
Astoria (U. S.) ; brother of Luise (1) ; 
studied with Moscheles, Mendelssohn, 
Gade, Hauptmann, Becker and Hiller; 
pianist throughout Europe, professor at 
Warsaw Conservatory, composer of one 
opera, a mass, etc. 

DULICHIUS, Philippus (1562-1631) : 
b. Chemnitz, d. Stettin; where he was 
cantor from 1587; studied in Leipzig 
Univ. and probably was a pupil of 
Gabriel! in Italy. He is known ex- 
clusively as a vocal composer, having 
published 8 books containing can- 
tiones, hymns, 8-part choruses, etc., in- 
cluding Centuriee vitonum et septem 
vocum harmonias sacras laudibus sanc- 
tissimee Triados consecratas continentes 
(4 parts), repub. by R. Schwartz 
(Denkmaler deutscher Tonkunst, I. vol. 
31), etc. 

DU LOCLE, Camille (1832-1903) : b. 
Orange, Vancluse; d. Nice; secretary of 
the Paris Opera, director of the Opera- 
Comique; author of the French version 
of Verdi's Don Carlos, La Force du 
destin and (with Nuitter) of Aida; also 
librettist of Reyer's Sigurd, and Sal- 
ammbo, and Duvernoy's Helle. Ref. 
II. 495; IX. 36. 

DUL.ON, Priedrich Ludwigr (1769- 
1826): b. Oranienburg, near Potsdam; 
d. Wurzburg; virtuoso on flute in con- 
cert tours, at the Russian court, in Sten- 
dal and Wurzburg. He wrote 9 duos for 
flute and violin, a concerto, duets and 
capriccios for the flute. 

DULONG (1) Pranz Henri von 
(1861- ) : b. Hamm, Westphalia; con- 
cert-tenor who studied with Vannucini. 
(2) (nee John) Magda von (1872-) : 
b. Halle; wife of (1); concert-contralto; 
studied with Hromado, Gerster and 
Mme. Joachim. 

DUMAS, Alexandre (flls). Ref.: II. 
492; IX. 354, 413. 



DUMONT, Henry (1610-1684): b, 
Villers l'Sveque, near Liege, d. Paris; 
organist there and music director of the 
Paris court chapel; canon of Maestricht 
cathedral; composed masses and mo- 
tets, some with instr., chansons, etc. 

DUN, Finlay (1795-1853) : b. Aber- 
deen, d. there; viola player, singing 
teacher, editor and composer. 

DUNCAN (1) William Edmon- 
stoune (1866- ): b. Sale, Cheshire; 
studied at the Royal Academy of Mu- 
sic and privately with Macfarren; 
teacher in a music school at Oldham; 
composer of an opera, 'Perseus' (1892) ; 
church music, choral works with or- 
chestra, orchestral works (concert over- 
ture, etc.), chamber music, organ and 
piano pieces. He pub. 'Melodies and 
How to Harmonize Them' (1906) ; 'The 
Story of Minstrelsy' (1907); 'Encyclo- 
pedia of Musical Terms' (1913). (2) 
Isadora (1880- ) : b. San Fran- 
cisco; dancer who became internation- 
ally famous for her choreographic in- 
terpretations of classic and romantic 
instrumental music. She exerted great 
influence on the modern interpretive 
movement in dancing in Europe (Ger- 
many and Russia) ; married the artist, 
Gordon Craig, in Rerlin and became 
the head of an endowed school oper- 
ating in Europe and America. Her sis- 
ter, Elizabeth, at first associated with 
her, maintains an independent school 
of dancing in Berlin, etc. Ref.: X. 22, 
187, 197ff, 204, 206, 211, 212, 213, 214, 
244, 247; (quoted), 196f; (compared 
with St. Denis), 210; (influence in Rus- 
sia), 218f; (pupils), 248; portrait, X. 
200; Elizabeth D., X. 202. 

DUNHAM, Henry Morton (1853-) : 
b. Brockton, Mass.; studied music at 
New England Cons, and Boston Univ. 
Coll. of Music; church organist in 
Brockton, Boston and Brookline; prof, 
of organ at New England Cons., di- 
rector of music at Lasell Sem., Au- 
burndale; composed organ sonatas, a 
symphonic poem, church music, etc., 
and published an 'Organ School' (1893) ; 
composed organ sonatas and other or- 
gan pieces, a symphonic poem, and 
church music. Ref. : VI. 500. 

DUNHIIili, Thomas Frederick 
(1877- ): b. Hampstead; English 
composer and teacher; studied at Royal 
Coll. of Music and with Franklin Tay- 
lor and Stanford; nine years professor 
of piano at Eton College; examiner for 
the Associated Roard; professor of har- 
mony and counterpoint at Royal Coll. 
of Music (1905- ) ; founded the 
Thomas Dunhill Concerts of Rritish 
Chamber Music; composer of works 
for flute and orchestra, 'cello and or- 
chestra, songs, quintets, quartets, trios, 
etc. Ref.: III. 442; (cited) VII. 460, 

DUNI, Egidio llomualdo (1709- 
1777): b. Matera (Naples), d. Paris.; 
studied first with Durante in the Cons, 
della Madonna di Loreto, then in the 


Cons, della Pieta de' Turchini. His 
first opera, Nerone (Rome, 1735), was 
a great popular success, completely 
eclipsing Pergolesi's Olimpiade. D. 
became maestro di cappella at S. Nicolo 
di Bari, Naples, meantime visited Vi- 
enna, and went to Holland, Paris, and 
London (1744), composing all the while. 
Upon the encouragement of the Duke of 
Parma (at whose court he became 
tutor) he began composing French op- 
erettas, the first of which, Ninette a 
la cour (Paris, 1755), was so well re- 
ceived that the composer settled in 
Paris. Here he prod, a number of light 
and frivolous pieces suited to the pre- 
vailing taste. By virtue of these he 
is considered one of the founders of 
French opera bouffon. He wrote about 
13 Italian and 20 French operas. 

DttNKELPEIND. See Nichelmann. 

DUNKJL, Johann Nepomuk (1832-) : 
b. Budapest; studied with Liszt and 
Rubinstein; pianist and partner in the 
music publishing firm of Rozsavolgyi 
& Cie. 

DUNKLER, Francois (1816-1878) : 
b. Namur, d. Hague; military band- 
master, skillful in writing arrange- 
ments for the military band. 

DUNKLEY, Ferdinand [Luis] 
(1869- ): b. London; composer. 
After a thorough training in counter- 
point and composition under Higgs, 
Turpin, Parry, Barnet and others, he 
came to the United States, where he 
took the directorship of St. Agnes' 
School at Albany, N. Y. In 1889 he 
took a 50-guinea prize for an orchestral 

DUNIiAP, William (18th cent.): 
librettist of first American opera. Ref.: 
IV. 112. 

DUNN, James Philip, contemp. 
American composer. Ref.: IV. 440. 

DUNOYER. See Gauquier. 

DUNSTABLE [Dunstaple], John 
(ca. 1370-1453): b. Dunstable, Bedford- 
shire; d. Walbrook; an eminent com- 
poser of the 15th cent., perhaps teach- 
er of his younger contemporaries Bin- 
chois and Dufay, being noted by 
Tinctor as one of the 'fathers' of coun- 
terpoint. Of his works are extant a 
3-part song, O Rosa bella (Vatican 
Library, another copy at Dijon) ; an 
enigmatical canon which is still un- 
solved (British Museum, and at Lam- 
beth), a 3-part composition without 
text (British Museum), also 4 MS. 
pieces; a Patrem; a Regina coeli Isetare, 
and 2 motets, Sub tua protecticne and 
Quam pulchra est (Liceo filarmonica, 
Bologna) ; 2 Et in terra (a 3), and an 
Ave Maris Stella (a 2) (Univ. Library, 
Bologna) ; also some MSS. at Vienna. 
Recent researches have uncovered the 
fact that D. adapted the style of the 
Florentine Trecentists — the solo song 
with artistic instr. accompaniment — to 
sacred song and thus created the 'form 
of motet, hymn, etc., based on free 
paraphrases of the chant melodies, 


[St.] Dunst»ri 

masses being treated in the same way. 
The breadth and simplicity of his mel- 
odies as shown in the 6 sacred and 
several secular pieces in the 7 Trent 
Codices discovered by Haberl (Denk- 
mciler d.T. in osterreich VII. 11900]) 
and the Gloria, etc., in the God. Bo- 
logna 37 (Woolridge's 'Early English 
Harmony'), indicate a creative genius 
of true greatness. Ref.: I. 236, 249ff; 
III. 409; mus. ex., XIII. 14. 

[ST.] DUNSTAN. Ref.: VI. 401. 

DUNSTEDE. See Tundstede. 

DUPABC, [Marie-Eugene-] Henri 
[Fouques] (1848- ): b. Paris; com- 
poser, whose ill health forced him 
into retirement in 1885, much to the 
regret of his master, Cesar Franck, who 
valued his songs very highly. His 
symphonic poem 'Lenore' (1875) was 
prod, by Pasdeloup in 1877, arranged 
for 2 pianos by Saint-Saens and for 
4 hands (1 piano) by Cesar Franck. 
Besides this are preserved 6 piano 
pieces Feuilles volantes, the duet La 
fuite (sop. and ten.), the orch. noc- 
turne Aux itoiles and a number of 
very individual songs. Other works 
(including a 'cello sonata, a suite and 
Poeme nocturne for orch.) were de- 
stroyed by the composer, who exer- 
cised a very strict self-criticism. Ref.: 
III. x, xviii, 287, 311; V. 355. 

DUPONT (1) Joseph (the Elder) 
(1821-1861): b. Liege, d. there; violin- 
ist; studied at Liege Conservatory; 
wrote 2 operas, music for the violin, 
ensembles and songs, mostly MS. He 
was professor of the violin at the Con- 
servatory at the time of his death. (2) 
Auguste (1827-1890) : b. Ensival, near 
Liege; d. Brussels; pianist. He trav- 
elled in England and Germany and 
in 1850 became professor of piano 
at Brussels Conservatory; composed 
etudes, concertos, fantasies for the 
piano; also some ensembles. (3) 
Joseph (the Younger) (1838-1899): b. 
Ensival, d. Brussels; teacher and con- 
ductor. After studying at the Liege 
Conservatory, he took the prix de Rome 
at Brussels, where in 1872 he became 
professor of harmony. Previously he 
had held conductor's posts at Warsaw 
and at Moscow. He succeeded Vieux- 
temps as director of popular concerts 
at Brussels. (4) Gabriel (1878- ): 
b. Caen; studied at the Paris Conserva- 
toire, won the prix de Rome, 1901; his 
opera, La Cabrera, received the Milan 
prize in 1904; prod. La Glu (Cannes, 
1910), La Farce du Cuvier (Brussels, 

DUPORT (1) [Jean] Pierre (1741- 
1818): b. Paris, d. Berlin; 'cello vir- 
tuoso, member of the Hofkapelle, Ber- 
lin, later director of court concerts; 
wrote duos for 2 'cellos, 'cello sonatas, 
etc.; Beethoven wrote his 'cello sonatas 
op. 5 (the first 'cello sonatas with ob- 
bligato piano part ever written) for D., 
or his brother (2). (2) [Jean] Louis 
(1749-1819): b. Paris, d. there; brother 


of (1); 'cello virtuoso, founder of the 
modern 'cello technique; sent to Ber- 
lin at the outbreak of the Revolution, 
but returned 1806, and later became 
imperial solo 'cellist and teacher at 
the Cons. His Stradivari 'cello was 
sold to Franchomme for 25,000 francs. 
He wrote sonatas, variations, duos, fan- 
tasies, etc., and the epoch-making 
Essai sur le doigter du violoncelle et 
la conduite de Varchet (1770; repub. 
1902). Ref.: VII. 591. (3) French 
ballet dancer. Ref.: X. 91, lOlf. 

DUPOUX, Marie Jules (1844- ) : 
b. Avignon, where he was choirmaster; 
student of the liturgical song of Orien- 
tal nations, writer of controversial 
pamphlets and articles on Gregorian 

DUPRATO, Jules-Laurent (1827- 
1892): b. Nimes, d. Paris; studied at 
the Conservatoire, composed cantatas, 
operettas, etc.; wrote recitatives and 
became professor of harmony at the 

DUPREZ (1) Louis-Gilbert (1806- 
1896) : b. Paris, d. Passy; tenor, sing- 
ing teacher, author and composer. He 
made his debut in grand opera in 1836, 
became professor of singing at the Con- 
servatoire six years later and founded 
his own school for singing. His com- 
positions are of slight value. He mar- 
ried Mile. Duperron, also a singer. 
(2) Caroline (1832-1875) : b. Florence, 
d. Pau; daughter of above, sang from 
1850-1858 at the Paris Opera, the 
Opera-Comique and Theatre Lyrique; 
married the pianist Amedee van der 
Heuvel, 1836, and retired 1858. 

DUPTJIS (1) Thomas Sanders (1730- 
1796): b. London, d. there; organist 
and composer. In 1789 he became or- 
ganist at the Chapel Royal and the fol- 
lowing year was made Mus. D. by Ox- 
ford. Besides organ concertos, piano 
sonatas and glees, he composed much 
church music published after his death. 
Ref.: VI. 472. (2) Jacques (1830- 
1870): b. Liege, d. there; violinist and 
composer. He studied under Prumes 
and Daussoigne-Mehul, taught violin at 
the Conservatory. Few of his compo- 
sitions have been published and they 
consist in the main of violin concertos 
and sonatas. (3) Sylvain (1856- ) : 
b. Liege; music teacher and conductor, 
and composer. He took the prix de 
Rome in 1881, taught at the Liege Con- 
servatory, and is the author of 2 or- 
chestral suites, 2 operas, 3 cantatas, 
symphonic poem, etc. (4) Albert 
(1875- ): b. Verviers; pupil of 
d'Indy, director of Verviers Cons., won 
prix de Rome, Brussels, 1904; com- 
posed 7 operas (prod. Verviers, Brus- 
sels, Liege, Nice, 1896-1913), a lyric leg- 
end, choral works with orch., songs, etc. 

DUPUY, Edouard (ca. 1770-1822) : b. 
Corselles, near Neuchatel; d. Stock- 
holm; studied violin and piano under 
Chabran and Dussek; concert conductor 
in Rheinberg and Stockholm; opera 



singer in Stockholm and Copenhagen; 
composer for flute, violin and choruses. 

DURAND (1) (Duranowski), Au- 
g:uste Frederic (1770-1809): b. War- 
saw; son of a court-musician; violinist 
and conductor. Ref.: VII. 412. (2) 
£mile (1830-1903) : b. St. Brieuc, Cotes- 
du-Nord, d. Neuilly; teacher, com- 
poser and writer. He studied and 
taught at the Conservatoire, where he 
became professor of harmony. His 
compositions are songs and operettas, 
and he published a text-book of 
harmony and accompaniment. (3) 
Marie-Auguste (1830-1909): b. Paris, 
d. there; organist and music publisher. 
He studied the organ with Benoist, was 
organist of prominent Paris churches 
1849-74 and in 1870 acquired with 
Schonewerk the publishing firm of 
Flaxland, conducting it first as Durand 
& Schonewerk, then Durand & ills. 
The house has pub. many works of 
modern French composers (Massenet, 
Saint-Saens, Lalo, Widor, Debussy, 
etc.). D. himself wrote masses, songs, 
dance-movements in old style, and es- 
pecially pieces for harmonium. 

DURANTE (1) Francesco (1684- 
1755): b. Fratta Maggiore, Naples; d. 
Naples; studied with Greco and Scar- 
latti. In 1718 he became director of 
the Neapolitan Cons. San Onofrio, later 
maestro at the Cons. S. Maria di Loreto. 
A founder of the Neapolitan school, 
Durante wrote wholly sacred music (13 
masses, 16 psalms, 16 motets, 12 
madrigals, 6 piano-sonatas, Jeremiads, 
a 'pastoral mass,' etc.) It is his style 
and ideal that survives through the 
18th and early 19th century, for among 
his pupils were Jommelli, Piccini, 
Sacchini, Pergolesi, Paisiello and Duni. 
Ref.: I. 400f; II. 8, 11, 14; VII. 59, 
97; VI. 137; IX. 21. (2) Ottavio (17th 
cent.) : Roman composer in the aria 
style of Caccini; published (Rome, 
1608) Arie devote le quali contengono 
in se la maniera di cantar con grazia 
I'imitazione delta parole e il modo di 
scriuer passagi ed altri affeti. 

D'URFEY, Thomas (ca. 1649-1723): 
b. Exeter, d. London; author of dramas 
set by Purcell; singer and writer of 
songs, many of which were published 
in his 'Wit and Mirth.' 

DUROFF, Sacliar Sacharovitch 
U?]-1886): b. Moscow, d. St. Peters- 
burg; wrote 'Fundamentals of Russian 
Music History' and taught Russian 
church music at the Conservatory of 
St. Petersburg. 

DttRRNER, Ruprecht Johannes 
Julius (1810-1859): b. Ansbach, d. 
Edinburgh; studied at Altdorf and Des- 
sau and Leipzig; cantor at Ansbruch, 
teacher of music in Edinburgh. 

DURUTTE, Francois-Camille-An- 
toine [Comte] (1803-1881) : b. Ypres, 
d. Paris. He lived at Metz, where he 
originated a new system of harmony, 
set forth in his Esthetique musicale. 
Technie ou lois generates du. systeme 


harmonique (1855), and Resume" iU- 
mentaire de la technie harmonique, etc. 
(1876). D. also wrote operas, church 
music and chamber music. 

DUSSART. See Sarto, Johannes de. 

DUSSEK (1) Franz (1736-1799): b. 
Chotebof, Bohemia; d. Prague; pianist, 
teacher and composer of chamber mu- 
sic, piano sonatas, symphonies, etc. 
(2) Johann Ladislav (1761-1812): b. 
Caslav, Bohemia; d. St. Germain-en- 
Laye; boy soprano, studied at Jesuit 
College and Prague Univ. and (1783) at 
Hamburg with C. P. E. Bach; organist, 
pianist and performer on the harmon- 
ica invented by Hessel; lived in Berlin, 
Lithuania, Paris, London, Hamburg, 
Prague, etc. Dussek's nationalism is 
the quality which makes his composi- 
tions and reputation enduring. He 
wrote 2 English operas (with indiffer- 
ent success), a solemn mass, and ora- 
torios, trios, quartets, quintets, etc., 12 
concertos and a symphonie concertante. 
His piano compositions include sonatas, 
fugues, and other pieces. His piano- 
forte method appeared in English, 
French and German. Ref.: II. 90; III. 
165, 166; VII. 98, 176. (3) Olivia (1797- 
1847) : daughter of Franz, wife of 
Buckley; organist in London, where 
she composed children's songs and 
wrote 'Musical Truths' (1843). 

DUSTMANN, Marie Luise (ne'e 
Meyer) (1831-1899): b. Aachen, d. 
Charlottenburg; operatic soprano in 
Breslau, Cassel, Dresden, Prague, the 
Vienna court, London and Stockholm. 
She became a Kammersangerin in 1860, 
and taught singing at the Vienna Con- 

DUTROCHET (18th-19th cent.) : the- 
orist on vocal technique. Ref.: (cited) 
V. 56. 

DttTSCH (1) Otto (ca. 1825-1863): 
b. Copenhagen, d. Frankf ort-on-Main ; 
studied in Leipzig Cons. ; conductor and 
director in the Caucasus, later in St. 
Petersburg, where he also taught in the 
Imperial Russian Music Society (later 
the St. Petersburg Cons.). He wrote 
2 operettas, an opera, 70 or more songs, 
a 'cello sonata, a symphonic sonata, 
etc. (2) Geors (1857-1891) : b. St. 
Petersburg, d. there; son of Otto; stud- 
ied at the Cons., leader of St. Peters- 
burg Musico-Dramatic Society and of 
the Russian Symphony concerts. In 
1894 he published a collection of folk- 
songs of northern Russia. 

DUVAL, Edmond (1809-[?]) : b. 
Enghien; he was expelled from the 
Conservatoire for failure to attend 
classes; went to Mechlin, where he in- 
terested himself in Gregorian music 
and published a 'revised version' of 
church music, which was condemned 
in its entirety by Fetis. 

DUVERNOY (or Duvernois) (1) 
Frederic (1765-1838): b. Montbeliard, 
d. Paris; hornist at Paris Opera and 
professor of the horn at the Conserva- 
toire. Beside compositions for the 



horn, he published a Methode de cor 
mixte. (2) Charles (1766-1845) : broth- 
er of Frederic; clarinettist in Paris 
theatres and professor at the Conserva- 
toire. He composed 2 sonatas and duet- 
variations for the clarinet. (3) Henri- 
Louis-Charles (1820-1906): son of 
Charles; b. Paris, d. there; studied 
at the Conservatoire, where he became 
professor of solfeggio. He wrote 
Solfege des chanteurs (1855), Solfege 
artistique (1860), etc., and composed 
about 100 piano pieces. (4) Charles- 
Francois (1796-1872): b. Paris, d. 
there; opera singer at the Comique, 
vocal teacher at the Conservatoire and 
superintendent of the Pensionnat des 
Aleves du chant. (5) Victor- Alphonse 
(1842-1907): b. Paris, d. there; studied 
with Bazin and Marmontel at the Con- 
servatoire; joint-founder (with Le- 
onard, Trombetta, Stiehle and Jacquard) 
of concerts for chamber music; teacher 
of pianoforte at the Conservatoire. He 
has produced a 3-act and a 4-act opera, 
a symphonic poem, orchestral pieces, 
etc. He became a Chevalier of the 
Legion of Honor and music critic on 
the Republique francaise. (6) Jean- 
Baptiste (early 19th cent.) : prolific 
composer of graceful piano-composi- 
tions (variations, easy pieces), pub. 
from 1825 on, and a series of valuable 
piano etudes, still widely used. 

DUYSEN, Jes Lewe (1820-1903) : b. 
Dagebiill, d. Berlin; founder of a piano- 
forte manufacturing firm in Berlin. 

DUYZE. See Van Duyze. 

DVOftAK, Antonin (1841-1904): b. 
Muhlhausen (Nelahozeves), Bohemia; 
d. Prague. Destined for the butcher's 
trade, he learned to play the violin 
from the village schoolmaster in his 
youth and left home at the age of 16 
to enter the Prague Organ School, 
studying under Pitzsch, and earning his 
livelihood as violinist in a small or- 
chestra. In 1862 he joined the Na- 
tional Theatre orchestra as a viola 
player. In 1873 he prod, a hymn for 
male chorus and orch. which brought 
him a government stipend (1875), en- 
abling him to devote himself to com- 
position. Liszt assisted him by secur- 
ing the performance of his works, 
which were from the outset distin- 
guished by a vigorous and consistent 
nationalism. D. went to England, where 
his choral works achieved popularity, 
and to New York, where he was the 
artistic director of the National Cons, 
in 1892-95. Among his works are the 
Bohemian operas 'The King and the 
Charcoal Burner' (Prague, 1874), Wanda 
(1876), Selma Sedlak (1878), Turde 
Police (1881), Dimitrije (1882), and 


'The Jacobins* (1889; 3 acts); the ora- 
torio, St. Ludmila (1886) ; Bequiem 
mass, op. 89 (1891) ; a cantata, 'The 
Spectre's Bride,' op. 69 (1885) ; a secu- 
lar cantata, 'The American Flag' (1895) ; 
Hymn of the Bohemian Peasants, op. 
28, chorus and piano 4 hands; Hymn 
for chorus and orch., op. 30; Stabat 
Mater (soli, chorus, and orch., op. 
58, 1883); Psalm 149 (soli, chorus and 
orch.) ; 5 symphonies (1, op. 60, in 
D; 2, op. 70, in D min.; 3, op. 76, in 
F; 4, op. 88, in G; 5, op. 95, in E min., 
'From the New World') ; 3 orchestral 
ballades (symphonic poems), op. 107; 
2 sets of symph. variations (orch.), op. 
40 and 78; overtures Mein Heim, Hu- 
sitska, In der Natur, Othello, Carneval; 
'cello concerto in B min. (1896) ; piano 
concerto, op. 35; violin concerto, op. 
53; Slavic Dances and Bhapsody (orch.); 
Scherzo capriccioso (orch.) ; string sex- 
tet; 2 string quintets; piano quintet in 
A, op. 18; 6 string quartets; 2 piano 
quartets; a string trio; 2 piano trios; 
mazurek for violin and orch.; serenade 
for wind with 'cello and double-bass; 
notturno for string orch.; violin sonata, 
op. 57; piano pieces (Dances, Legends 
for 4 hands, Silhouettes, etc.) ; also 
songs, duets, part-songs, etc. Ref.: 
For life and work see III. 175ff, 181; 
songs, V. 312; choral works, VI. 202f, 293, 
342f; violin music, VII. 466; chamber 
music, VII. 558f, 583, 585f; orchestral 
works, VIII. 378f; mus. ex., XTV. 145; 
portrait, III. 178. 

DWELHAUVERS, Victor Felix 
(1869-1915): b. Liege, where he stud- 
ied at the Cons., also studied natural 
sciences in Leipzig and became docent 
for physics at Liege University; also 
music critic of the Express, and musi- 
cal history teacher in Thiebaut's High 
School for Music at Ixelles (Brussels). 
He wrote L'intensite relative des har- 
moniques (1887), Messung der Ton- 
stdrke (dissertation, 1890), La sym- 
phonie prehaydnienne (on Noel Hamal, 
1908), also on Bichard Wagner (1889) 
and single studies of that master's 

D WIGHT, John Sullivan (1813- 
1893): b. Boston, d. there; graduate of 
Harvard and Cambridge Seminary; 
founded and edited 'Dwight's Journal 
of Music,' the first musical periodical 
issued in America. Ref.: (quoted) IV. 
100, 238. 

DYKES, John Bacchus (1823-1876) : 
b. Kingston-on-Hull, d. St. Leonards- 
on-Sea; priest, vicar, Mus. D. at Dur- 
ham, composer of excellent English 
church music. 

DYNE, John ([?]-1788): English 
alto singer and composer. 




EAGER, John (1782-1853): b. Nor- 
wich, d. Edinburgh; violinist, teacher 
and organist at Yarmouth; partisan of 
Logier; composer of pianoforte sonata 
and songs. 

EAMES, Emma (1867- ) : b. 

Shanghai, China, of American parents; 
operatic soprano, trained in Boston and 
at Paris; sang at Opera, Covent Garden, 
Metropolitan Opera House, and Madrid. 
She created the roles of Juliette, Co- 
lombe, Zaire in the operas of Gounod, 
St. Saens, and de la Nux respectively. 
Her parts in Wagner's operas are Eva, 
Elsa, Elisabeth and Sieglinde. She 
married (2nd) Emilio de Gogorza, the 
baritone. Ref.: IV. 143, 147; portrait, 
IV. 144. 

EASTCOTT, Richard (1749-1828) : b. 
Exeter, d. Livery Dale, Devonshire; 
composer and writer; published a mu- 
sical history and a story of the bards. 

EBDEN, Thomas (1738-1811): b. 
Durham, a. there; organist of the Ca- 
thedral from 1763-1811, composer of 2 
harpsichord sonatas, 6 glees, a march 
and 2 volumes of cathedral music. 

EBELING (1) Johann Georg (1637- 
1676) : b. Liineburg, d. Stettin; com- 
poser of church music and chorales. 
In 1662 he was director of the cathe- 
dral and college of St. Nicholas in Ber- 
lin and in 1668 received the professor- 
ship at the Caroline Gymnasium at 
Stettin. Chief among his works is the 
collection of 120 religious songs in the 
Pauli Gerhardi Geistliche Andachten; 
also pub. Archseologiee Orphicse sive 
Antiquitates. Some cantatas are still in 
manuscript. (2) Christopher Daniel 
(1741-1817): b. Garmissen, Hildesheim, 
d. Hamburg; author, critic. He studied 
theology and belles-lettres at Gottingen, 
and in 1784 became professor at the 
Hamburg Gymnasium and city librarian 
there. He translated Chaselaux's 'Con- 
cerning the Union of Music and Poetry' 
and with Klopstock translated Han- 
del's 'Messiah. 5 He contributed from 
1766 to 1770 to the publication Ham- 
burger Unterhaltungen, and the Han- 
noverian magazine on 'Opera' and 
'Search of a Selected Musical Library.' 

EBELL, Heinrich Karl (1775-1824): 
b. Neuruppin, d. Oppeln; composer and 
conductor. From 1801-1804 he aban- 
doned his position as judge for that of 
Kapellmeister at the Breslau theatre. 
His compositions comprise 10 operas 
and operettas, an oratorio, arias, songs 
and instrumental works. 

EBERHARD, Johann August (1739- 
1809) : b. Halberstadt, d. Halle ; profes- 
sor of philosophy at the latter place, 
author of 3 works on musical theory, 


also of treatises and contributions to 
the Musikalisches Wochenblatt, Berlin. 

EBERHARDT (1) Goby: author of 
two books on method for the violin 
(1907). (2) Anton: composer of 2 op- 
eras, produced 1895 and 1905 (Aachen). 

or Eberhard von Freisingen (11th 
cent.) : Benedictine monk; theorist, 
wrote De mensura flstularum and Regu- 
lee ad fundentas notas. 

EBERL, Anton (1766-1807) : b. 
Vienna, d. there; pianist and composer. 
He made many concert tours, was ac- 
quainted with Mozart and in boyhood 
won praise from Gluck. Among his 
compositions are symphonies, sonatas, 
pianoforte trios, chamber-ensembles, 
and five operas (one melodrame, 1794). 
Several of his Variations appeared first 
under Mozart's name and his Symphony 
in E-flat received from at least one 
critic higher praise than Beethoven's 
Eroica. Ref.: VIII. 208. 

EBERLIN (1) Daniel (1630-1692) : 
b. Nuremberg, d. Cassel; violinist and 
composer. After fighting in the land 
militia of Cassel, and with the papal 
troops at Morea against the Turks, he 
held successively the positions of libra- 
rian at Nuremberg, home secretary and 
chapel master in Cassel. He was con- 
sidered by Telemann, his father-in-law, 
strong as both violinist and contra- 
puntist. Of his compositions there re- 
main only a trio-sonata and a choral 
and cantata in manuscript. (2) Johann 
Ernst (1702-1762) : b. Jettingen, d. Salz- 
burg; organist and composer. In 1729 
he became chief organist in the cathe- 
dral at Salzburg. He wrote oratorios, 
fugues, motets and cantatas and his 
contrapuntal work was held in esteem 
by Mozart and passed through many 

EBERT, Ludwig (1834-1908) : b. 
Kladrau, Bohemia; 'cellist in Temesvar 
and Oldenburg; teacher at Cologne 
Cons., joint founder of Coblenz Con- 
servatory, 1889; member of the Heck- 
mann Quartet; composer for 'cello. 

EBERWEIN (1) Traugott Maxi- 
milian (1775-1831) : b. Weimar, d. Bu- 
dolstadt. He wrote more than one 
hundred works, among them operas and 
cantatas, concertos, quartets, a Mass in 
A-flat and a symphonie-concertante for 
oboe, horn and bassoon. He was Kap- 
ellmeister at Budolstadt after 1817 and 
counted among his friends Hiller, Zel- 
ter, Beethoven and Salieri. (2) Karl 
(1786-1868): b. Weimar, d. there; vio- 
linist; was a brother of T. M. (1) 
and a protege of Goethe, through whose 
recommendation he studied with Zelter 



in Berlin. Of his compositions his mu- 
sic to Holteis' Lenore is best known; 
he wrote also three operas, a cantata, 
a concerto for the flute, and a string 

EBNER, Wolfgang (ca. 1610-1665) : 
b. Augsburg, d. Vienna; organist at 
court and conductor and organist, St. 
Stephen's, Vienna. Although highly es- 
teemed by his contemporaries, very 
little of Ebner's work is extant. 

ECCARD, Johannes (1553-1611) : b. 
Miihlhausen, Thuringia, d. Berlin; 
organist and composer. A pupil of 
Orlando di Lasso in Munich, he held 
his first position at Augsburg in Fug- 
ger's household and in 1608 attained 
the rank of Kapellmeister at Berlin. 
He was one of the most distinguished 
of Protestant church musicians and his 
chorales are still in use. Of his com- 
pilation of church music and chorales 
his Geistliche Lieder are the most im- 
portant, and were repub. by Stobaus, 
1642-44. One of his compositions set 
to English words 'When Mary to the 
Temple Went' appeared in the Bach 
Choral Magazine. Eccard also com- 
posed many songs for special occasions. 
Ref.: VI. 85f. 

(1864- ): b. Gotha; teacher in Zug, 
Zurich and Diisseldorf; founder of 
Swiss Academy of Music; critic, editor 
(1897-1901) of Kammermusik, pub- 
lished 12 pedagogical works for violin 
and piano, a violin music guide, etc. 

ECCLES (1) Solomon (1618-1683) : 
b. London, d. there; musician. In 1667 
he wrote 'A musick lector' and con- 
tributions to "The Division Violin.' 
Ref.: (cited) IV. 13f. (2) John 
(1668-1735): b. London, d. Kings- 
ton, Surrey; composer. Eldest son of 
Solomon, he began his career as theat- 
rical composer in 1681 and continued 
for nearly twenty-five years. During 
this time he composed the music for 
many of Dryden's and Congreve's plays, 
winning in 1700 the second prize for 
musical composition to Congreve's 
'Judgment of Paris.' In 1704 he be- 
came Master of the King's Band, and 
wrote for it masque and court music. 
(3) Henry ([?]-ca. 1742?): violinist in 
King's Band at London, later in Paris, 
where he published 'Twelve Solos for 
the Violin after Corelli.' (4) Thomas: 
violinist; 3rd son of Solomon. He 
was an excellent performer, but dissi- 
pated his abilities. 

ECK (1) Johann Friedrich (1766- 
1809 or 1810): b. Mannheim, d. Bam- 
berg; violinist. He was a pupil of 
Donner and rose to high eminence as 
concert leader at Munich. After his 
marriage in 1801, he spent the re- 
mainder of his life in Paris, where 
he published six violin concertos and 
a concertante for two violins. Ref.: 
VII. 418. (2) Franz (1774-1804) : b. 
Mannheim, d. Strassburg; violinist. In 
1802, forced to leave the Munich band 


because of amorous troubles, he toured 
through Bussia supervising the musical 
education of Spohr, who thus gained 
a knowledge of the famous Mannheim 
school of violin playing. In Bussia 
he was solo violinist at the St. Peters- 
burg court, but again involved himself 
in scandals, and was transported. He 
ended his life in an insane asylum. 
Ref.: VII. 418f, 440. 

ECKARDT, Johann Gottfried 
(1735-1809): b. Augsburg, d. Paris; 
composer and pianist; he ranked sec- 
ond to Schobert among Paris clavecin- 
ists, but has left only 8 piano sonatas 
in print. Ref.: II. 67, 102. 

ECKEL, Manilas (early 16th cent.) : 
German composer of motets, part-songs, 
hymns and chansons. 

ECKELT, Johann Valentin (1673- 
1732) : b. Werningshausen, d. Sonders- 
hausen; virtuoso on organ; organist 
at Wernigerode and at Sondershausen ; 
author of three theoretical works, one 
still in manuscript at his death; com- 
poser of a Passion and organ-cantatas. 

ECKER (1) Karl (1813-1879): b. 
Freiburg, d. there; abandoned law for 
music, studied with Sechter and wrote 
male quartets and songs. (2) Wenzel. 
See Gericke, Wilhelm. 

ECKERT, Karl Anton Florlan 
(1820-1879): b. Potsdam, d. Berlin; 
pianist, composer and conductor. Eck- 
ert owed his entire musical education to 
patrons, who throughout his life show- 
ered favors upon him. The poet For- 
ster had him taught by Greulich, Bies 
and Bungenhagen; later, in 1839, he 
studied with Mendelssohn. He was a 
'wonder-child,' composing an opera, Das 
Fischermddchen, at the age of ten, an 
oratorio at thirteen, and another at 
twenty. Among his compositions are 
operas, a symphony, church music and 
many less ambitious works; few of 
them have survived. As a conductor 
he was unsurpassed in his day, acting 
as director of the Vienna court opera 
in 1853, Kapellmeister in 1860 at Stutt- 
gart, and director at Berlin. 

ECKHOLD, Herman Richard 
(1855- ): b. Schandau, Saxony; vio- 
linist and conductor; studied at Dres- 
den Cons.; conductor of various opera 

ECORCHEVILLE, Jules (1872- 
1915): b. Paris, d. in battle; pupil of 
Franck; critic; editor of the Parisian 
section of the 'International Musical 
Society'; author of several books deal- 
ing with music and musicians in 

EDDY, Clarence H. (1851- ): b. 
Greenfield, Mass.; organist and com- 
poser. After studying under Wilson 
and Buck in America, he became the 
pupil of Haupt and Loschhorn in Ber- 
lin, and then successfully toured Switz- 
erland, Holland, Austria and Germany 
in concert. In 1874 he returned to the 
United States to assume the position 
of organist in Chicago, where he gave 



his first series of organ recitals. In 
1877 he took the directorship of the 
Hershey Music School, where he gave 
a series of one hundred weekly con- 
certs on the organ. His own composi- 
tions are in the classic forms, fugues, 
preludes and canons. He translated 
Haupt's 'Theory of Counterpoint and 
Fugue' and published two sets of or- 
gan pieces for church and concert. Ref. : 
VI. 460. 

EDELMANN, Joliaim Friedrich 
(1749-1794) : b. Strassburg, d. on a 
Paris guillotine ; composer of pianoforte 
pieces and of an opera, Ariadne (prod. 

EDGCUMBE, Richard, Earl of 
Mount- (1764-1839) : b. London, d. 
there; patron of music, author of per- 
sonal reminiscences which preserve 
anecdotes of opera singers popular in 
England from 1773-1834. He wrote one 
opera, Zenobia, which he produced in 

EDSON, Lewis (1748-1820) : b. 
Bridgewater, Mass., d. Woodstock, N. 
Y.; hymnologist, compiled 'The New 
York College of Sacred Music* 

EDVIXA, Marie Louise Lucienne 
(nee Martin): b. Quebec; dramatic so- 
prano; studied with Jean de Reszke; 
member of Chicago Opera Company 

EDWARD VI, King of England. 
Ref.: VI. 90, 449; VII. 375. 

EDWARDS (1) Richard (1523- 
1566): b. Somersetshire; composer; 
Master of the Children of the Chapel 
Royal; compiler of 'The Paradise of 
Dainty Devices' (pub. 1576) ; wrote 
dramatic pieces 'Damon and Pythias' 
and 'Palamon and Arcite,' played be- 
fore Queen Elizabeth; probably com- 
posed part-songs. Ref.: VI. 75. (2) 
Henry Sutherland (1829-1906): b. at 
Hendon, Middlesex, d. London; histo- 
rian and litterateur. He wrote a 'His- 
tory of the Opera . . . from Monteverde 
to Verdi' ... (2 vols.), a 'Life of Ros- 
sini,' the 'Lyric Drama' (2 vols.), the 
'Prima Donna' (2 vols.), and 'The Rus- 
sians at Home.' (3) Henry John 
(1854- ): b. Barnstable; organist, 
pianist and composer. After study- 
ing with his father, Bennett, Macfar- 
ren, H. C. Banister and Cooper, he took 
his doctor's degree in music from Ox- 
ford in 1885. His work is chiefly reli- 
gious — oratorios, motets and church 
music. (4) Julian (1855-1910): b. 
Manchester, d. Yonkers, N. Y. ; in Lon- 
don he produced the operas 'Corinna' 
(1880) and 'Victorian' (1883). Later 
he went to America, where he pro- 
duced the operas 'King Rene's Daugh- 
ter' (N. Y., 1893) and 'The Patriot' 
(Boston, 1907), also 15 comic operas 
and several large choral works. His 
library of opera scores was donated 
to the N. Y. Public Library. Ref.: IV. 461. 

EEDEN (1) Gilles van den (ca. 
1705-1782) : organist; court organ- 
ist and composer in Bonn, 1726-80; 


teacher of Beethoven. (2) Jean Bap- 

tiste (b. 1842, Ghent); composer; pupil 
of the Ghent and Brussels conserva- 
tories and there, in 1869, won the first 
prize with a cantata, Fausts laatste 
nacht. In 1878 he succeeded Huberti 
as Director of the Mons Cons. Among 
his works, besides many minor pieces 
are oratorios, cantatas, a symphonic 
poem, a scherzo and an opera. 

EFFREM, Muzio (ca. 1555- [?]): b. 
Naples, d. there [?]; court conductor at 
Mantua and Florence; composed madri- 
gals, opposed to the style of Marco da 
Gagliano (1623). 

EGAN, Eugene: an Irish dwarf, who 
built the organ in Lisbon Cathedral, 

EGENOLFF (or Egenolph), Chris- 
tian (1502-1555) : d. Frankf ort-on-Main ; 
music printer whose work was of poor 
quality and whose publications consist 
mainly of reprints. 

EGGELING, Eduard (1813-1885) : b. 
Brunswick, d. Harzburg; teacher, writer 
and composer. 

EGGHARD, Jules (real name Count 
HardesK) (1834-1867) : b. Vienna, d. 
there; pianist and composer of popu- 
lar salon pieces. 

EGIDI, Arthur (1859- ) : b. Ber- 
lin; organist, director, teacher and com- 
poser. He studied at the Royal High 
School and with Kiel and Taubert, 
has taught at a Cons, in Frankfort-on- 
Main and at the Royal Institute for 
Church Music; organist in Berlin and 
composer of songs, choruses and an 

EGLI, Johann Heinrich (1742-1810) : 
b. Seegraben, Zurich, d. Zurich; Swiss 
song composer; prod. 7 books of Swiss 
folk-songs, part-songs, etc. 

EHLERT, Louis (1825-1884) : b. 
Konigsberg, d. Wiesbaden; composer, 
pianist and critic; studied under Men- 
delssohn at the Leipzig Cons., 1845, and 
at Vienna. He directed the Societd 
Cherubini at Florence up to 1869 and 
from then on taught successively in 
Berlin, Meiningen and Wiesbaden. His 
compositions were universally success- 
ful, including overtures to 'Hafiz' and 
'A Winter's Tale,' a 'Spring Symphony,' 
a Requiem fur ein Kind, but it is 
through his critical writings that he 
is best known. He published a volume 
of Rriefe, tiber Musik in 1859, which 
was translated into French and English. 
Romische Tage (1867, 1888), Aus der 
Tonwelt (2 vols., 1877) are travel sou- 
venirs and essays. Ref.: III. 20. 

EHMANT, Anselm (1832-1895) : d. 
Paris; conductor, teacher and didactic 
composer for piano. 

EHNN-SAND, Bertha (1845- ): 
b. Pesth; pupil of Frau Andriessen; 
operatic soprano; sang in Linz, Graz, 
Hanover, Nuremberg, and (1868-1885) at 
the court opera of Vienna. 

EHRBAR, Friedrich (1827-1905) : b. 
Hildesheim, d. near Gloggnitz; manu- 
facturer of excellent pianofortes, for 



which he has taken first prizes in Mu- 
nich, Paris, London and Vienna. 

EHRENHOFER, Walther Edmund 

(1872- ): b. Hoheneble, Bohemia; 
engineer and musician, chorus leader of 
a musical society at Rossitz, 1897; an 
expert on the mechanism of the organ 
and author of Grundzuge der Orgel- 
baurevision. He is the editor of a 
periodical on organ building and com- 
poses piano sonatas, duets, etc. 

EHRL.ICH (1) Friedrich Christian 
(1807-1887) : b. Magdeburg, d. there; in- 
structor, musical director, pianist and 
composer. His two operas are Die 
Rosemddchen and Konig Georg. (2) 
[Alfred] Heinrich (1822-1899) : b. 
Vienna, d. Berlin; pianist, critic and 
author; court-pianist to King George 
V at Hanover; composed a few piano 
works, a Konzertstuck in ungarischer 
Weise, Lebensbilder and 'Variations on 
an Original Theme.' As a music critic 
he has contributed to the Berliner Tage- 
blatt, Die Gegenwart, and Die neue Ber- 
liner Musikzeitung ; he wrote Shake- 
speare als Kenner der Musik, Modernes 
Musikleben, etc. (3) .A.: pseudonym 
of an anonymous author who pub- 
lished works on music and musicians, 

EIBEXSCHtJTZ (1) Albert (1857-) : 
b. Berlin; music teacher. He was a 
pupil of Paul and Beinecke at the 
Leipzig Cons., and since then has 
taught at Leipzig, Cologne, Berlin, and 
at his own conservatory at Wiesbaden. 
(2) Ilona (1873- ) : b. Pesth; pianist. 
A pupil of Schmitt and of Clara Schu- 
mann, she toured with great success 
from 1890 to 1902, when she mar- 

EICHBERG (1) Julius (1824-1893): 
b. Dusseldorf, d. Boston; violinist and 
composer. He studied under Bietz and 
at the Brussels Cons., taught the violin 
at Geneva and after leading orchestral 
concerts in New York and Boston, he 
became director of the Boston Cons, 
and founded a school for the study of 
the violin. His compositions number 
not only pieces for the violin, but four 
operettas. Ref.: IV. 250, 457. (2) Oscar 
(1845-1898): b. Berlin, d. there; com- 
poser, teacher and writer on music. 
In 1888 he became president of the 
Berlin Music Teachers' Society, and for 
15 years he was music critic of the 
Borsen-Courier. His critical works 
were on Wagnerian music; his compo- 
sitions include pieces for the piano, 
choruses and songs. 

EICHBORN, Hermann laid wis 
(1847- ): b. Breslau; abandoned law 
for music, which he studied under 
Bohn. He became a virtuoso on wald- 
horn. and trumpet, composed for piano 
and waldhorn, also wrote comic op- 
eras and singspiele. He was the joint 
inventor with Heidrich of the 'octave- 
waldhorn' and his monographs on wind 
instruments are a valuable contribution 
to musical history. 


EICHHEIM, Henry* contemp. Amer- 
ican composer. Ref.: IV. 447. 

EICHHORJY (1) Johann Paul (1787- 
1835) : court musician, Coburg; father 
of (2), (3) and (4), who were prodi- 
gies and appeared in concert tours as 
violinists. (2) Johann Gottfried 
Ernst (1822-1844) : son of (1) ; vio- 
linist. (3) Johann Karl Eduard 
(1823-1896): court conductor, Coburg; 
brother of (2). (4) Alexander (1827- 
1903) : director of court music, Coburg, 
brother of (2) and (3). 

EICHNER, Ernst (1740-1777): b. 
Mannheim, d. Potsdam; concert-con- 
ductor, virtuoso on bassoon in Paris, 
London and Potsdam; composer of 31 
symphonies, piano concertos and so- 
natas, trios with piano obbligatos, 
duets for violin and 'cello, etc. Eich- 
ner was an able representative of the 
younger Mannheim School. Ref.: VIII. 

EICKHOFF, Paul (1850- ): b. 
Gutersloh; professor of philology at 
Wandsbeck Gymnasium; author of 2 
books on the Sapphic strophe and a 
study of the Giitersloher Choralbuch. 

EIJKEN (1) Jan Albert van (1822- 
1868) : b. Amersfoort, Holland, d. Elber- 
feld; pupil in composition and the 
organ of Leipzig Conservatory and of 
J. Schneider; organist and teacher in 
Amsterdam, Botterdam and Elberfeld. 
He is distinguished for his excellent 
works for the organ, but has written 
besides songs, quartets, a violin sonata, 
etc. Ref.: VI. 469. (2) Gerhard Isaac 
van (b. 1832): b. Amersfoort; brother 
of Jan; organist and teacher in Utrecht, 
1855. (3) Heinrich van (1861-1908) : 
b. Elberfeld, d. Berlin; son of Jan; 
studied at Leipzig Cons, and in the 
Berlin Academy, then taught theory at 
the Boyal High School, Berlin, and 
wrote articles on chorale and harmony. 
He has also composed songs. 

EIJKENS, Daniel Simon (1812- 
1891): b. Antwerp, d. there; composer 
of operas, choruses, etc. 

EILENBERG, Richard (1848- ): 

b. Merseburg; composer of marches, 
ballet, operettas, salon pieces, etc.; 
was for a time Musikdirektor in Stet- 
tin; later settled in Berlin. 

EILERS, Albert (1830-1896) : b. 
Cothen, d. Darmstadt, where he was 
basso-cantante at City Theatre; in 1876 
chosen by Wagner for the rdle of Fasolt 
in the Bayreuth production of the 

EINSTEI1V, Alfred (1880- ): b. 
Munich; writer of studies on musical 
subjects, including Zur deutschen Liter- 
atur filr Viola da Gamba. 

EISBEIN. See Osborne, Adrienne. 

EISENHUT, Georg (1841-1891) : b. 
Aaram, d. there; student in Vienna 
Cons., composer of 2 Croatian operas, 
also dances, etc. 

EISFELD, Theodor (1816-1882): b. 
Wolfenbuttel, d. Wiesbaden; studied 
violin and composition under Muller and 



K. G. Reissiger and singing with Ros- 
sini; conducted the Paris Concerts Viv- 
ienne and the Philharmonic Society, 
New York. He was an honorary mem- 
ber of the Cecilia Academy of N. Y. 
and returned to Germany, 1865. Ref.: 

IV. 203. 

EISLER, Edmund (1874- ): b. 

Vienna; composer of 8 operettas and 
a pantomime prod, in Vienna, 1901- 

EISSLER (1) Marianne (1865- ) : 

b. Brunn; violinist. (2) Emma: sister 
of Marianne; pianist. 

EIST, Diet von: Minnesinger. Ref.: 
I. 218. 

EITNER, Robert (1832-1905) : b. 
Breslau, d. Templin, Uckermark; music 
teacher and historian. He studied with 
Brosig, then taught music and conducted 
concerts in Berlin. In 1863 he founded 
a school for pianoforte in Berlin and 
published his Hilfsbuch beim Klavier- 
unterricht (1871) as the result of his 
practical experience. His dictionary of 
Dutch Composers and his editions of 
Sweelinck's organ compositions were 
done for the Amsterdam Society for 
the Promotion of Music. He edited the 
Monatshefte fur Musikgeschichte (1869- 
1905) and the Publikation alterer prak- 
tischer und theoretischcr Musikwerke. 
His greatest achievement is his bio- 
graphical work, the Quellenlexikon 
fiber die Musiker und Musikgelehrten 
der christlichen Zeitrechnung bis zur 
Mitte des 19. Jahrhunderts. Ref.: IX. 9. 

EITZ, Karl (1848- ): b. Wehr- 
stedt, Germany; singing teacher and 
theoretician. As vocal teacher in the 
Eisleben Burgerschule he has endeav- 
ored to introduce a sort of Tonic 
sol-fa method similar to that used in 
English-speaking countries. He pub- 
lished a school song book for use in 
Saxony, 1893; in 1889 a Deutsche Sing- 
flbel, and he has embodied his system 
in the instruction for the city schools 
of Eisleben. He is the author of other 
books on his method, etc. 

ELANDI, Rita: b. Cincinnati, O.; 
contemp. dramatic soprano, who created 
'Santuzza' in the English version of 
I Pagliacci; sang in Italy, Spain, Ger- 
many and New York. 

ELDERING, Bram (1865- ) : b. 

Groningen, Holland; violinist, conduc- 
tor. He received his training from 
Joachim and others and conducted the 
Berlin Philharmonic Society and the 
court chapel in Meiningen. 


V. 140. 

ELERS (or Elerus), Franz (ca. 
1500-1590): b. Mzen, d. Hamburg; can- 
tor, teacher of singing, director of the 
Hamburg Cathedral, prod. (1588) a book 
of sacred songs, collects, responses, etc. 

ELEWIJCK, Xavier Victor van 
(1825-1888) : b. Ixelles les Bruxelles, d. 
Tirlemont; conductor of Louvain Ca- 
thedral and of sacred concerts; com- 
poser of motets and orchestral pieces; 


author of monographs on church mu- 

EL FARABI. See Alfarabi. 

ELGAR, Sir Edward [William] 

(1857- ) : b. Broadheath, Worcester, 
Eng. ; violinist and composer. His 
early training was very slight. He 
studied the organ under his father's 
guidance, and violin under Pollitzer. 
He acted as bandmaster to the county 
asylum for the insane, his musicians 
being the attendants, 1879-84; conducted 
the Worcester Amateur Instrumental So- 
ciety for seven years, during four of 
which he was organist at St. George's. 
In 1900 he received the degree of Mus. 
Doc. from Cambridge, and two years 
later was knighted. The Worcester Fes- 
tival of 1890 produced his Froissart 
overture; songs, cantatas and orches- 
tral pieces followed, and in 1900 he 
wrote for the Birmingham Festival 'The 
Dream of Gerontius.' His compositions 
include oratorios ('The Light of Life,' 
'The Dream of Gerontius,' 'The Apos- 
tles,' a trilogy), cantatas ('The Black 
Knight,' 'King Olaf,' 'Caractacus,' 'The 
Music Makers,' etc.), concert overtures 
('Froissart,' 'Cocaigne,' 'In the South'), 
'Enigma Variations' and 'Pomp and 
Circumstance' for orchestra, a 'Fal- 
staff' symphony, a serenade for chorus 
and orchestra, another for string orch., 
chamber music, organ sonata, violin 
pieces, piano pieces, etc., many of 
which were given in a three-day festi- 
val at Covent Garden, in the Birming- 
ham Festival of 1903, the London Fes- 
tival of 1911 and in the United States. 
Ref.: III. x, xi, xiv, .xviii, 415, 419; V. 
371f; choral works, VI. 211ff ; organ, VI. 
494; orch. works, VIII. 474; mus. ex., 
XIV. 181; portraits, III. 424; VI. 360. 

ELIAS, Salomonis (13th cent.) : 
priest at St. Astere, Perigord; author 
of Scientia artis musicee (1274) which 
notes 'archaisms' in sacred and secular 
music of his time. 

ELIOT, John. Ref.: (cited) IV. 16, 

ELISI, Filippo (18th cent.) : Italian 
tenor, sang in London, 1765. 

ELIZABETH, Queen of England. 
Ref.: IV. 5; VI. 90, 93, 448, 449; VII. 4; 
X. 84, 145, 150. 

ELKUS, Albert: contemp. American 
composer. Ref.: IV. 400. 

ELLA, John (1802-1888) : b. Thirsk, 
York, d. London; violinist at the King's 
Theatre, in the Concerts of Ancient 
Music and in the Philharmonic, Lon- 
don, lecturer at the London Institution 
and author of musical lectures, sketches 
and memoirs. 

ELLBERG, Ernst Henrik (1868-) : 
Soderhamm, Sweden; studied at the 
Stockholm Cons.; professor there since 
1903; composed a symphony in D; 2 
concert-overtures ; a ballet-pantomime, 
Askungen (Stockholm, 1907); instru- 
mental music and choruses. 

ELLER, Louis (1820-1862) : b. Graz, 
d. Pau; 1842, concert conductor at 



Salzburg; violin virtuoso, second only 
to Joachim in popularity, and com- 
poser for his instrument. 

ELLERTON, John Lodjjc (1807- 
1873): b. Cheshire, d. London; a dilet- 
tante, but a prolific composer. He wrote 
11 operas (English, German and Ital- 
ian), a Stabat Mater, an oratorio, 251 
other compositions, including masses, 
string quartets and quintets, glees and 
other vocal works, 6 symphonies and 4 
concert overtures. 

ELLEVIOU, Jean (1769-1842) : b. 
Rennes, d. Paris; famous tenor of the 
Opera Comique. Mehul wrote the lead- 
ing role in 'Joseph' for him, as did 
Boieldieu in Jean de Paris. 

ELLICOTT, Rosalinde Frances 
(1857- ): b. Cambridge; pupil of 
Wingham at the Royal Music Academy; 
composer of 4 cantatas given at music 
festivals, 3 concert overtures, and cham- 
ber music, choruses, songs, etc. 

ELLING, Catherinus (1858- ) : b. 
Christiania; studied there, at Leipzig 
and Berlin, teacher at Christiania 
Cons., organist in Oslo, official collector 
of Norwegian folk-melodies since 1908; 
composed an opera, an oratorio, a sym- 
phony, music to 'A Midsummer Night's 
Dream,' chamber music, songs, etc.; 
wrote on Norwegian composers, folk- 
melodies, etc. Ref.: III. 98. 

ELLIOTT, James William (1833-) : 
b. Warwick, Eng. ; organist, trained by 
Macfarren; organist at St. Mark's, Lon- 
don, 1874; composer of 2 operettas. 

ELLIS, Alexander John (1814- 
1890) : b. Horton, d. Kensington; writer 
on musical theory; translator of the 
theoretical works of Helmholtz, Ohms 
and Preyer and author of monographs, 
published as introductions to his trans- 
lations. He was held in high esteem 
both in the Royal Society of Arts and 
the Musical Association and has con- 
tributed original material to the his- 
tory of music in his 'History of Musi- 
cal Pitch.' 

ELLMENREICH, Albert (1816- 
1905): b. Carlsruhe, d. Liibeck; actor, 
poet and composer of 3 operas, prod. 

ELMAN, Mischa (1892- ): b. 

Talnoi; popular violin virtuoso, whose 
public career began at 5, who has 
studied with Fidelman and Auer; has 
toured Europe and America several 
times. Ref.: VII. 464f. 

ELMENHORST, Heinrlch (1632- 
1704) : b. Parchim, Mecklenburg, d. 
Hamburg; author of sacred songs set 
by J. W. Franck, also librettist of Ger- 
man opera at Hamburg. 

ELOY (or d'Amerval) (15th cent.): 
French conductor at St. Croix at Or- 
leans, composer of church music, whose 
work, save for one mass and a few 
fragments of other masses, has entirely 
perished. Ref.: I. 244. 

(1866- ): b. Wiesbaden; a pupil of 
Jacobsthal in Strassburg, who in 1891 


became professor of the College of Mu- 
sic in Cincinnati. His 2 important com- 
positions are cantatas, Valerian and 

ELSNER, Josef Xaver (1769-1854) : 
b. Grottkau, d. Warsaw; violinist and 
composer. In 1799 he went to Warsaw, 
where in 1816 he directed a School of 
Song and Declamation, which afterward 
became the Warsaw Conservatory. He 
wrote 19 operas, 3 symphonies, 6 string 
quartets, etc., beside treatises on rhythm 
and metre in the Polish language. 

ELSON (1) Louis Charles (1848-) : 
b. Boston, Mass.; pupil of Kreissmann 
(singing) and Hamann (piano) in Bos- 
ton, Gloggner-Castelli (theory) in Leip- 
zig ; professor of theory at the New Eng- 
land Cons, since 1882; editor 'Musical 
Herald,' then critic on Boston 'Courier,' 
'Advertiser,' etc.; author (or editor) of 
many books on musical history, aes- 
thetics and pedagogy, notably 'History of 
American Music' (2nd ed. 1916), as 
well as joint editor of the series 'Great 
Composers and Their Works.' Ref.: 
(on early American music) IV. 2, 32; 
(cited) IV. 97; (quoted) IV. 99; (on 
American patriotic songs) IV. 320, 324. 
(2) Arthur (1873- ): b. Boston; 
studied at New England Cons.; author 
of a number of books on music and 
musicians (1901-16). 

ELSSLER (1) Fanny (1810-1888) : b. 
Gumpendorf, d. Vienna; famous ballet 
dancer in Berlin, London, Paris and 
America. Ref.: X. 151, 155ff. (2) The- 
resa (d. Meran, 1878) : dancer and mor- 
ganatic wife of Adelbert of Prussia. 

ELSTER, Daniel (1796-1857) : b. 
Benshausen, d. Wettingen, near Baden; 
student of medicine and of music; 
teacher of the latter at Baden, Brem- 
garten and Wettingen, writer of text- 
books and composer of choruses. 

ELTERLEIN. See Gottschald. 

ELVEY (1) Stephen (1805-1860) : b. 
Canterbury, d. Oxford; organist of New 
College, director of music in the Uni- 
versity there; composer of songs and 
religious music. (2) [Sir] George Job 
(1816-1893): b. Canterbury, d.Windle- 
sham, Surrey; organist of St. George's 
Chapel, Windsor; composer of church 

ELWART, Antoine Aimable iSlie 
(1808-1877): b. Paris, d. there; com- 
poser and author; was a chorister at 
St. Eustache; at thirteen was appren- 
ticed to a box-maker, but he ran away 
and became violinist in a small thea- 
tre. He studied composition under Fe- 
tis at the Conservatoire. In 1828, while 
a pupil of Lesueur, he founded Con- 
certs a" emulation which lasted six years; 
in 1831 he received the Grand Prix de 
Rome. From 1836-1871 he was asso- 
ciated with the Conservatoire as teacher 
(Gouvy, Grisar, Weckerlin studied with 
him). His compositions include sym- 
phonies, overtures, chamber music, vo- 
cal and instrumental church music. 
Among his 16 books on musical sub- 



jects are Histoire de la Societe des Con- 
certs du Conservatoire (1860), Feuille 
harmonique (1841), Le contrepoint et 
la fugue appliques au style ideal and 
Histoire des concerts populaires (1864). 
ELWES, Gervase Cary (1866- ) : 
b. Northampton; diplomat who aban- 
doned that field for music; tenor known 
in Europe and America as a singer oi 

ELWYN, Earl of. Ref.: VI. 401. 
EMERSON (1) Luther Orlando 
(1820- ) : b. Parsonsfield, Mass. ; com- 
poser of sacred songs and compiler of 
5 collections. (2) Ralph Waldo. Ref.: 
(quoted on Elssler) X. 155. 

EMERY, Stephen Albert (1841- 
1891) : b. Paris, Maine; d. Boston; stud. 
Leipzig Cons., and with Spindler at 
Dresden; teacher in New England Con- 
servatory and Boston University, 1867; 
member of the faculty of Boston Univ., 
associate editor Musical Herald and au- 
thor of 'Foundation Studies in Piano 
Playing,' and 'Elements of Harmony' 
(1880, 2nd. ed. 1907). He composed 
piano sonatas, string quartets, choruses, 
etc. Ref.: IV. 334; portrait, IV. 332. 

EMMANUEL, Maurice (1862- ): 

b. Bar-sur-Aube ; studied at the Con- 
servatoire and later specialized in mu- 
sical history under Gevaert in Brussels; 
professor at the Conservatoire since 
1910; joint editor of Rameau's works, 
pub. by Durand; won the Academie 
prize with a Histoire de la langue mu- 
sicale (2 vols., Paris, 1911); wrote 
many other valuable works on music, 
and has composed instrumental pieces, 
songs, etc. 

EMMERICH, Robert (1836-1891) : 
b. Hanau, d. Baden-Baden; abandoned 
law and the army for music; produced 
3 operas in Darmstadt, conducted the 
city theatre at Magdeburg, directed the 
New Singing Society in Stuttgart, and 
has composed besides 2 symphonies, 
a cantata, etc. 

EMMETT, Daniel D. (19th cent.) : 
American negro minstrel, composer of 
'Dixie.' Ref.: IV. 316, 318, 327f. 

[DEL] ENCINA, Juan (1469-ca. 
1534) : b. Encina, near Salamanca, d. 
Salamanca; court poet and composer 
to Duke of Alba; called the 'father of 
Spanish drama' and precursor of the 
oratorio by virtue of his sacred repre- 
sentaciones or autos; also composer 
of solo songs and part-songs. 

ENDE (1) Heinrich von (1858- 
1904): b. Essen-on-Ruhr, d. Cologne; 
music publisher, writer and composer 
of songs and piano pieces. (2) Amelia 
von (nee Kremper) (1856- ) : b. 
Warsaw, Poland; pianist, composer 
and teacher; studied at the War- 
saw Cons, and in Milwaukee and 
Chicago; taught in Milwaukee, Chi- 
cago and New York; lecturer on 
musical history, Von Ende School 
of Music; correspondent for the 
Musikalische Wochenblatt, Leipzig; 
contributor to 'Musical Courier' and 


other musical journals; composed 'Four 
Songs for Medium Voice' (Berlin, 1899) 
and many other songs in MS.; also so- 
los for violin and piano; pub. 'New 
York' (Berlin, 1909); contributor to 
'The Art of Music' (1916). (3) Her- 
wegh von (1877- ): b. Milwaukee; 
violinist; studied at American Cons, 
of Music, Chicago, with Bernhard 
Ziehn and Josef Vilim, Chicago, and 
with Carl Halir, Anton Witek and 
Ernst Eduard Taubert in Berlin; teach- 
er at American Cons, of Music, 1893; 
1st violin Berlin Philharmonic Orch. ; 
concerts in U. S., 1899-1900; director of 
violin department, American Institute 
of Applied Music, New York, 1903-10; 
organized von Ende Violin School, 1910, 
von Ende School of Music, 1911, von 
Ende String Quartet, 1907; member 
Rubner-von Ende-Altschuler Trio. 

EIVDLER (or Enderle, or Ender- 
lein), Wilhelm Gottfried (1722-1793) : 
b. Bayreuth, d. Darmstadt; conductor 
and composer of unpublished con- 
certos, orch. suites, symphonies, etc.; 
pub. violin duets and 2 symphonies. 

ENESCO, Georges (1881- ): b, 

Cordaremi, Bumania; violinist and 
composer, pupil of Hellmesberger in 
Vienna, Marsick (violin) and Faure 
(comp.) at the Paris Cons., composer of 
violin sonatas, suites, string quintet, 
Poeme roumain for orch., symphony, 
symph. suite, etc. Ref.: VII. 46G. 

ENGEL (1) Johann Jakob (1741- 
1802) : b. Parchim, Mecklenburg; d. 
there; teacher and theatre director in 
Berlin; author of uber die musicalische 
Mahlerey, an operatic text, etc. (2) 
David Hermann (1816-1877) : b. Neu- 
ruppin, d. Merseburg; teacher of music 
in Berlin; teacher and organist in the 
Merseburg Cathedral and cathedral 
school; composer for the organ and 
author of three books on organ and 
choir instruction. (3) Carl (1818- 
1882): b. Thiedewiese, near Hanover; 
d. Kensington, London; an accepted 
and valued authority on the history 
of musical instruments and European 
folk-song; the author of 10 books, con- 
tributor to the 'Musical Times,' etc. He 
published 'The Music of the Most Ancient 
Nations' (1864, 2nd ed., 1870) ; 'An In- 
troduction to the Study of National 
Music' (1866) ; 'Musical Instruments of 
All Countries' (1869); 'A Descriptive 
Catalogue of the Musical Instruments 
in the South Kensington Museum' 
(1874); 'Catalogue of the Special Ex- 
hibition of Ancient Musical Instru- 
ments' (2nd ed., 1873); 'Musical Myths 
and Facts' (1876, 2 vols.) ; 'The Lit- 
erature of National Music' (1879) ; 'Re- 
searches into the Early History of the 
Violin-Family' (1883) ; 'The Pianist's 
Handbook' (1853) ; 'Reflections on 
Church Music for Churchgoers' (1856). 
Ref.: (quoted) I. 13, 16, 70, 80; IV. 
446f. (4) Gustav Eduard (1823-1895) : 
b. Konigsberg, d. Berlin; philologist, 
gymnasium teacher, then teacher or 


Engelbert von Admont 

singing at Kullak's Academy and the 
Royal High School for Music. He 
wrote books and essays on singing, 
musical aesthetics, analysis, and was 
critic for various Berlin newspapers. 
(5) Pierre £mile (1847- ): b. 

Paris; operatic tenor; sang New Or- 
leans, Brussels, and Paris. (6) Julius 
Diniitrievitch (1868- ) : b. Berd- 
jansk, Taurida; noted music critic and 
contributor to music-lexicons. 

cent.): d. Admont, 1331; theoretician, 
author of De musica (Gerbert, Scrip- 
tores, ii). 

ENGELBRECHT, C. F. (1817- 
1868) : b. Kyritz, d. Havelberg; com- 
poser of many valued compositions for 
the organ. 

ENGELMANN (1) Gcorj? (17th 
cent.) : director of music at Leipzig; 
prod. 3 books of 5-part paduans, gal- 
liards, etc. (2) C. See Kaffka. 

ENGELSBERG, E. S. See Schon, 

ENGLANDER, Ludwig (19th cent.) : 
German-American composer of light 
operas. Ref.: IV. 461f. 

ENGLEPRIEB, George and 
Charles: contemp. American organ 
builders. Ref.: VI. 410. 

ENNA, August (1860- ): b. 

Nakskov, Denmark; studied the violin 
alone in Copenhagen; toured in an 'in- 
ternational' orchestra; prod, the oper- 
etta, 'A Village Tale,' and published an 
orchestral suite and a symphony; 
through Gade's patronage he received 
the Ancker scholarship for German 
study. Since then his compositions 
include 7 operas (prod, with success), 
2 ballets, a violin concerto, 2 sympho- 
nies, Mdrchen (symph. pictures), piano 
pieces and songs. Ref.: III. 73f. 

ENOCH, Frederick. Ref.: VI. 182. 

ENOCH & Co.: 19th cent, music 
publishing house in London. 

ENSTONE, Edward (18th cent): 
English organist; musical pioneer in 
America. Ref.: IV. 24f. 

EPHORUS, Greek writer, 1st cent. 
B.C. Ref.: (cited) I. 95. 

[I/] EPINE, Francesca Margerita 
de (17th cent.) : Italian wife of Dr. 
Pepusch; sang and played the harpsi- 
chord. Maria Gallia, her sister, was 
also a singer. 

EPSTEIN (1) Julius (1832- ): 

b. Agram; pianoforte professor; stud- 
ied with Lichtenegger, Halm, Rufi- 
natscha; taught at the Vienna Conserva- 
tory. (2) Rudolfine: daughter of (1) ; 
'cellist. (3) Eugenia: daughter of 
(1) ; violinist in Austria and Germany. 
(4) Richard (1869- ): b. Vienna; 
son of (1); noted as an accompanist. 

fiRARD (1) Sebastien .(1752-1831); 
b. Strassburg, d. near Passy; of Ger- 
man descent, the founder of the Erard 
harp and pianoforte firm in England 
and France; patronized by Duchess of 
Villeroi and Louis XVI. The first 
French pianoforte was made by him 


in 1777. He invented the clavecin me- 
chanique, the piano organise and the 
harp a fourchette and made important 
improvements in the mechanism of 
harp and piano (q.v.) Ref.: II. 163, 
198; VII. 157. (2) Jean Baptiste 
was associated with him in the firm. 
After his death his nephew, Pierre E., 
took charge of the firm and was suc- 
ceeded by Pierre Schaffer, then by 
Count de Franqueville. 

B.C.) : b. Cyrene, d. Alexandria; director 
of the Alexandrian Library, writer on 
Greek music and instruments. 

ERB, Maria Josef (1860- ): b. 
Strassburg, Alsatia; student of church 
music in Paris; organist, pianist and 
teacher in Strassburg, composer of 
five operas, a Singspiel, a tone poem, 
songs, a symphony, violin sonata, or- 
gan pieces, piano pieces, a mass, etc. 
See Addenda. 

ERBACH, Christian (ca. 1570- 
1635): b. Algesheim, Hesse; d. Augs- 
burg; organist of the latter city, com- 
poser of important motets and organ 
pieces. Ref.: VI. 431. 

ERBEN (1) Balthasar (17th cent.- 
1686) : organist and conductor in Wei- 
mar and at Danzig; teacher and com- 
poser of instrumental part songs, pre- 
served in manuscript in Berlin Royal 
Library. (2) Robert (1862- ) : b. 
Troppau; operatic composer. In 1895 
he produced 'Enoch Arden' at Frank- 
f ort-on-Main ; the following year a 
fairy comedy at Mayence. He lives in 

(1848-1905): b. Nuremberg, d. Munich; 
court conductor at Sondershausen, con- 
ductor in Moscow, Bremen, Munich and 
St. Petersburg (Imp. Russian Mus. 
Soc.) ; court conductor and teacher at 
the Academy in Munich, 1897-98; com- 
poser of choral works, overture, piano 
pieces and songs. He married (2) 
Pauline Fichtner (Oprawill), pianist, 
teacher and composer. 

ERGO, Emil (1853- ): b. Sel- 
seazeate; studied in Holland, Antwerp, 
and at the Conservatoire ; has conducted 
male choruses; music teacher at Ixelles 
les Bruxelles ; writer of works on theory 
and contributor to musical publica- 

ERHARD (or Erhardi), Laurentius 
(16th cent.): h. Hagenu, Alsace; cantor 
at Frankf ort-on-Main ; author of a 
chorale book and a Compendium Mu- 

ERK (1) Adam Wilhelm (1770- 
1820): b. Herpf, near Meiningen; 
d. Darmstadt; organist in Wetzlar, 
Worms, Frankfort-on-Main and Darm- 
stadt; composer for organ and collector 
of school songs. (2) Ludwig Chris- 
tian (1807-1883): b. Wetzlar, d. Berlin; 
son of Adam (1) ; taught in Mors and in 
Berlin; director of chorus at the cathe- 
dral there and at the court chapel at 
St. Petersburg. Founder of choral so- 



cieties; pub. important compilations of 
school songs and folk-songs, notably 
Deutscher Liederhost (1856, continued by 
F. M. Bohme, 1893-94, 4 vols.). Volks- 
kldnge (male chor.),etc. (3) Friedrich 
Albrecht (1809-1878): b. Wetzlar, d. 
Diisseldorf ; associated with his brother 
(2) in the production of school song 
books and compiler of 3 collections of 

ERKEL (1) Franz (1810-1893): b. 
Gyula, d. Pesth; conductor of Pesth na- 
tional theatre and of Hungarian male 
choral societies; composer of 9 Hun- 
garian operas and Hungarian folk 
songs. Ref.: III. 190. (2) Julius 
(1842-1909): b. Pesth; son of Franz 
(1); teacher. (3) Alexander (1843- 
1900): b. Budapest, d. Bekes-Czabra ; 
composer of 4 operettas, operatic con- 
ductor and general musical director. 
(4) Ladislaus (1844-1896) : music 
teacher in Pressburg. 

ERLANGER (1) Julius (1830- ): 
b. Weissenburg, Alsace; composer. He 
studied at the Conservatoire, has writ- 
ten for the piano; comp. a few operet- 
tas; lives in England. (2) Gustav 
(1842-1908): b. Halle, d. Frankfort-on- 
Main; composer. He studied with 
Beinecke at Leipzig, and spent his life 
at Frankfort, where he wrote pieces for 
orchestra, choir and piano. (3) Camille 
(1863- ): b. Paris; composer. He 
studied at the Conservatoire under Ma- 
thias, Durand, Taudau and Bazille; 
received the Prix de Rome in 1888. He 
is the composer of orchestral works, 
songs, operas, a Bequiem and a sym- 
phonic poem. (4) Friedrich. See 
[d']Erlanger, Frederic. (5) Ludwig: 
composer of a ballet, Der Teufel im 
Pensionat (Vienna, 1894), and an opera, 
Ritter Olaf (ib., 1901). (6) Viktor: 
composer of an operetta prod, in Vi- 
enna, 1901. 

[d»] ERLANGER, Baron Frederic 
(nom de plume, Frederic Begnal) 
(1868- ): b. Paris; composer of 
operas; prod. Noel (Paris, 1912; Chi- 
cago, 1913) ; also wrote instr. music. 

ERLEBACH, Philipp Heinrich 
(1657-1714): b. Esens. d. Budolstadt; 
court conductor there, disciple of Lully. 
His compositions include religious and 
secular arias with accompaniments, or- 
chestral suites, cantatas, compositions 
for the organ, etc. 

ERLER, Hermann (1844- ): b. 
Badeberg, near Dresden; founder of 
music publishing firm, editor of a Ber- 
lin music journal, and critic on Ber- 
liner Fremdenblatt. Clara, his daugh- 
ter, married Felix Senius; she was 
known as a concert soprano and her 
husband as a tenor. 

ERNST (1) Franz Anton (1745- 
1805) : b. Georgenthal, Bohemia; d. 
Gotha; virtuoso on violin, court con- 
ductor at Gotha and composer of vio- 
lin concertos. He wrote for Allge- 
meine Musikalische Zeitung, 1805, 


Wilhelm (1814-1865): b. Briinn, d. 
Nice ; violinist, trained under Bohm and 
May seder; composer of popular concert 
pieces and known through his frequent 
concert tours, especially in Paris. 
Ref.: I. 460; VII. 445. (3) Heinrich 
(1846- ): b. Dresden; nephew of 
Heinrich Wilhelm (2) ; studied at the 
Cons, of Budapest and with Bebling; 
tenor in the Berlin Boyal Opera since 
1875. (4) Alfred (1860-1898): b. Pe- 
rigueux, d. Paris; son of (2); con- 
tributor to Rivista Italiana and Revue 
encyclopedique ; writer on the dramatic 
art of Berlioz and of Wagner. 

ERNST II, Duke of Saxe-Coburg- 
Gotha (1818-1893): b. Coburg, d. Bein- 
hardsbrunn; composer of 5 operas, 2 
operettas, songs, cantatas, etc.; wrote 
an autobiography. 

ERRANI, Achille (1823-1897): b. 
Italy, d. New York; pupil of Vaccai, 
singing teacher and tenor in New York. 

ERRERA, Huso (1843- ): b. 
Venice; composer of piano pieces and 
songs; member of the council of the 
Liceo Benedetto Marcello. 

ERTEL, Jean Paul (1865- ): b. 
Posen; pianist, teacher of music, 
critic, editor, and composer. He stud- 
ied with Tauwitz, Brassin, and Liszt. 
He became Dr. jur. in Berlin, taught 
music there and contributed to various 
journals. He wrote a symphony, 6 
symphonic poems, a violin concerto 
chamber music, an opera, songs, etc. 

ERTMANN, Dorothea von (1778- 
1848): d. Milan, pianist; friend of 

ESCHENBACH, Wolfram von: 
Minnesinger. Ref.: IX. 281. 

ESCHENBURG, Johann Joachim 
(1743-1820): translator of Italian and 
English librettos, also of various 
books on music, including those of 
Webbe and Burney; author of Entwurf 
einer Theorie und Literatur der scho- 
nen Redekunste. 

ESCHMANN (1) Johann Karl 
(1826-1882): b. Winterthur, d. Zurich; 
writer of text-books and exercises for 
piano. (2) Carl E.-Dumur (1835- 
1913) : b. Wadenswil, near Zurich, d. 
Lausanne, teacher, author of a pianist's 
guide and technical work. 

ESCOBEDO, Bartolomeo (16th 
cent.): b. Zamore, d. Segovia; singer 
in papal choir; arbitrator in discus- 
sion regarding the chromatic and en- 
harmonic mode; composer of motets, 
extant both in print and in manuscript. 

ESCRIBANO, Juan (16th cent.): 
Spanish composer of church music 
(motet and Magnificat preserved), for 
38 years singer in the Papal choir. 

ESCUDIER (1) Marie (1819-1890): 
brother and partner of (2) Leon 
(1821-1881): both brothers were born 
at Castelnaudary, Aude; both died in 
Paris. They were journalists, con- 
tributors to political newspapers, and 
editors of La France musicale, Le Pays, 

Vber den Rail der Geige. (2) Heinrich. I and biographical and musical diction 



aries. They founded a music firm 
and pub. works of Verdi, but parted 
in 1862. Leon retained the publishing 
house and published L'Art musical, 
while Marie continued La France 
musicale to 1870. 

ESLAVA, Don Miguel Hilario 
(1807-1878): b. Burlada, Navarre, d. 
Madrid; church conductor at Ossuna, 
Seville, and at the court of Queen Isa- 
bella; professor and director in Royal 
Conservatory; composed church music, 
3 operas, organ pieces, and wrote text- 
books; edited valuable collections. 

ESPAGNE, Franz (1828-1878) : b. 
Minister, Westphalia, d. Berlin; pupil 
of Dehn and his successor in the Royal 
Library in Berlin; director of music 
and editor of the complete works 
of Beethoven and Palestrina, also 
3 symphonies of Carl Philip Emanuel 

ESPINOSA, Juan de (16th cent.): 
Spanish composer of ballades, etc.; 
wrote a treatise on principles of 
musical practice and theory. 

ESPOSITO (1) Michele (1855- ) : b. 
Castellamare, near Naples; professor 
of pianoforte at Royal Music Academy, 
Dublin, after study in Naples and 
Paris; founder of orchestral societies, 
chamber musician, composer of string 
quartets, 2 symphonies, orchestral suite, 
rhapsodies, fantasies, and 3 operas 
produced in St. Petersburg and Mos- 
cow. (2) E.: contemp. Russian operetta 
composer. Ref.: III. 155. 

ESSER (1) Helnrich (1818-1872): 
b. Mannheim, d. Salzburg; conductor 
of concerts in Mannheim and Salzburg 
and theatres at Mannheim, Vienna, and 
of the court opera there. His compo- 
sitions include works for orchestra and 
chorus, also 3 operas. (2) Cateau 
(1859- ): b. Amsterdam; studied at 
Frankfort-on-Main and in Paris; di- 
rector of Verecniging tot Beoefening van 
vocale en dramatiche Kunst. 

ESSIPOFF, Annette (1851-1914) : b. 
St. Petersburg; wife of Leschetizky, 
with whom she had studied; pianist in 
Russia, London, Paris, America, and 
Vienna, where she made her home. 

ESTE (Est, East, or Easte) (1) 
Thomas (ca. 1550-1609) : London music 
printer; pub. 'The Whole Rooke of 
Psalmes,' containing 4-part settings by 
various composers, also works of Ryrd, 
Morley and Weelkes. (2) Michael (d. 
Litchfield, ca. 1638) : composer of mad- 
rigals, pastorals, anthems, glees and 
instrumental pieces. 

ESTERHAZY, Princes Nikolaus 
and Anton: patrons of music. The 
former was friend as well as patron of 
Haydn. Ref.: II. 87, 88, 92; VI. 335; 
VII. 496; VIII. 95; IX. 119. 

ESTERLEY, George (18th cent): 
early American musical promoter. 
Ref.: W. 75. 

ETT, Caspar (1788-1847): b. Ere- 
sing, near Landsberg, Bavaria; d. 
Munich; court organist at St. Michaels, 


Munich; reformer and composer of 
Catholic church music; author of a 
singing method. Ref.: VI. 323. 

EUCLID (Euklides), the great Greek 
mathematician living at Alexandria ca. 
300 B. C, wrote a tract, Sectio canonis, 
reprinted by Pena (Paris, 1557), Mei- 
bom (1651) and recently by Karl von 
Jan (in Scriptores). An Introductio 
harmonica has also been ascribed to 
him, but is probably by Kleoneides 
(q.v.), being based on the doctrine of 

EULENBURG (1) Ernst (1847-) : 
b. Berlin; founder of music publishing 
firm publishing since 1892 the Payne 
miniature score edition, etc. (2) 
Philipp, Count zu (1847- ): b. 
Konigsberg; poet, composer of songs; 
German ambassador in Vienna. 

EULENSTEIN, Charles (1802-[?]): 
b. Heilbronn, Wurttemberg; virtuoso on 
Jew's harp and guitar. 

EULER, Leonhardt (1707-1783) : b. 
Bassel, d. St. Petersburg; theorist. He 
taught mathematics at St. Petersburg 
and at Berlin and wrote on the acous- 
tics of music in various treatises, in 
which he has introduced the use of 
logarithms to determine pitch. 

EUMOLPOS, Greek priest. Ref.: I. 

EURIPIDES, Greek dramatist. Ref.: 
I. 120. 

EUSEBIUS, Bishop of Cesserea. Ref.: 
I. 139f. 

EUTERPE: the Greek muse of 
lytac poetry, especially the patron god- 
dess of flutists. 

EUTING, Ernst (1874- ): b. 

London; pupil in Berlin of Royal High 
School and University; wrote essays 
on the history of 16th and 17th cent, 
wind instruments; founder of Deutsche 
Instrumenten-Bau Zeitung. 

EVANS (1) Charles Smart (1778- 
1849): d. London; chorister in Chapel 
Royal, altist and composer of glees, 
for which he received several prizes. 
He was also organist in St. Paul's. (2) 
David Emlyn (1843-1913) : b. near 
Newcastle Emlyn, Wales, d. London; 
editor of Gaelic journals, including 
Y Cerddor; pub. a 2 vol. collection of 
Gaelic Melodies. 

EVERARD, Camille - Francois 

(1825-[?]): b. Dinante, Belgium; pupil 
at Liege, Paris, and Naples conserva- 
tories; basso cantante in Naples, Vi- 
enna, St. Petersburg, Madrid; profes- 
sor in Cons, of St. Petersburg and 
(1890) in Kieff. 

EVERS, Karl (1819-1875): b. Ham- 
burg, d. Vienna; pianist and composer. 
He studied under Schmitt and Krebs 
at Hamburg and in Leipzig under Men- 
delssohn; toured Europe, and lived in 
Paris and Vienna. His compositions 
include 4 piano sonatas and 12 'songs 
without words' characterizing different 

EVESHAM, Monk of. See Oding- 




EWEIJCK, Arthur Henry van 

(1866- ) : b. Milwaukee; baritone 
singer in concerts in Berlin, where he 
studied with Felix Schmidt. 

EWER & Co. A music publishing 
firm, founded by John J. Ewer, which 
acquired the sole rights of many of 
Mendelssohn's compositions. After sev- 
eral changes of hands, it was bought 
in 1860 by Wm. Witt and incorporated 
with the firm of Novello & Co. and 
exists to-day as Novello, Ewer & Co. 

(1729-1808): b. Valencia, d. Rome; 
Jesuit theoretician; author of Dell' 
origine e delle regole della musica colla 
storia del suo progresso, decadenza e 
rinovazione, which elicited a riposta of 
Padre Martini, combated in turn by E. 

EXPERT, Henri (1863- ): b. 

Bordeaux; studied with Niedermeyer, 
Franck and Gigout. He has taught at 
the ficole Nationale de Musique Glas- 
sique, lectured at the Ecole des Hautes 
Etudes Sociales, and founded (with E. 
Maury) in 1903 the Societe d'fitudes 
Musicales et Concerts Historiques. His 
whole life has been devoted to a pro- 
digious production, an edition of the 
French and Flemish music of the 15th. 


and 16th centuries. The collections 
have been divided into six classes: 
I. Les Maitres-Musiciens de la Renais- 
sance francaise; II. Bibliographic the- 
matique; III. Les Theoriciens de la 
musique au temps de la Renaissance; 
IV. Sources du corps de I'art franco- 
flamand de musique des XV e et XV/ e 
siecles; V. Commentaires ; VI. Extraits 
des Maitres-Musiciens. Besides these, he 
has published a Huguenot psalter, etc. 

EYBLER, Joseph (1765-1846): b. 
Schwechat, near Vienna; d. Schon- 
brunn, near Vienna; director and com- 
poser. He studied with Albrechtsber- 
ger, Haydn and Mozart; held positions 
in Vienna as choir director and Im- 
perial first Kapellmeister, and was dis- 
tinguished as a composer of church 
music, masses, offertories, etc. 

EYKEN (or Eykens). See Eijken, 
or Eijkens. 

EYMIEU, Henri (1860- ): b. 
Sail Ions Drome, France; writer and 
critic in Paris; composed piano pieces; 
violin, 'cello or harmonium duets; an 
orchestral hymn, Un mariage sous 
Neron (prod, in Paris, 1898), and an 
oratorio (Asnieres, 1898). 

EYSLER. See Eisler. 



FABER (1) Jacobus. See Le- 

febvre. (2) Nikolaus (14th cent.) : 
founder of famous family of organ 
builders; priest in Halberstadt, where 
he constructed the first German organ. 
(3) [Magister] Heinrich ([?]-1552): 
b. Lichtenfels, d. olsnitz; wrote a 
Compendiolum musicee and a 'Practical 
Introduction.' (4) Benedikt (early 
17th cent.) : composer at Coburg of 
Psalms, cantiones, etc. 

FABIO. See Ursillo. 

PABRI (1) Stefano [il maggiore] 
(16th cent.) : conductor in Rome. (2) 
Stefano W minore] (1606-1658): con- 
ductor and composer. (3) Annibale 
PIo [detto Balino] (1697-1760): b. Bo- 
logna, d. Lisbon; studied with Pistoc- 
chi; tenor and composer; favored by 
Emperor Charles VI and other princes; 
sang in Handel's Tolomeo, in London, 

FABRICIUS (1) of Aquapendente 
(16th cent.) : early investigator of vocal 
physiology. Ref.: V. 55f. (2) Werner 
(1633-1679): b. Itzehoe, Holstein; d. 
Leipzig, studied law, became advocate, 
but at the same time organist of St. 
Thomas', Leipzig, and musical director 
of St. Paul's; pub. Deliciae harmoniae 
(5-part partitas, 1657), sacred songs, 4- 
part arias, dialogue concertos (1662), 
etc., and a Manductio to thorough bass 
(1675) . (3) Johann Albert (1668-1736) : 
b. Leipzig, d. Hamburg; professor of 
elocution at Hamburg, author of three 
treatises valuable in musical history. 

FACCIO, Franco (1841-1891): b. 
Verona, d. Monza; studied at Milan 
Conservatory, to which he returned as 
professor of harmony in 1868. He 
ranks high among Italian operatic com- 
posers for the originality of his style; 
he conducted with success in Milan 
and London. Besides operas, he wrote 
a symphony, a cantata and two sets 
of songs. He was a friend, fellow- 
student and collaborator of Boito. 

FAELTEN, Carl (1846- ): b. 

Ilmenau; studied with Montag and 
Schock, and at Arnstadt; pianist and 
teacher in the Hoch Conservatory at 
Frankfort, at the Peabody Institute of 
Baltimore and the New England Con- 
servatory of Boston. In Boston he 
founded in 1897 the Faelten Piano- 
forte School for teachers, which he still 
directs. He has written pedagogical 
works (piano). Ref.: IV. 248. 

PAGE. See Lafage. 

FAGGE, Arthur: contemporary Eng- 
lish conductor. Ref.: III. 422. 


FAGO, Nicolo (1674-1740): b. Ta- 
rento, d. Naples; composer of ora- 
torios, cantatas, operas and masses. 
He was called, after his birthplace, 
II Tarentino. He studied with Scarlatti 
and Provenzale, whom he succeeded 
at the Cons, de' Turchini. He taught, 
among others, Leonardo Leo and Jom- 

FAHRBACH (1) Josef (1804-1883): 
b. Vienna, d. there; performer on flute 
and guitar and composer of concerti 
for flute. (2) Philipp, Sr. (1815-1885) : 
b. Vienna, d. there; director and com- 
poser of dance music and two operas. 

(3) Wilhelm (1838-1866): b. Vienna, 
d. there; composer of dance music. 

(4) Philipp, Jr. (1840-1894): b. Vi- 
enna, d. there; composer of dance mu- 
sic and bandmaster. 

FXHRMANN, Ernst Hans (I860-): 
b. Beicha; cantor and organist in Dres- 
den, where he taught the organ at the 
Cons, and composed organ-concerti, so- 
natas, etc. Ref.: VI. 487. 

FAIGNIENT, Noe (ca. 1570 in Ant- 
werp) : composer in Lasso's style; wrote 
arias, motets, madrigals, etc. 

FAIRCHILD, Blair (1877- ) : b. 

Belmont, Mass.; composer living in 
New York and Paris; wrote orchestral 
sketches, chamber music, choral works 
(with orchestra and a cappella) and 
songs. Ref.: TV. 432f ; mus. ex., XIV. 307. 

FAIRFAX. See Fayrfax. 

FAIRLAMB, J. Remington (1837- 
1908): b. Philadelphia, d. New York; 
after studying in Paris and Florence 
he returned to America as organist in 
Philadelphia and New York. 

FAISST (1) Immanuel Gottlob 
Friedrich (1823-1894) : b. Essligen, 
Wurttemberg, d. Stuttgart; abandoned 
theology for music, in which he was 
self-educated; toured as organ virtuoso, 
1846; in Stuttgart founded the Society 
for Classical Church Music, 1849, and 
with Lebert, the Cons., where he 
taught organ and in 1859 became di- 
rector, also acting as organist at the 
Stiftskirche. He composed organ pieces, 
songs, part-songs, male choruses, 
motets, cantatas, etc., and edited, 
with Lebert and Billow, Cotta's issue 
of piano classics; wrote Elementar- 
und Chorgesangschule (2 parts) and a 
historical essay on the piano sonata. 
His harmony method was perpetu- 
ated by Percy Goetschius. Ref.: VI. 
463. (2) Klara. See Addenda. 

FALCON, Marie Cornelie (1812- 
1897): b. Paris, d. there; studied at 



the Conservatoire; operatic soprano; 
debut, 1832, at the Opera; created roles 
of Mrs. Ankerstroem in Gustaue 111, 
Morgiana in Ali Baba, Rachel in La 
Juive, Valentine in Les Huguenots, and 

FALDIX, Guido: studied in Son- 
dershausen, Charlottenburg, Berlin 
Univ., Rostock and Heidelberg; di- 
rector at Rostock Cons, and wrote on 
aesthetic effect of intervals, etc. 

FALK-MEHLIG, Anna (1846- ) : 
b. Stuttgart; studied at the Cons, there, 
then with Liszt; pianist in concert 
tours in Germany, England and Amer- 
ica; then settled at the Wurttemberg 

FALKENBERG, Georges (1854-) : 
b. Paris; studied there with Mathias, 
Durand and Massenet; teacher and com- 
poser for pianoforte, author of a trea- 
tise on piano pedals. 

PALKENFLETH, Haagen. Ref.: 
(quoted on Jorgen-Jensen) X. 165. 

FALL, Leo (1873- ): b. Olmiitz, 
studied at Vienna Cons., conductor at 
theatres of Berlin, Hamburg and Co- 
logne; now in Vienna as composer of 
popular operettas (11 prod., Vienna, 
Berlin, London, etc., to 1914), includ- 
ing 'The Dollar Princess' (1907), 'Eter- 
nal Waltz' (1912), etc.; also prod. 2 op- 
eras, Frau Denise (1902) and lrrlicht. 
FAL.L.ER, Nikola (1862- ) : b. 

Ivanowetz, Croatia; studied with Bruck- 
ner, Massenet and Delibes; taught at 
Agram Cons., opera director, composer. 
FALTIN, Richard Friedrich 
(1835- ): b. Danzig; studied there 
with Markull, at Dessau and at Leip- 
zig Cons.; since 1869 conductor of op- 
era and symphony concerts at Helsing- 
fors, Finland, organ professor at the 
Cons., pub. songs, choruses, chorale 
books, etc. 

FAL.TIS, Emanuel (1847-1900): b. 
Lanzow, Bohemia; d. Breslau; con- 
ductor of municipal theatres of Ulm, 
Stettin, Riga, Lubeck, Basel and 
Bremen; court conductor for 14 years 
at Coburg, for which he composed 
masses and church music. He died 

FAMINZIJf, Alexandrovitch Ser- 
gievitch (1841-1896): b. Kaluga, Rus- 
sia, d. Ligovo, near St. Petersburg; 
studied in the University of St. Peters- 
burg and with Hauptmann, Richter and 
Moscheles in Leipzig; professor for two 
years at the Conservatory of St. Peters- 
burg; secretary of the Russian Musical 
Society; composed 2 unsuccessful op- 
eras, instrumental music, including a 
'Russian Rhapsody' for violin and or- 
chestra. He wrote 'Songs for Russian 
Children' and published research work 
on Russian folk-songs, instruments, 

FANCIULLI, Francesco (1853- 
1915) : b. Porto San Stefano, Tuscany, 
d. New York; studied music in Flor- 
ence; operatic conductor in Italy; suc- 
ceeded Sousa as conductor of the Ma- 


rine Band, Washington, 1893; composed 
2 grand operas and 2 comic operas. 

FANELLI, Ernest (1861- ): vio- 
linist in cafes and dance halls, whose 
Tableaux Symphoniques, written in 
1886, and based on Gautier's 'Romance 
of a Mummy,' was produced by the 
Colonne orchestra with great success 
in 1912. It was shown by F. only in 
order to obtain work as a copyist. 
Ref.: III. 361. 

FANING, Eaton (1850- ) : b. 
Helston, Cornwall; studied at the Royal 
Academy of Music, where he received 
medals, scholarship and prizes; pro- 
fessor there, and at the National Train- 
ing School; performer on 'cello and 
drums; director of music at Harrow, 
conductor of choral classes at the Royal 
College of Music, of clubs and of the 
Madrigal Society. He composed 2 op- 
erettas, 2 quartets, a symphony, an 
overture, church services and orches- 
tral works. 

FARABI. See Alfarabi. 

FARINA, Carlo (early 17th cent.): 
b. Mantua; Electoral chamber musician 
at Dresden, 1625, later in Danzig and 
Italy; one of the first to write violin 
music in virtuoso style; pub. 5 
books 2 part Pavane, Gagliarde, 
Brandi, Mascherate, Arie francesi, 
Volte, Balletti, Sonate e Canzoni 
(1626-28). Ref.: VII. 382, 467 (foot- 
note) . 

FARINELLI (1) Jean Baptiste 
(1655-ca. 1720): b. Grenoble; uncle of 
the celebrated male soprano (2) ; con- 
cert-master in Hanover, 1680, player in 
orchestras at Osnabriick and Hanover, 
ennobled by the King of Denmark; app. 
minister resident to Venice by George I. 
of England (1740). Composed flute 
concertos and stage music; falsely said 
to be the author of the Folies 
d'Espagne, known in England as 'Fari- 
nelli's Ground.' His brother George 
was also a violinist and played in Lis- 
bon, Paris, and London. (2) (real 
name Carlo Broschi) (1705-1782) : b. 
Naples, d. Bologna; male soprano; 
studied with Porpora, and later with 
his rival, Bernacchi; sang in Rome, 
Venice, Vienna, Naples, Bologna and 
other cities in Italy; in 1734, he ap- 
peared in London at the opera which 
rivalled Handel's. He took London by 
storm and was the hero of opera there 
for two years, when he left for France 
and Spain. In Spain he was the fa- 
vorite of Philip and of Ferdinand VI 
and established an Italian opera in 
Madrid with himself as manager. In 
1759, upon the accession of Charles III, 
Farinelli was ordered to leave Spain 
for Boiogna, and there he retired. He 
ranked as greatest of the 18th century 
singers, with depth and richness of 
tone, and an inimitable originality of 
embellishment. Ref.: I. 398, 430f; II. 
4, 185; V. 444; portrait, V. 44. (3) 
Giuseppe (1769-1836) : b. Este, d. 
Trieste; studied with Fago, Sala and 




Tritto at a Neapolitan conservatory; 
maestro di cappella in Venice, Turin 
and Trieste; composed church music 
and operas in the style of Cimarosa. 

FARJEON, Harry (1878- ) : b. 

Hohokus, N. J.; studied (1895-1901) at 
the Royal Academy of Music, London; 
and in 1903 became professor of theory 
there; his compositions include cham- 
ber music, piano concerto, orchestral 
suite, string quartets, songs, piano 
pieces, etc., also 2 operettas. 

FARKAS, Odiin (Edward) (1852 
b. in Puszta-Monostor, Hungary, 
abandoned his course as civil engi- 
neer to study music at Pesth, and 
the year after graduation became di- 
rector of the Klausenburg Cons., Tran- 
sylvania. He has composed and suc- 
cessfully prod. 4 operas, and has 
written songs, ballads, orchestral 
works, a symphony, string-quartets, 
overtures, etc. Ref.: III. 200. 

PARMER (1) John (late 16th-early 
17th cent.) : cathedral organist in Lon- 
don and Dublin, composed a book of 
4-part madrigals (1599), contributed a 
6-part madrigal to 'The Triumphs of 
Oriana' and many tunes to Este's 
'Whole Booke of Psalmes.' Previous 
to his life in London, Farmer was 
cathedral organist in Dublin. (2) 
Thomas (d. before 1695) : English com- 
poser of instrumental music and songs, 
also of books of exercises; an ele'gy 
with words by Tate and music by 
Purcell was written upon his death. 
(3) Henry (1819-1891) : b. Nottingham, 
Eng., d. there; violinist, organist, and 
composer. Ref.: VI. 346. (4) John 
(1836-1901): b. Nottingham, d. Ox- 
ford; studied at the Leipzig Con- 
servatory and with Spath at Saxe-Co- 
burg; teacher at Zurich and at Harrow; 
organist at Balliol College, where he 
founded a musical society and popu- 
lar concerts. His compositions are 
part-songs, glees, etc., a requiem, an 
oratorio, a fairy opera, orchestral pieces 
and choruses. He edited school books 
of hymns, glees, marches, and school 

FARNABY (1) Giles (16th cent.): 
Mus. Bac. Oxon.; London composer of 
canzonets, madrigals, virginals, etc., 
contributor to books of Este and Ra- 
venscroft. (2) Richard: son of Giles; 
composed virginals preserved in the 
Fitzwilliam Virginal Book. 

FARNSWORTH, Charles Hubert 
(1859- ): b. Cesaria, Turkey; stud- 
ied organ with B. D. Allen at Worces- 
ter, Mass.; head of music department, 
Colorado Univ., 1888-1900; associate 
professor, Columbia Univ., since 1900; 
pub. 'Education Through Music' and 
various other educational books and 
articles on music. 

FARRANT (1) Richard (1530-1580) : 
Gentleman of the Chapel Royal and 
Master of the Children at Windsor; 
composed a church service, anthems, 
etc. (2) John (early 17th cent.) : Eng- 


lish organist at Ely, Hereford, Salis- 
bury cathedral and London; composed 
church music for organ. (3) Dan- 
iel (early 17th cent.) : son of Richard, 
violist in the King's band, composer 
for organ and arranger of lessons for 
the viol. 

FARRAR, Geraldine (1882- ) : b. 
Melrose, Mass.; studied with Lorenz, 
Trabadello and Lehmann; debut, as 
Marguerite in the Berlin Royal Opera; 
has sung there, throughout Europe, and 
at the Metropolitan Opera House, New 
York, in roles including Mme. Butter- 
fly, Manon, Mignon, Elizabeth, Tosca, 
Carmen, and others. She created the 
Goosegirl in the Konigskinder of Hump- 
erdinck. Ref.: IV. 151, 155; IX. 427; 
portrait, IV. 144. 

FARRENC (1) [Jacques Hippolyte] 
Aristide (1794-1865) : b. Marseilles, d. 
Paris; flutist; composer for flute, etc., 
music historian who assisted Fetis; 
wrote Les concerts de M T 
Fetis; pub. Tresor des pianistes (1861- 
72), a selection of piano music from 
the 16th cent, to Mendelssohn, with his- 
torical notes by F. and Fetis (20 vols.). 
(2) Louise, nee Duraont (1804-1875) : b. 
Paris, d. there; wife of (1); studied 
with Reicha; concert pianist, touring 
with her husband, pianoforte profes- 
sor for thirty years at the Conserva- 
toire. She composed pianoforte so- 
natas, etudes, chamber music, sympho- 
nies and overtures. She continued her 
husband's Tresor des pianistes and 
wrote a treatise on agremens. Ref. : VII. 

FARWELL, Arthur (1872- ) : b. 

St. Paul, Minn.; studied with H. A. 
Norris in Boston and with Humper- 
dinck; from 1901-1912 he conducted the 
Wa-Wan Press publication of American 
compositions; since then he has inter- 
ested himself in the growth of munici- 
pal music in parks, docks, etc., in 
New York City; director Music School 
Settlement there, since 1915. Among 
his works are orchestral pieces on 
Indian themes, the 'Cornell' overture, 
'Love Song' and the music for several 
pageants, also harmonizations of In- 
dian and Negro melodies; dept. editor 
'The Art of Music'. Ref.: IV. 226f, 310, 
410ff; 273ff; mus. ex., XrV. 282. 

FASCH (1) Johann Friedrich: 
b. Buttelstedt near Weimar, d. Zerbst; 
alumnus of the Thomasschule, Leipzig, 
under Kuhnau, 1701, entered the Univ. 
1707 and established a Collegium mu- 
sicum, for which he composed French 
overtures in the manner of Telemann. 
He prod. 3 operas in Naumburg and 
Zeitz (1710-12), studied composition in 
Darmstadt and in 1714 prod, an opera 
in Bayreuth; became conductor and 
composer to Count Morzin, and in 1722 
court Kapellmeister in Zerbst. Of F.'s 
compositions, which stamp him as one 
of the most important of Bach's con- 
temporaries, none was printed. They 
include 7 annual series of church can- 



tatas, 12 masses, 69 overtures, 21 con- 
certos, overtures (orch. suites), trio so- 
natas, quatuors, etc. (some pub. by 
Riemann). Ref.: II. 7, 8, 52, 56; VIII. 
138. (2) Carl Friedrich Christian 
(1736-1800): b. Zerbst, d. Berlin; son 
of (1) ; became 2nd. cembalist (with 
C. P. E. Bach) to Frederick the Great, 
1756, was for a time conductor of the 
Royal Opera, then taught. He founded 
and conducted the Berlin Singakademie, 
and so revived the cultivation of choral 
singing in Germany. Most of his com- 
positions were destroyed by his order; 
a 16-part mass was pub. in 1839. 

FASOLO, G. B. (17th cent.) : Italian 
composer of canzoni. Ref.: V. 160. 

PAUGUES, Vincent (15th cent.): 
Netherland composer, of whose works 
only 5 masses are preserved (Papal 
Chapel and Modena). 

FAURjfi, Gabriel [Urbain] (1845- ) : 
b. Pamiers; studied with Niedermey- 
er, Dietsch and Saint-Saens; organ- 
ist at Rennes and in Paris churches; 
after participating in the Franco-Ger- 
man war taught at the Niedermeyer 
School, and in 1877 became conductor 
at the Madeleine; succeeded Massenet 
as professor of composition at the 
Conservatoire, 1896, and Dubois as di- 
rector, 1905, and academician. He 
composed many songs, duets, piano 
pieces, sonata Berceuse, Andante for 
violin and piano, elegy, romance, sere- 
nade, etc., for 'cello and pianb, 2 piano 
quartets, a piano quintet, a violin con- 
certo, a ballade for piano and orch., 
2 orch. suites, symphony in D (MS.), 
choral works with orch., Requiem, and 
other church music, also 2 operas 
('Prometheus,' 1900, and 'Penelope,' 
1913) and an operetta L'organiste. 
Ref.: III. 291ff; songs, V. 349ff; piano 
music, VII. 352f; opera, IX. 475; mus. 
ex., XrV. 87; portrait, V. 346. See also 
individual indexes. 

PAURE, Jean Baptiste (1830- 
1914): b. Moulins, d. Paris; studied at 
the Conservatoire and with Trevaux at 
the Madeleine; first baritone at the 
Opera-Comique, where he created roles 
in operas of Grisar, Auber and Meyer- 
beer. He sang in opera in London, 
Brussels, Berlin and Vienna, where he 
was created imperial chamber singer. 
Faur6 was a good actor as well as 
singer; his wife, Mile. Lefebre, whom 
he married 1859, was a member of the 
Opera Comique. In 1857 he taught at 
the Conservatoire. He published 2 
books of songs and in 1888 a Traitt. 

FAUST, Karl (1825-1892) : b. Neisse, 
Silesia, d. Bad Cudowa; bandmaster at 
Luxemburg, Frankfort-on-Oder, Bres- 
lau; conductor of orchestra at the 
Silesian Concerts and director of mu- 
sic at Waldenburg. He wrote marches 
and dance tunes. 

FAUSTINA. See Hasse, Faustina. 

FA V ART (1) Charles Simon (1710- 
1792) : b. Paris, wrote texts of about 
150 operettas produced at the Salle 


Favart, Paris; author of Mimoires et 
correspondences litteraires (3 vols., 
1808). Ref.: II. 24, 31; IX. 42, 70, 81. 
(2) Marie Justine Dnronceray (1727- 
1772) : b. Avignon; said to have col- 
laborated with her husband (1) on his 
operettas, in the leading roles of 
which she excelled as actress and 

PAWCETT (1) John (1789-1867): 
b. Wennington, Lancashire, d. Bolton; 
abandoned the trade of a shoemaker 
for the musical profession and com- 
posed church music, still locally popu- 
lar, an oratorio, published 3 col- 
lections of psalms and hymn tunes, 
etc. (2) John, son of (1) (ca. 1824- 
1857) : b. Bolton, d. Manchester; organ- 
ist at Farnworth and Bolton; studied 
with S. Bennett at the London Royal 
Academy; Mus. B., Oxford; composed 
a cantata and other music. 

FAY (1) Amy (1844- ) : b. Bayou 
Goula, Miss.; studied with Taussig, 
Kullak and Liszt; pianist and teacher 
at Chicago and New York; published 
Music Study in Germany (1881). (2) 
C. N. (19th cent.) : Amer. musical pa- 
tron; instrumental in establishing Chi- 
cago Orchestra, 1890. Ref.: IV. 191. 

FAY, Guillanme de. See Dufay. 

FAYOLLE, Francois Joseph Marie 
(1774-1852): b. Paris, d. there; pub. 
with Choron, a Dictionnaire historique 
des musiciens (2 vols., 1810-11), also 
Notices sur Corelli, Tartini, etc. (1810), 
Sur les lyriques, etc. (1813), 
Paganini et Beriot (1830). 

FAYRFAX, Robert (ca. 1470-1521): 
organist at St. Albans' Abbey, Mus. 
D., Cambridge, 1502; Gentleman of the 
Chapel in the reign of Henry VIII, and 
attendant upon the Field of the Cloth 
of Gold; composed masses, magnificats 
and songs and was accounted first 
among English composers of his day. 

FECHNER, Gustav Theodor (1801- 
1887) : b. Gross-Sarchen, d. Leipzig; 
professor and writer on physics; wrote 
also on sound and aesthetics. 

FEDERICI, Vincenzo (1764-1827): 
b. Pesaro, d. Milan; professor of coun- 
terpoint and censor at Milan Conserva- 
tory; composed 14 serious operas, one 
comic, produced in Italy and Paris. 
He wrote also several cantatas. Ref. : IX. 

FEDERLEIN, G. H. (1835- ) : b. 

Neustadt-an-der-Aisch, near Nurhberg ; 
studied at the Conservatory at Munich; 
settled in New York, to teach and 
write. Ref.: VI. 501. 

FEINHALS, Fritz (1869- ) : b. 

Cologne; pupil of Giovanni and Selva; 
sang in Essen and Mayence and from 
1898 as heroic baritone at the Munich 
court opera. 

FELSTED, Samnel: 18th cent, com- 
poser of oratorio. Ref.: IV. 61. 

FELSTIN (or Felstinensis), Sebas- 
tian von (16th cent.) : b. Felsstyn, Ga- 
licia; student and later professor at 
the Cracow University; writer on Gre- 



gorian chant and mensural music; com- 
posed hymns. 

FELTON, [Rev.] William (1713- 
1769): b. Cambridge; composer for 
harpsichord, on which he was a dis- 
tinguished performer. 

FELTRE, Alphonse Clarke, Comte 
de (1806-1850) : b. Paris, d. there; oper- 
atic composer. 

FENAROLI, Fedele (1730-1818) : b. 
Lanciano, Abruzzi, d. Naples; studied 
with Durante at Naples, where he later 
taught Cimarosa and other distinguished 
composers; composed church music of 
simple character and a method for 
thoroughbass (1775, many editions). 

FENELL (or Ffinell) : d. 1709, Dub- 
lin; organist at St. Patrick's, Dublin; 
organist at Christ Church Cathedral; 
manuscript compositions still extant in 
the Chester Cathedral Library. 

FENTON, Lavlnia: d. Greenwich 
1760; singer and actress on London 
stage; created the part of Polly in the 
'Beggar's Opera'; afterward became the 
Duchess of Bolton. Ref.: IX. 78. 

FEO, Francesco (ca. 1685-post 
1740): b. Naples; famous opera com- 
poser of the Neapolitan school. He 
studied with Ghizzi, whom he suc- 
ceeded, in 1740, as teacher at the Naples 
Cons, della Pieta. He produced his 
first opera, L'Amor tirannico, ossia 
Zenobia, at Naples, 1713, and 5 others 
to 1731. Feo also wrote 3 intermezzi, 
an oratorio, masses, and other church- 
music. Ref.: I. 400f ; II. 6, 8, 11; IX. 21. 

FERAGUT, Beltrame (early 15th 
cent.): French and possibly Provencal 
composer, 12 pieces from whom have 
been preserved and are to be found in 
Bologna and Oxford. 

FERDINAND III, Emperor of Ger- 
many (1637-1657): patron of Italian 
opera in Vienna; himself a composer 
whose works were preserved and pub- 
lished in 1892 by Adler. Ref.: VI. 

FERLING (1) Franz Wilhelm 
(1796-1874) : b. Halberstadt, d. Bruns- 
wick; court oboist and composer of 
etudes and concertos for the oboe. (2) 
Gustav (1835-1914): b. Brunswick; 1st 
oboist in the Stuttgart court orchestra; 
teacher of pianoforte at the Conserva- 
tory there. (3) Robert (1843-1881) : b. 
Brunswick, d. St. Petersburg; member 
of the Stuttgart orchestra; Russian im- 
perial chamber musician. 

FERNANDEZ, Antonio (early 17th 
cent.) : b. Souzel, Portugal, d. Lisbon 
(?) ; church conductor at Lisbon, where 
he published a theoretical work, 1626. 

uel (1835-1906): b. Murcia, d. Madrid; 
studied at Madrid Conservatory and be- 
came popular as writer of Spanish op- 
erettas, or zarzuelas, producing about 
220 in 50 years. Besides these, he 
wrote some church music. 

FERRABOSCO (1) Domenico (16th 
cent.) : church conductor in Bologna, 
singer in Papal choir, composer of 


madrigals and motets. (2) Alfonso 
(ca. 1525-1589): b. Bologna, d. Turin; 
son of Domenico, musician in the 
courts of Queen Elizabeth and later of 
the Duke of Savoy; friend of Byrd and 
composer of madrigals preserved in 
collections by Young, Phalese, Morley 
and Clifford. Ref.: X. 84. (3) Al- 
fonso, son of (2) (ca. 1575-1628) : b. 
Greenwich; teacher of music to Prince 
of Wales, 1605; wrote 'Ayres' and 
Lezione per viola. (4) Alfonso and 

(5) Henry; sons of (3) ; musicians at 
the English court. (6) Constantino: 
musician and composer at the Vien- 
nese court at the end of the 16th cent. 
(7) John (d. 1682) : organist at the 
Cathedral of Ely. 

FERRARI (1) Benedetto (1597- 
1681): b. Reggio, d. Modena; studied in 
Rome and acquired a reputation as vir- 
tuoso on theorbo; operatic librettist in 
Venice, where Manelli and Monteverdi 
wrote the settings; of his opera, 
Armida, he wrote both text and music. 
He was a member of the band of the 
Modena court, in the service of Ferdi- 
nand in Vienna, and maestro di cap- 
pella at the Modena court. He is dis- 
tinguished by Burney as the originator 
of the term 'cantata,' used in his Mu- 
siche varie a voce sola. Ref.: IX. 12, 
59. (2) Carlo (1730-1789) : b. Piacenza, 
d. Parma; brother of Domenico; 'cellist, 
member of the Parma court band; the 
first to introduce into Italy the use of 
the thumb in 'cello fingering. Ref.: 
VII. 591. (3) Domenico (d. 1780): b. 
Piacenza, d. Paris; virtuoso on violin; 
studied with Tartini and at Cremona; 
received with applause in Vienna and 
Paris; published sonatas for violin and 
bass, and trio sonatas. Ref.: VIII. 404. 
(4) Jacopo Gotifredo (1759-1842) : 
b. Roveredo, South Tyrol, d. Lon- 
don; studied in a monastery near 
Chur, also with Latilla and Campan, 
who took him to Paris as conductor 
and royal accompanist. During the 
revolution he taught music in London. 
Besides 5 operas, 2 ballets and an ora- 
torio, he wrote pieces for piano, for 
harp and flute, and published a 
'Treatise of Singing' and a work on 
the practice and theory of music. (5) 
Francisca (ca. 1800-1828) : b. Chris- 
tiana, d. Gross-Salzbrunn; harpist. 

(6) Serafino Amadeo de' (1824- 
1885) : b. Genoa, d. there as dir. of the 
Cons., opera composer. (7) Car- 
lotta (1837-1907): b. Lodi, d. Bo- 
logna; studied at Milan Conservatory, 
composed operas, a Requiem and Ital- 
ian songs. (8) Einilio: b. 1851; 
composer of 4 operas and an operetta 
produced in Milan. (9) Gabriella 
(1851- ): b. Italy; studied with 
Leborne, Ketten, Gounod and Duprato; 
pianist and composer of 3 operas pro- 
duced at Monte Carlo and Paris; she 
wrote also orchestral suites and songs. 
(10) Gustave (1872- ): b. Geneva; 
pupil of the Cons, tbere, and of 



Gigout, Paris; composer of music for 
Irving's 'Hamlet' (1905), Rousseau can- 
tata, Almanach aux images, for 
women's chorus and soli, a song cycle, 
Livre pour toi, and organ pieces. He 
has travelled for some years with 
Yvette Guilbert whose collection of 
French folk-songs he arranged. 

(1878- ): b. Rome; debut as tenor 
at Turin, 1910; sang Wagner roles in 
Italy, and at the Metropolitan Opera 
House, New York; engaged for the Ros- 
ton Opera Company, 1913-14; married 
Margarete Matzenauer, 1912. 

(1884- ) : Italian composer of the 
operas, 11 piccolo montanaro (1904), 
Galvina (1904), and Fiorella (1904). 

FERRATA, Giuseppe (1866- ): 

b. Gradoli, Romagna, studied with 
Sgambati at the Liceo of the Academy 
of St. Cecilia, Rome, also with Liszt; 
pianist and teacher, for some time in 
New York, then in New Orleans, com- 
poser of a number of piano pieces and 
etudes, a string quartet, pieces for 
piano and violin, also a small festival 
mass, a mass for men's chorus and 
organ, choral songs and songs. Ref.: 
III. 397 398. 

FERREIN: anatomist. Ref.: V. 56. 

(1776-1825): b. Setubal, d. Lisbon; 
studied law and mathematics, was a 
member of the Lisbon Academy and 
wrote a valuable book of theory, en- 
titled Principios de musica. 

FERRETTI (1) Giovanni (16th 
cent.) : Venetian composer of canzoni 
and madrigals. (2) Don Paolo (19th 
cent.): b. Subiaco; abbot of the Rene- 
dictine monastery San Giovanni at 
Parma; member of the executive com- 
mittee of the Italian St. Cecilia So- 
ciety; pub. valuable works on rhyth- 
mic treatment of Gregorian Chant, 
Principi teorici e pratici de Canto 
Gregoriano (1906) and II Cursus me- 
trico e il Ritmo delle melodie del Canto 

FERRETTO, Andrea: contemporary 
Italian operatic composer; produced the 
operas L'amor d'un angelo (Vicenza, 
1893), / Zingari (Modena, 1900), Idillio 
tragico (Venice, 1906), La Violinata 
(Vicenza, 1908, rev., 3 acts, Venice, 
1913), Fantasma (Vicenza, 1908). 

FERRI (1) Baldassare (1610-1680): 
b. Perugia, d. there; chorister at Orvi- 
eto, sang at the courts of Warsaw and 
Vienna; a male soprano whose virtu- 
osity has hardly been excelled. (2) 
Nicola (1831-1886): b. Mola di Rari, 
Italy, d. London; Neapolitan singing 
teacher and dramatic composer. 

FERRIER, Paul-Raoul-Michel-M. 
(1843- ) : b. Montpelier; Parisian 
composer of light opera. 

FERRON, Adolf (1855- ) : thea- 
tre conductor in Rerlin and Vienna, 
composer of 2 operettas. 

FERRONI, Vincenzo Emidio Car- 


mine (1858- ): b. Tramutola; stud- 
ied at the Conservatoire with Savard 
and Massenet; from 1881-88 assistant 
prof, there, then professor at Milan 
Cons., when he also directed the Famig- 
lia Artistica. In 1897 he was made 
Chevalier of the Italian Crown. He 
wrote an orchestral overture and rhap- 
sody, songs and salon pieces, music for 
organ, violin and harp; 2 operas, etc. 

FERTfi. See Papillon de la Ferte. 

FESCA (1) Friedrich Ernst (1789- 
1826): b. Magdeburg, d. Carlsruhe; 
studied in Magdeburg and Leipzig; con- 
cert violinist in Magdeburg, member of 
the Gewandhaus orchestra, soloist in 
the Oldenburg court Kapelle, at the 
court in Cassel, 1st violinist and con- 
cert conductor at Carlsruhe. Resides 
quartets, quintets and other chamber 
music, Fesca wrote 2 operas, 4 over- 
tures and 3 symphonies. (2) Alexan- 
der Ernst (1820-1849) : son of Fried- 
rich, b. Carlsruhe, d. Rrunswick; con- 
cert pianist; composed and produced 4 
operas, and wrote many songs which 
still retain their popularity. 

FESCH, Willem de. See De Fesch, 


FESSLER, Eduard (1841- ): b. 

Neuberg, Ravaria; studied with Hauser, 
Munich; operatic baritone. 

FESTA (1) Constanzo (ca. 1490- 
1545): b. Rome, d. there; sang in the 
papal chapel, wrote madrigals, motets, 
a Te Deum, Credo, litanies, and Mag- 
nificat. He was the first noteworthy 
Italian composer in the 'imitative' mo- 
tet style, also one of the first madrigal 
writers. Ref.: I. 273ff, 303f ; VI. 72. (2) 
Giuseppe Maria (1771-1839) : b. Trani, 
Naples, d. Naples; conductor of Nea- 
politan theatre and to the court: vir- 
tuoso on violin there and in Paris; he 
wrote music for his instrument. (3) 
Francesca, sister of (2) (1778-1836): 
b. Naples, d. St. Petersburg; studied 
with Aprile; sang in Italy, Paris and 
St. Petersburg. 

FESTING, Michael Christian 
(1680[?]-1752): b. London, d. there; 
violinist at the English court, con- 
ductor and founder of a music society 
in London; composer for violin, also 
of odes and cantatas. 

FfiTIS (1) Francois-Joseph (1784- 
1871): b. Mons, Relgium, d. Rrussels; 
musical theorist, historian and critic. 
At 7 he wrote violin-duets; in his ninth 
year he composed a concerto for violin 
with orch. ; and at 9 was organist to 
the Noble Chapter of Sainte-Waudru. 
He studied at the Paris Conservatory 
under Rey, Roieldieu and Pradher. 
His first important theoretico-literary 
work (never completed) was an in- 
vestigation of Guido d'Arezzo's system 
and of the history of notation. In 
1806 he commenced the revision of 
the plain-song and entire ritual of the 
Roman Church, completed after 30 
years, and not yet pub. In 1811 he re- 
tired to the Ardennes, where he devoted 



himself to composition and philosoph- 
ical researches into the theory of har- 
mony. In 1813 he became organist of 
the collegiate church of St.-Pierre at 
Douai, and teacher of harmony and 
singing in the municipal music-school. 
From this period date La science de 
I'organiste and the Methode elemen- 
taire d'harmonie et d'accompagnement 
(1824). In 1818 he went to Paris where 
he published some piano music, and 
brought out several successful operas. 
He became prof, of composition at 
the Conservatoire, and in 1824 his 
Traite du contrepoint et de la fugue 
was published as a Cons, text-book. In 
1827 he became librarian of the Con- 
servatoire and founded La Revue mu- 
sicale, which he edited alone until 1832 
(its publication ceased in 1835). He 
also wrote for Le National and Le 
Temps. In 1828 he competed for the 
prize of the Netherlands Royal Insti- 
tute with a memoir, Quels ont ite les 
merites des Neerlandais dans la mu- 
sique, principalement aux XIV e -XVI e 
siecles . . . which was printed by the 
Institute. In 1832 he began his famous 
historical lectures and concerts, which 
were first suggested by Choron. In 1833 
he was called to Brussels as maitre de 
chapelle to King Leopold I, and direc- 
tor of the Conservatoire; he held the 
latter position for 39 years. He also 
conducted the concerts of the Academy, 
which elected him a member in 1845. 
The chief work of F. is his Biographie 
universelle des musiciens et bibliogra- 
phic generate de la musique in 8 vol- 
umes (1837-1844; 2nd ed. 1860-65; 
Suppl. of 2 vols. 1878-1880, edited by 
A. Pougin). His other writings include 
Traite de Vaccompagnement de la par- 
tition (1829) ; Solfeges progressifs 
(1827) ; La musique mise a la portee de 
tout le monde (1830; Ger. transl. by 
Blum, 1833; Engl. eds. London, 1831, 
and Boston, Mass., 1842) ; Manuel des 
principes de musique (1837) ; Manuel 
des Jeunes compositeurs, des chefs de 
musique militaire, et des directeurs 
d'orchestre (1837) ; Methode des me- 
thodes de piano (1837) ; Mdthode des 
methodes de chant (1840) ; Methode 
dlementaire du plain-chant (1843) ; 
Traite complet de la theorie et de la 
pratique de Vharmonie (1844) ; Notice 
biogr. de Nicolo Paganini (1851; with 
short history of the violin) ; Antoine 
Stradivari (1856; with researches on 
bowed instruments) ; Histoire generate 
de la musique (5 vols.; including only 
down to 15th cent.). Fetis composed 6 
operas (1820-1832), symphonies and 
other works for orchestra, sacred music, 
and sonatas, etc., for piano. Ref. : VIII. 
51. (2) £douard-Louis-Francois (1812- 
1909) : b. Vouvignes, near Dinant, d. 
Brussels; son of (1) ; edited 'Revue mu- 
sicale* (1833-35) ; librarian of the Brus- 
sels Library; pub. Les musiciens beiges 
(1848), Les artistes beiges a 1'etranger 
(1857-65). (3) Adolphe-Louis-Eu- 


gene (1820-1873): b. Paris, d. there; 
son of (1) ; music-teacher in Paris after 
1856; composed for piano and har- 
monium, and prod, an opera. 

PEURICH, Julius (1821-1900) : b. 
Leipzig, d. there; piano manufacturer. 

FEVIN (1) Antonius de (ca. 1473- 
ca. 1515): b. Orleans; composer of 
important masses, motets, etc. (2) 
Robertas (15th and 16th cent.) : b. 
Cambrai; conductor to the Duke of 
Savoy; composer of masses and motets. 

FlSVRIER, Henri Louis (d. Paris 
1780) : produced 2 books of music for 
clavecin (1734, 1755). Ref.: IX. 477. 

Thomas (1860- ): b. Bethesda, Car- 
narvon; abandoned priesthood to be- 
come a concert baritone; studied music 
with Latter, Shakespeare and Randeg- 
ger; sang in Berlin and teaches in the 
Royal Academy of Music, London. In 
1905 he published 'The Singing of the 

FIALA, Joseph (1751-1816) : b. Lob- 
kowitz, Bohemia, d. Donaueschingen ; 
oboist, 'cellist, conductor; composed 
two symphonies, quartets, duets for 
violin and 'cello, trios for flute, oboe 
and bassoon, and concertos for flute, 
oboe, bassoon and 'cello. 

FIBICH, Zdenko (1850-1900): b. 
Seborschitz, Bohemia, d. Prague; stud- 
ied there and at Leipzig Conservatory, 
assistant conductor of the National the- 
atre at Prague, director of the choir in 
the Russian church. He composed 7 
Czech operas, Bukovin (1874), Blanik 
(1881), 'The Bride of Messina' (1884), 
'The Tempest' (1895), Hedy (1897), 
Sarka (1898), 'The Fall of Arcona' 
(1900), besides the trilogy Hippodamia 
(1890-91, prod. Prague and Antwerp) ; 
6 melodramas; Hochzeitscene, Winds- 
braut and 'Spring Romance' for chorus 
and orch.; 3 symphonies, 6 symphonic 
poems, 5 overtures, orch. suite; piano 
quartet, piano quintet (with violin, 
'cello, clarinet and horn) , 2 string quar- 
tets, about 400 piano pieces, etc. Ref.: 
III. 181ff; VIII. 382; portrait, III. 178. 

FIBY, Heinrich (1834- ): b. Vi- 
enna; studied at the Conservatory there; 
solo-violinist, director and teacher at 
Laibach; director and teacher in 
Znaim; composer of choruses and 

FICHNA, Ida (1853- ): b. Vi- 
enna; studied with Fuchs and Holzl, 
singing teacher in Vienna. 

FICHTNER, Pauline. See Erd- 


FICKBJVSCHER, Arthur: contemp. 
American composer. Ref.: IV. 450. 

FIEBACH, Otto (1851- ) : b. 

Ohlau, Silesia; organist and Musikdi- 
rektor in Konigsberg, composer of an 
oratorio and 6 operas, prod, in Dresden 
and Danzig. 

FIEDLER, [August] Max (1859-) : 
b. Zittau; studied with his father, with 
G. Albrecht and at the Cons, of Leip- 
zig, where he won the Holstein scholar- 



ship; teacher and director at Hamburg 
Cons., conductor of the Philharmonic 
there and conductor of the Boston Sym- 
phony Orchestra during 1908-12. ^He 
wrote a piano quintet, a string quartet, 
a symphony, songs, etc. 

FIELD, John (1782-1837): b. Dub- 
lin, d. Moscow; pianist and composer; 
son of a violinist. Studied theory and 
piano-playing with his grandfather, an 
organist, and Clementi, with whom he 
went to Paris in 1802, where he created 
a sensation by his interpretation of 
Bach's and Handel's fugues, and to St. 
Petersburg, where he settled as teacher 
and virtuoso. After a Bussian tour he 
appeared in London (1832), playing a 
concerto of his own at the Philhar- 
monic; then in Paris, Belgium, Switzer- 
land and Italy. After a severe illness 
he was taken back to Moscow, playing 
in Vienna on the way. F., aside from 
being a brilliant virtuoso, was an im- 
portant composer. He forms the link 
in the history of piano playing between 
Clementi and Chopin. His piano- 
works, aside from his Nocturnes, are 
forgotten, but these are an original 
creation, both their name and style be- 
ing an innovation. Unrelated to the 
established forms (sonata, etc.), they 
prepared the way for the fanciful piano 
piece, in free style, such as Chopin's 
Nocturnes, etc. F. wrote 7 concertos, 
4 Sonatas, 2 Airs en Rondeau, Air 
russe, Air russe varU (4 hands), Chan- 
son russe varie, Polonaise, romanzas, 
rondos, variations, etc., 2 fantasias and 
18 nocturnes. Ref.: II. 258; VII. 55, 
132, 176, 179, 183, 254, 278; portrait, 
VII. 182. 

FIELITZ, Alexander von (I860-): 
b. Leipzig; studied music in Dresden 
and became theatre conductor at Zurich, 
Lubeck, and Leipzig; teacher in the 
Stern Conservatory, Berlin, to which he 
returned after teaching in Chicago in 
1905 and directing the symphony or- 
chestra there the following year. He 
has produced 2 operas in Lubeck and 
Hamburg; wrote many songs and a 
romance for piano and violin. Ref.: 
III. 20; V. 310f. 

(1870- ): b. Brussels; studied music 
with Gevaert; published 2 books on 
contemporary music and contributes to 
musical journals. 

FIGULUS, Wolfgang (16th cent): 
b. Lubben, d. Meissen; cantor at the 
Thomasschule and at Meissen; edited 
collections of sacred music, works of 
Agricola, Ebert, Galliculus, etc. 

FILBY, William Charles (1836-) : 
b. London; studied music in Paris, or- 
ganist at St. Paul's, London, leader of 
singing societies and composer of 
church music, piano sonatas, operettas, 
organ works, etc. 

FILIPPI (1) Giuseppe de ([?]- 
1856) : physician and author of Saggio 
sull' estetica musicale. (2) Giuseppe 
de (1825-1887): b. Milan, d. Neuilly, 


near Paris; writer; contributed to 
Pougin's edition of Fetis' Riographie 
Universelle ; author of 2 books on the 
modern theatre. (3) Filippo (1830- 
1887): b. Vicenza, d. Milan; studied 
law in Padua, but abandoned this pro- 
fession to follow that of musical critic 
in Milan. Besides his journalistic criti- 
cisms, he published Musica e musicista 
and Richard Wagner (German, 1876). 

FILKE, Max (1855-1911): b. Stub- 
endorf-Leobschiitz, Silesia, d. Breslau; 
singer in the Breslau Cathedral and 
cantor in Duderstadt, then studied in 
1880 at Leipzig Cons, and became cho- 
rus leader at Straubing, then directed 
the Cologne Sangerkreis. He became 
chapel master at the Breslau Cathedral, 
1891, taught at the Boyal Institute for 
Church Music, 1893; royal Musikdirek- 
tor, 1899. He wrote orchestral masses, 
a Bequiem and other church and choral 

FILLMORE, John Comfort (1843- 
1898): b. New London, Conn., d. there; 
studied at Oberlin, and Leipzig Cons., 
substitute director of Oberlin Cons., 
one year, then teacher at Bipon and 
Milwaukee. He wrote three valuable 
text-books on musical history* trans- 
lated Biemann's Klavierschule and 
Natur der Harmonik and assisted Miss 
Alice Fletcher in her studies in Indian 

FILLUNGER, Marie (1850- ) : b. 
Vienna; studied at the Cons, there, 
with Marchesi and at the Berlin Hoch- 
schule; concert and oratorio soprano, 
noted throughout Europe, South Africa 
and Australia. She settled in England 
where since 1904 she has taught at the 
Boyal College of Music at Manchester. 

FILTZ (Filas, Fils), Anton (ca. 
1730-1760): b. Bohemia, d. Mannheim, 
where he was first 'cellist in the orches- 
tra from 1754; pupil of Joh. Stamitz 
and gifted composer in his master's 
style, whom he approaches in origi- 
nality and expressiveness, though not 
in workmanship. He wrote 41 sym- 
phonies (printed op. 1, 6 a 4 [quartets], 
op. 2, 6 with 2 horns, op. 5, 6 a 8, 
others in collections), string trios, trio 
sonatas, piano trios, 'cello sonatas, 
concert!, etc. Ref.: II. 67; VIII. 93, 

FINCK (t) Heinrich (1445-1527): 
d. Vienna; studied in Cracow; com- 
poser at the court of Albert I, 
Alexander and Sigismund I of Po- 
land; then at the courts of Stutt- 
gart (1510), Salzburg (1524) and 
from 1524 to his death Regens chori 
and teacher at the Schottenkloster 
of Vienna. He wrote songs pub. by 
Sablinger (1545) and Bhaw (1542). 
His Schone ausserlesene Lieder des 
hochberiihmten Heinrici Finckens (1536) 
is extant. Ref.: I. 304. (2) Hermann 
(1527-1558): b. Pirna, Saxony, d. Wit- 
tenberg; a grand-nephew of (1); be- 
came organist in Wittenberg; a com- 
poser of note and author of a work 



on musical theory, published 1558. (3) 
Henry Theophilus (1854- ) : b. 

Bethel, Maine. After studying with 
H. K. Paine in Boston, he went 
to the Royal Music School of Munich; 
then turned to psychology and anthro- 
pology. He is music critic on the New 
York Evening Post, and author of biog- 
raphies of Wagner (2 vols., 1893; 
transl. into German, 1897) ; Edvard 
Grieg (1906; transL into Ger., 1908). 
He also wrote Chopin and other Essays 
(1889), Paderewski and His Art (1895), 
Anton Seidl (1899), and Songs and 
Song Writers (1900). Ref.: IV. 353, 
368; V. 319. 

FINCKE, Fritz (1836- ) : b. Wis- 
mar; studied in Leipzig Cons.; violin- 
ist in Frankf ort-on-Main ; organist at 
Wismar; vocal teacher at Peabody In- 
stitute, in Baltimore, in 1879; author 
of Anschlagselemente (1871) and com- 
poser of pieces for piano. 

FINDEISEN (1) Otto (1862- ): 
b. Briinn; composer of 6 operettas pro- 
duced in Bremen, Leipzig, Hamburg, 
etc., among them the folk-opera, Hen- 
nigs von Treffenfeld. (2) Nikolai 
Fedorovitch (1868- ): b. St. Pe- 
tersburg; studied at the Cons, there 
and in 1893 founded the 'Russian 
Journal of Music.' He is a contributor 
to various Russian musical journals 
and a historian of Russian music, 
author of books on Glinka, Napravnik, 
Seroff, Rimsky-Korsakoff, the Russian 
art song and other subjects. 

FINGER, Gottfried (ca. 1658-after 
1723): inhabitant of Olmutz; from 
1685-1702 at the court of James II at 
London, then chamber musician and 
composer of German opera at the court 
of Queen Sophie Charlotte at Berlin. 
From 1717 to 1723 he was councillor 
and court conductor at Mannheim. 
Besides operatic compositions in Eng- 
lish and German, F. wrote sonatas for 
violin, ganiba, flutes, oboes, etc. 

FINK (1) Gottfried Wilhelm, and 
(2) Christian. See Addenda. 

FINO, Giocondo (1867- ): b. 
Turin; studied with Bolzoni in Turin; 
composed a mass, a string quartet, 
Nubi di Vita for orchestra, an ora- 
torio Noemi e Ruth, and the operas 
11 Battista (1906), La Festa del Grano 
(1910) and Visioni di Dante (1916). 

FIORAVANTI (1) Valentino (1764- 
1837) : b. Rome, d. Capua; studied with 
Sala at Naples; from 1816 maestro di 
cappella at St. Peter's, Rome; composer 
of some church music and cantatas, 
also 77 operas produced throughout 
Italy, in Lisbon and in Paris. He was 
one of the most distinguished Italian 
composers of his day. (2) Vincenzo 
(1799-1877): b. Rome, d. Naples; 
church conductor in Naples and direc- 
tor there of the Albergo dei poveri; 
like his father (1) a composer of light 
operas, about forty of which he pro- 
duced at Neapolitan theatres. 

FIORE, Stefano Andrea (1675- 


1739): b. Milan, d. Turin; composed 27 
seria operas, produced in Italy and 

FIORILLO (1) Ignazio (1715-1787) : 
b. Naples, d. Fritzlar, near Cassel; 
studied with Leo and Durante; com- 
posed operas, an oratorio, a Requiem, 
Te Deums, etc.; conductor at the courts 
of Brunswick and of Cassel. (2) 
Federigo (1753-before 1823) : b. Bruns- 
wick; performer on violin and viola 
in Riga, Paris and London; conduc- 
tor in Riga; composer of '36 Caprices,' 
etc.. for violin, and of ensemble 

FIQUfi, Karl (1867- ): b. Bre- 
men; studied in Leipzig Conservatory; 
pianist, composer and lecturer, residing 
in Brooklyn, New York. 

FISCHEL, Adolf (1810-[?]): b. 
Konigsberg; studied with Spohr; a 
Berlin cigar-dealer who composed 
string quartets and music for the 

FISCHER (1) John nn Christian 
(1733-1800): b. Freiburg, Baden, d. 
London; oboist in Dresden court orch., 
1760; gave concerts in Italy; was court 
musician at London from 1780. He 
wrote 10 oboe concertos, quartets for 
flute and strings, flute-duets, flute- 
solos, etc. Ref.: VII. 392. (2) Lndwig 
(1745-1825): b. Mayence, d. Berlin; 
bass singer for whom Mozart wrote the 
part of Osmin in the Entf iihrung ; sang 
in Paris, 1783, in Berlin, 1788-1815. 

(3) Michael Gotthard (1773-1829): b. 
Alach, near Erfurt, d. Erfurt; organist; 
composer of organ, chamber music and 
orchestral works. Ref.: VI. 458, 459. 

(4) Anton (1777-1808) : b. Ried, Swabia, 
d. Vienna; Kapellmeister at the Theater 
an der Wien, 1800; composed several 
operettas and revised Gretry's operas 
for Vienna. (5) Christian Wilhelm 
(1789-1859) : b. Konradsdorf, d. Dres- 
den; debut as bass, Dresden, 1810; 
chorus-master in Leipzig, 1817-28, at 
Magdeburg, 1828-29, Leipzig again, 
1829-31, and later in Dresden. (6) 
Gottfried Emil (1791-1841): b. Ber- 
lin, d. there; singing-teacher at the 
Graues Kloster and composer of mo- 
tets, chorales, songs, school-songs; mel- 
odies to von den Hagen's Minnesanger. 
He wrote Vber Gesang und Gesangun- 
terricht (1831), and contributed to the 
Allgem. Musik-Zeitung. (7) Karl Lud- 
wig (1816-1877) : b. Kaiserslautern, d. 
Hanover; Musikdirektor at various Ger- 
man theatres; Kapellmeister at May- 
ence, 1847-52; first court Kapellmeister, 
Hanover, 1859; composed many large 
choral works and songs. (8) Adolf 
(1827-1893): b. Uckermunde, d. Bres- 
lau; organist at Frankfort, director of 
the Singakademie, 1853, and Royal 
Musikdirektor, 1865; founded Silesian 
Cons., Breslau, 1880; composed sym- 
phonies, organ music and songs. (9) 
Ignaz (1828-1877): b. Vienna; Kapell- 
meister of the court opera. (10) Josef 
(1828-1885): d. Stuttgart, where' he was 



court musician; composed the song 
Hoch Deutschland, herrliche Sieges- 
braut. (11) Karl August (1829-1892) : 
b. Ebersdorf, Saxony, d. Dresden; 
studied at Freiburg Seminary; organ- 
ist of various churches in Dresden; 
composed the opera Loreley; a high 
mass; organ symphonies and concertos; 
orchestral suites, etc. (12) Paul (1832- 
1894) : b. Zwickau, d. Zittau, where he 
was cantor in the Johanneskirche after 
1862; founded the Zittau Konzertver- 
ein, 1864; edited the Zittauer Lieder- 
buch and the Zittauer Choralbuch. (13) 
Georg (1836- ): b. Hanover; wrote 
many valuable articles on musical sub- 
jects for various journals; pub. works 
on the opera in Hanover, Hans von Bil- 
low and others. (14) Emil (1838- 
1914) : operatic bass. He sang in Graz 
(debut 1857), Pressburg, Stettin, Bruns- 
wick, Danzig, Rotterdam, Dresden and 
from 1885 New York, where he later 
taught. Wagner roles. (15) Franz von 
(1849- ): b. Munich; famous 'cellist, 
retired as Generalmusikdirektor in Mu- 
nich, 1912. 

FISCHHOF (1) Joseph (1804-1857): 
b. Moravia, d. Vienna; abandoned the 
study of medicine at Vienna for a 
musical career and taught there pri- 
vately and at the Cons, of the Gesell- 
schaft fiir Musikfreunde. Besides piano 
works and ensembles he wrote the Ver- 
such einer Geschichte des Klavierbaues 
and his manuscripts preserve valuable 
material for Beethoven biographers. 
(2) Robert (1856- ): b. Vienna; 
professor at the Cons, there; prod, an 
opera at Graz (1906). 

FISH, William (1775-ca. 1863): b. 
Norwich, d. there; violinist, oboist and 
concert leader in Norwich, where he 
also taught. Composed songs and vo- 
cal works, sonatas and concertos. 

FISHER (1) John Abraham (1744- 
1806): b. Dunstable, d. London; studied 
with Pinto in London; violinist in Lon- 
don, Dublin and Vienna; composed 
pantomimes for Covent Garden, an 
oratorio, symphonies, preludes, etc. 
(2) William Arms (1861- ): b. 
San Francisco; studied with Morgan, 
Parker and Dvorak, also in London; 
teacher and music editor in Boston; 
composer of songs, etc. 

FISSOT, Alexis Henri (1843-1896): 
b. Airaines, Somme, d. Paris; trained 
at the Conservatoire, virtuoso on organ 
and pianoforte and composer for the 

PITELBEG, Georg (1879- ): b. 
Dunaburg, Livonia; studied at the 
Warsaw Cons., conductor of the War- 
saw Philharmonic Orchestra, 1908; pub. 
several symphonies, piano and violin 
music; other works in MS. 

FITZENHAGEN, Wilhelm K. Fr. 
(1848-1890) : b. Seesen, Brunswick, d. 
Moscow; 'cellist and composer for 
'cello; concert-master and professor at 
the Cons, in Moscow. 

FITZWILLIAM (1) Richard (d. 


1816) : bequeathed a collection of 
paintings, engravings, books, and mu- 
sical MSS. to the Univ. of Cambridge. 
The musical MSS. include espe- 
cially valuable works: the 'Virginall- 
Booke of Queen Elizabeth'; anthems in 
Purcell's hand, sketches by Handel, and 
many early Italian compositions. Vin- 
cent Novello edited and pub. 5 vols, of 
the Italian sacred music as 'The Fitz- 
william Music, etc.'; J. A. Fuller-Mait- 
land and Dr. A. H. Mann have made a 
complete catalogue (1893). (2) Ed- 
ward Francis (1824-1857) : English 
composer; director of music at the Hay- 
market Theatre, London; wrote an op- 
eretta, 'Love's Alarms,' songs and other 
works. Ref.: VIII. 284. 

FLAGG (1) Joseph (18th cent.): 
earliest American publisher of music. 
Ref.: TV. 29, 45. (2) Josiah (18th 
cent.) : American compiler of psalm- 
tunes. Ref.: IV. 59. 

FLAGLER (1) Isaac van VIeck 
(1844-1909): b. Albany, N. Y., d. Au- 
burn; studied at Albany with Beale, in 
Paris with Batiste; director of music 
and organist in churches in Pough- 
keepsie, Albany, Chicago and Auburn, 
has taught at Syracuse, Cornell and 
Utica Cons. He has written some or- 
gan music and published several col- 
lections of organ music. (2) Harry 
Harkness: contemp. American music 
patron, resident in New York; en- 
dowed the Symphony Society of New 
Y*>rk, 1915. Ref.: IV. 186. 

FLAUBERT, Gustave: French nov- 
elist. Ref.: IX. 389. 

PLAXLAND, Gustave Alexandre 
(1821-1895): b. Strassburg, d. Paris; 
studied at the Conservatoire; taught 
music, founded a music publishing 
house and piano factory. 

FLECHA (1) Juan (1483-1553): b. 
Catalonia, d. Poblet, Tarragona; Car- 
melite monk and teacher of music to 
Spanish Infanta. (2) Fray Mateo 
(1520-1604): b. Catalonia, d. Solsona; 
court conductor at Prague; composer of 
sacred and secular music in Prague 
(where he was Kapellmeister to Charles 
V) and Spain, whither he returned in 
1589; nephew of (1). 

FLECK, Henry T. (1863- ): b. 

Buffalo, N. Y.; founded Euterpe Cho- 
ral Society, 1889, and the Harlem Phil- 
harmonic, 1890, which he conducted un- 
til 1901; then became professor of 
music at Hunter College, New York; 
conducted free concerts established by 
the Board of Education of New York 
City in 1910. 

FLI3GIEH, Ange (1846- ): b. 

Marseilles; studied at the Conservatory 
there and at Paris; produced Fatima, 
a comic opera in Marseilles, 1875; 
wrote besides orchestral cantata and 2 

FLEISCHER, Oskar (1856- ): 

b. Zorbig, Saxony; teacher of history 
of music at the Royal Hochschule fiir 
Musik, professor extraordinary at the 



University and custodian of the royal 
collection of musical instruments, Ber- 
lin; president of the Internationale 
Musikgesellschaft, 1899, and editor of 
its publications; wrote several works 
on musical instruments (1892, 1893), 
W. A. Mozart (1899), Neumen-Studien 
(3 vols., 1895-1904), etc. 

Wilhelmine (1875- ): b. Miihl- 
heim; studied in the conservatories 
of Cologne and Dresden; dramatic so- 
prano in Dresden court opera, later 
in the Hamburg Stadttheater. 

PLEMMING, Friedrich Ferdinand 
(1778-1813) : b. Neuhausen, Saxony, d. 
Berlin; member of Zelter's Liedertafel; 
composed many male choruses, includ- 
ing the popular Integer vitae. 

FLESCH, Carl (1873- ) : b. Moson, 
Hungary; violin virtuoso; studied in 
the conservatories of Vienna and Paris; 
professor at Bucharest and virtuoso 
at the Rumanian court; for a time 
he taught in the Amsterdam Cons., and 
since 1908 he has lived in Berlin, 
where he has given violin soirees, etc. 
He visited the U. S. in 1914-15. 

FLETCHER: (1) English poet. Ref.: 
VI. 141. (2) Alice C. (1845- ): 
b. Boston; ethnology assistant at the 
Peabody Museum of American Archae- 
ology and Ethnology since 1882; au- 
thor of 'A Study of Omaha Indian 
Music' (1893) and 'Indian Story and 
Song from North America' (1900). 

FLINTOFT, [Rev.] Luke ([?]- 
1727): b. Worcester, d. London; Gen- 
tleman of the Chapel Royal, minor 
canon at Westminster; possibly the in- 
ventor of the double chant, the earliest 
example of which is his in G minor. 

FLITCH, J. E. Crawford. Ref.: 
(quoted) X. 190f. 

FLODERER, Wilhelm (1843- ): 

b. Briinn; composer of 2 operas pro- 
duced at Linz, also Unter der Linde, 
for soli, chorus and orchestra. 

FLODIN, Karl (1858- ): b. 

Wasa, Finland, studied at Leipzig 
Cons., music critic in Helsingfors, 1886- 
1905, writer on Finnish music and 
musicians; composer of Helena, scena 
for sop. and orch., music to Haupt- 
mann's Hannele, cortege for wind band, 
male and women's choruses. 

FLOERSHEIM, Otto (1853- ): 
b. Aachen; studied at Cologne Con- 
servatory; for some years editor of 
the New York 'Musical Courier'; com- 
poser for orchestra and pianoforte; 
resident in Germany. 

FLONDOR, Theodor Johann von 
(d. Berlin, 1908) : Rumanian composer 
of one opera and one operetta. 

Coppet, Edward. Portrait, VII. 550. 

FLOOD, [William Henry] Grattan 
(1859- ): b. Lismore, Ireland; gave 
up the church for a musical career; 
studied theory with Dr. Kerbusch and 
Sir R. Stewart; became organist at the 
pro-Cathedral, Belfast, 1878; at Thurles 


Cathedral, 1882; professor of music at 
the Jesuit College in Tullabeg, 1882; 
St. Wilfrid's College, Staffordshire, 
1890-94; organist and choirmaster at 
the Cathedral of Enniscorthy, Ireland, 
since 1895; wrote 'History of Irish 
Music' (1895), 'Story of the Harp' 
(1905), 'Story of the Bagpipe' (1911), 
'Memoir of W. V. Wallace' (1912) ; also 
contributed to various dictionaries and 
encyclopaedias, and edited collections 
of songs and hymns. 

FLORIDIA, Pietro (1860- ): b. 

Modica, Sicily; studied with Cesi, 
Serrao, Polidori and Lauro Rossi in 
Naples, professor at Palermo Cons., 
1888-90, now teaching in New York; 
prod, the operas Carlotta Clepier (Na- 
ples, 1882), Maruzza (Venice, 1894), La 
Colonia libera (Rome, 1899), and 'Pao- 
letta' (English, Cincinnati, 1910); pub. 
orchestral pieces, piano pieces, and 
songs. Ref.: III. 392; IV. 188; VII. 465. 

FLORIMO, Francesco (1800-1888): 
b. San Giorgio Morgeto, near Reggio; 
d. Naples; studied in the Naples Real 
Collegio with Furna, Elia, Zingarelli, 
Tritto; became librarian of the archives 
there, wrote a history of the Naples 
conservatories, their teachers and pu- 
pils, also on Wagner and on Bellini, 
and a Metodo di canto; composed 
church music, orchestral work and can- 
tatas, besides songs in his native dia- 
lect. Ref.: (quoted) II. 16. 

FLORIO, Caryl (pseudonym of Wil- 
liam James Robjohn): contemp. 
American composer of church music. 
Ref.: IV. 359. 

FLORIZEL. See Reuter. 

FLoRSHEIM. See Floersheim. 

FLOTOW, Friedrich, Freiherr von 
(1812-1883) : b. Teutendorf, Mecklen- 
burg, d. Darmstadt; opera composer; 
studied composition with Reicha in 
Paris. After a stay in Mecklenburg 
(during the revolution of 1830), where 
he prod, two small operas, he returned 
to Paris, and brought out Seraphine 
(1836), Rob Roy, and Le naufrage de 
la Meduse (1839), his first genuine suc- 
cess (given in Homburg, 1845, as Die 
Matrosen) ; also La duchesse de Guise 
(1840) ; Le forestier (1840) ; I'Esclave 
de Camoens (1843), and the ballet 
'Lady Harris,' afterwards rewritten as 
'Martha.' His Alessandro Stradella was 
brought out in Hamburg, 1844, and his 
most popular work, 'Martha,' in Vienna. 
Then followed Die Grossfiirstin (Ber- 
lin, 1850) and Indra (Berlin, 1853), 
also some unsuccessful works; then the 
operettas La Veuve Grapin (Paris, 
1859) and Pianella (Paris, 1860), the 
operas Wintermdrchen (Vienna, 1862), 
Zilda (Paris, 1866), and Am Runenstein 
(Prague, 1868), and the ballets, Die 
Libelle (Vienna, 1866), and Tannkonig 
(Darmstadt, 1867) belong to this period. 
As intendant of court music at 
Schwerin (1863-68), he wrote a Fac- 
keltanz. He settled on one of his es- 
tates near Vienna, 1868; made frequent 



visits to Paris and Italy, and finally 
moved to Darmstadt. Ref.: II. 380; IX. 
19 232 f 

FLOWER, Eliza (1803-1846): b. 
Harlow, Essex; d. there; composer of 
hymns and anthems popular in their 
day, among them the original musical 
setting to 'Nearer, My God, to Thee.' 

FLOWERS, George French (1811- 
1872) : b. Boston, Eng., d. there; studied 
in Germany and played the organ at 
the English Chapel in Paris, then in 
various churches in London and else- 
where. He founded the Contrapuntists' 
Society and the British School of Vo- 
calization. He composed fugues, a 
mass, vocal works, etc., and wrote on 
the construction of fugue and har- 

FLttGEL (1) Gustave (1812-1900): 
b. Nienburg-on-Saale, d. Stettin; stud- 
ied with Fr. Schneider at Dessau; 
taught at Kofhen, Magdeburg, Stettin, 
and the Neuwied Seminary, where he 
became Boyal Musikdirektor, 1856; can- 
tor and organist at Schlosskirche, Stet- 
tin, after 1859; wrote many pieces for 
organ, instrumental music, choruses, 
etc. (2) Ernst Paul (1844-1912): b. 
Halle, d. Breslau; son of (1); or- 
ganist and teacher ; founded the Fliigel- 
Verein; composed for the piano and 
organ and wrote songs and a cappella 
choruses, also choral works with orch. 

FODOR (1) Joseph (1752-1828) : b. 
Venloo, d. St. Petersburg; studied with 
Benda and, after touring, settled as 
violinist in Paris, then at St. Peters- 
burg. His compositions are concerti 
and soli for the violin. (2) Josephine 
(1793-[?]): b. Paris, daughter of Jo- 
seph and a pianist at 11 years of age. 
After her marriage in 1812 with the 
actor Mainvielle, she travelled as an 
operatic soprano and sang at the Paris 
Opera Comique and the Italian Opera. 
She sang also in London, Naples and 
Vienna. (3) Enrichetta: daughter of 
Josephine; sang at the Berlin Friedrich 
Wilhelm Theatre, 1846-49. 

FOERSTER. See also Forster. 

FOERSTER, Adolph Martin 
(1854- ) : b. Pittsburg, Pa.; studied at 
the Leipzig Cons. ; living in Pittsburg as 
teacher and choral conductor; composed 
orchestral pieces (Festival, Dedication 
and Heroic marches, prelude to Goethe's 
'Faust,' etc.), chamber music, arias 
with orchestra, songs, piano pieces, or- 
gan and church music. Ref.: IV. 196, 

FOGGIA, Francesco (1604-1688) : b. 
Bome, d. there; composer and conduc- 
tor in courts of Bonn, Munich and 
Vienna, in churches at Narni, Monte 
Fiascone and Bome; he followed the 
Boman School and wrote masses, mo- 
tets, offertories, and other church mu- 

FOGLIANI (or Fogliano, or Fogli- 
anns) (1) Ludovico (late 15th cent.-ca. 
1539): b. Modena, d. there; musical 
theorist who was among the first (with 


Odington and Bamis) to promulgate the 
theory, later upheld by Zarlino, of the 
proportion of the major third as 4:5 
and the distinction between major and 
minor semitones. (2) Giacomo (1473- 
1548): b. Modena, d. there; composed 
madrigals and sacred and secular songs, 
still extant. 

FOHSTR6M, Alma (1861- ): 
b. Helsingsf 6rs ; studied with Madame 
Nissen-Saloman in St. Petersburg; con- 
cert soprano. 

FOKINE (1) Michael: contemporary 
Bussian dancer, associated with Diag- 
hileff in the modern reform movement 
(Ballet Busse). Ref.: III. 340; X. vi, 
219f, 220, 228, 231, 244. (2) Vera 
(Fokina) : wife of (1) ; Bussian bal- 
lerina. Ref.: X. 171, 220, 221, 224. 

FOLVILLE, [Eugenie gmilie] Juli- 
ette (1870- ): b. Liege, Belgium; 
studied with her father and Malherbes, 
O. Musin and Cesar Thomson; gave 
concerts (piano and violin) in North- 
ern France, Belgium and London ; pro- 
fessor of piano at Liege Cons., 1898; 
composed 2 piano sonatas, 2 books 
of songs, a piano quartet, 3 orchestral 
suites, church music, violin pieces, an 
opera, Atala (Lille, 1892; Bouen, 1893), 
and numerous other works. 

FOMIN, E. P. (1741-1800): earliest 
composer of Bussian birth. Ref.: IX. 

FONTAINE (1) Mortier de. See 
Mortier. (2) Petrus (early 15th cent.) : 
singer in the Papal chapel and com- 
poser of rondeaux. (3) Hendrik 
(1857- ): b. Antwerp; student and 
later singing teacher at Antwerp Con- 
servatory; concert bass; sang in 
Benoit's Lucifer. 

FONT AN A (1) Giovanni Battigta 
(t?]-1630): d. Brescia; composed so- 
natas for violin with 'cello, for 2 
violins with bassoon, for 3 violins, 
etc. Ref.: I. 368; VII. 383, 476. (2) 
Jules (1810-1869): b. Warsaw, d. 
Paris; teacher and pianist in London, 
Paris, America; composer for piano- 

FONTANE, Theodor. Ref. : VI. 380. 

FOOTE, Arthur William (1853-) : 
b. Salem, Mass.; studied with B. 
J. Lang, S. A. Emery, and J. K. Paine, 
and graduated A. M. at Harvard in 
music. Organist in Boston since 1878. 
He wrote for orchestra: 'In the Moun- 
tains,' overture; 'Francesca da Bimini,' 
symphonic prologue; suite for strings, 
in E minor; Concerto for 'cello; Suite 
for orchestra; for chorus and orch., 
'Farewell of Hiawatha' (male), 'The 
Wreck of the Hesperus' (mixed), 'The 
Skeleton in Armor'; also a piano quin- 
tet, a piano quartet, 2 trios, 3 string 
quartets, sonatas for violin, 2 suites 
for piano, and smaller pieces for violin, 
'cello, piano, and songs. Ref. : IV. 338ff, 
357; VI. 221, 449; VII. 340, 589; mus. 
ex., XIV. 205; portrait, IV. 342. 

FORBERG. Robert (1833-1880) : b. 
Liitzen, d. Leipzig; publisher of music 



of Rheinberger, Reinecke, Raff, Jensen, 
etc., estab. in Leipzig since 1862. 

FORCHHAMMER, Theophil (1847-) : 
b. Schiers, Graubiinden ; studied at 
the conservatory of Stuttgart; became 
cathedral organist and royal music di- 
rector in Magdeburg; composed organ 
concerto, and pieces for organ, piano 
and songs. 

FORD (1) Thomas (ca. 1580-1648) : 
b. England; musician to Prince Henry, 
son of James I, and to Charles I; wrote 
'Musicke of Sundrie Kindes . . .' 
(1607), the madrigal 'Since First I Saw 
Your Face,' songs in Leighton's 'Teares' 
and canons in Hilton's 'Catch That 
Catch Can.' (2) Ernest A. O. (1858-) : 
b. London ; pupil of Sullivan and of Lalo 
in Paris; conductor at the Empire The- 
atre, London. He composed 'Daniel 
O'Rourke,' opera (1884), 'Nydia,' duo- 
logue (1889), 'Joan,' opera (1890), 'Mr. 
Jericho,' operetta (1893), 'Jane Annie 
or The Good-Conduct Prize,' comic op- 
era (London, 1893) ; a cantata for fe- 
male voices, a motet, ballets, songs, 
duets, etc. Ref.: III. 430, 432. 

PORKEL, Johann Nikolaus (1749- 
1818) : b. Meeder, near Coburg, d. G6t- 
tingen; Chorpriifect at Schwerin; or- 
ganist and harpist. He became organ- 
ist at the Univ. of Gottingen and Mu- 
sikdirektor in 1778; specialized in mu- 
sical history and became hon. Dr. phil. 
He wrote uber die Theorie der Musik 
(1774) ; Musikalisch-kritische Biblio- 
thek (1778-9, 3 vols.) ; uber die beste 
Einrichtung offentlicher Concerte 
(1779) ; Genauere Bestimmung einiger 
musikalischer Begriffe (1780) ; Musik- 
alischer Almanack fixr Deutschland 
(1782, 1783, 1784, 1789) ; Allgemeine 
Geschichte der Musik (1788 to 1801, 
2 vols.; only down to 1550); Allge- 
meine Litteratur der Musik (1792) ; 
uber Joh. Seb. Bachs Leben, Kunst 
und Kunstwerke (1803; Engl, transl., 
1820). He transcribed in modern nota- 
tion, Graphaus' Missee XIII (1539), 
and the Liber XV missarum of Petrejus 
(1538) ; masses by Okeghem, Obrecht, 
Josquin, and others. Only the proof- 
sheets, corrected by F., are preserved 
in the Berlin Library, the plates hav- 
ing been destroyed by the French 
troops. He composed sonatas and vari- 
ations, songs, oratorio Hiskias, 2 can- 
tatas, Die Macht des Gesangs and 
Die Hirten an der Krippe zu Bethle- 
hem; also symphonies, trios, choruses, 
etc. Ref.: II. 31. 

FORMES (1) Karl Johann (1816- 
1889) : b. Miilheim-on-Rhine, d. San 
Francisco; made his debut as operatic 
bass at Cologne, 1841 ; sang in Mann- 
heim, London, and the United States. 
(2) Theodor (1826-1874) : b. Miihl- 
heim, d. near Bonn; brother of (1) ; 
made his debut as tenor at Of en, 1846; 
sang at Vienna, Mannheim, Berlin and 
in the United States. 


FORNARI, Vincenzo (1848-1900) : b. 


Naples, d. there; composed the operas 
Maria di Torre (Naples, 1873), Salamm- 
bo e Zuma (ib., 1881), and Un dramma 
in vendemmia (Florence, 1896). 

FORNER, Christian (1610-1678) : b. 
Wettin, d. there; organ-builder, and 
inventor of the 'wind-gauge' (1675) ; his 
organs at Halle (Ulrichskirche) and 
Weissenfels (Augustusburg) are still 
in use. Ref.: VI. 405. 

FORNIA-LABEY (nee Newman), 
Rita (1878- ): b. San Francisco; 
studied with Jean de Reszke, Paris, 
and Frau Nicklass-Kempner, Berlin; 
debut as coloratura soprano at Ham- 
burg; sang in various cities of Ger- 
many, Covent Garden, London, and at 
the Metropolitan Opera House, New 
York, since 1908. 

FORONI, Jacopo (1825-1858) : b. Ve- 
rona, d. Stockholm; directed an Ital- 
ian operatic troupe, conducted at the 
Stockholm court, and composed 4 op- 
eras, besides overtures and etudes 
for piano. 

FORSTER (1) Georg (ca. 1514- 
1568) : b. Amberg, d. Nuremberg; physi- 
cian who pub. a great collection of 
German songs (5 parts, 15[?], 1539-56). 
(2) Georg ([?]-1587): b. Annaberg, 
Saxony, d. Dresden; court Kapell- 
meister there. (3) William (1739- 
1808): b. Brampton, d. London; violin 
maker, whose 'cellos are especially val- 
uable and rare. His son William 
(1764-1824) succeeded him. (4) Joseph 
(1845- ): b. Trofaiach, Styria; com- 
poser of the operas Die Wallfahrt der 
Konigin (Vienna, 1878), Die Rose von 
Pontevedra (Gotha, 1893), Der tod Mon 
(Vienna, 1902), and 2 ballets for Vi- 
enna (1881, 1883). 

FORSTER (1) Caspar (Sr.) : cantor 
in Danzig, 1607, Kapellmeister of St. 
Mary's church there, 1627, and propri- 
etor of a book store. (2) Caspar 
(Jr.) (1617-1673) : b. Danzig, d. near 
there; cousin of (1), in whose book 
store he was employed, and whom, 
after musical activities in Warsaw and 
Italy, he succeeded in St. Mary's church ; 
court Kapellmeister in Copenhagen, 
1660-61; composer of an opera, church 
music, and theoretician. (3) Christoph 
(1693-1745) : b. Bibra, Thuringia, d. 
Rudolstadt; chamber musician and 
later ducal Kapellmeister in Merseburg, 
then court Kapellmeister in Rudolstadt. 
Of his compositions 26 church cantatas, 
a mass, a Sanctus, and setting of psalm 
117, also 4 secular cantatas, 12 sym- 
phonies, 6 orchestral suites, concertos, 
violin sonatas and a trio for 2 violins 
and continuo are preserved. Ref.: II. 
7. (4) Emanuel Aloys (1748-1823): b. 
Niederstein, Silesia, d. Vienna; com- 
poser of piano sonatas, variations, 
string quartets, piano quartets, string 
quintets, string sextet, Notturno concer- 
tante for string and wind instruments, 
etc., which approached closely to Bee- 
thoven's style; also a cantata, some 
songs, and pub. an introduction to thor- 



ough-bass (1805). Ref.: VII. 510. (5) 
Joseph (1833-1907): b. Bohemia, d. 
Prague, where he studied at the Organ 
School; was organist and choir director 
at various churches and the Dom; also 
theory teacher at the Cons, and school 
examiner in music; composer of poly- 
phonic choral music a cappella, masses, 
Requiems and organ music; author of a 
harmony method. (6) Alhan (1849-) : 
b. Reichenbach, studied at the Dres- 
den Cons., concert master in vari- 
ous cities, choral conductor, conser- 
vatory teacher in Dresden, court Kapell- 
meister at Neustrelitz, 1882-1908; com- 
poser of a symphony, a festival march, 
chamber music, 3 violin sonatas, in- 
structive piano pieces, and 3 operas. 

(7) Adolph Martin. See Foerster. 

(8) Anton (1867-1915): b. Croatia, pi- 
anist and teacher in Berlin. (9) Josef 
B. (1859- ): b. Prague, son of (5), 
critic and conservatory teacher in Ham- 
burg; composer of 2 symphonies, a 
symphonic poem, suites, 2 operas, a 
Stabat Mater, and other sacred choral 
works, also chamber music, piano 
pieces and songs. His wife, Bertha 
Liauterer, is an opera singer; member 
of the Vienna court opera from 1903 
since when F. has lived in Vienna. 

FORTSCH, Johann Phtlipp (1652- 
1732) : b. Wertheim, Franconia, d. 
Eutin; physician by profession, but 
adopted music, sang in Hamburg, and 
succeeded Theile at Gottorp as Kapell- 
meister to the Duke of Schleswig, 1680. 
He wrote 12 operas; clavichord-con- 
certos, etc. Ref.: IX. 30. 

FORSYTH, Cecil (1870- ): b. 
Kent, England; studied with Sir Her- 
bert Stanley and with Sir C. Villiers 
Stanford at the Royal College of Mu- 
sic, London; composer of an opera, 
several overtures, a viola concerto in 
G min., Chant Celtique for viola and 
orchestra, string quartets, 2 masses, 4 
orchestral studies based on Hugo's Les 
Miserables, many vocal pieces and a 
number of works for solo voice with 
orchestra; published 'Music and Na- 
tionalism' (1911) and 'Orchestration' 
(1914) ; contributor to 'The Art of Mu- 
sic. Ref.: (cited) VIII. 9, 20, 33, 36, 

FOSTER (1) Stephen Collins (1826- 
1864): b. Lawrenceville (Pittsburg), 
Pa., d. New York; American composer 
of songs in folk-style. He was chiefly 
self-taught, learned to play the flageo- 
let at 7, wrote a waltz for 4 flutes and 
pub. his first song, 'Open thy lattice, 
love,' in 1840. During 1845-46 he 
wrote 'The Louisiana Belle,' 'Old Uncle 
Ned,' and 'O Susanna'; these were fol- 
lowed by 'My old Kentucky home,' 'Old 
dog Tray,' 'Massa's in the cold, cold 
ground,' 'Gentle Annie,' 'Willie, we 
have missed you,' *I would not die in 
spring-time,' 'Come where my love lies 
dreaming,' 'Old black Joe,' 'Ellen 
Boyne,' 'Old folks at home,' 'Nellie 
was a lady,' 'O, boys, carry me 'long,' 


<NeIly Bly,» *Nancy Till,' 'Laura Lee,' 
'Maggie by my side,' 'Beautiful dream- 
er,' etc., over 160 in all. F. usually 
wrote both words and music of his 
songs. Ref.: IV. 286, 318ff, 416, 452; 
V. 107, 129, 163f; portrait, IV. 318. 

(2) Myles Birket (1851- ): b. 
London; studied at Royal Academy 
of Music; organist at Haweis' church 
and at the Foundling Hospital; editor 
for Messrs. Bbosey until 1900; exam- 
iner of Trinity College, London, since 
1888; composed church music and sev- 
eral children's cantatas, also instru- 
mental music and songs; wrote 'An- 
thems and Anthem Composers' (1901). 

(3) Fay: b. Leavenworth, Kansas; 
studied in Chicago and at the conser- 
vatories of Leipzig and Munich; won 
the International Waltz Competition 
prize of 2000 marks in Berlin, 1910; 
first prize in American Composers' 
Contest, New York, 1913; composed 
many songs. (4) Muriel (1877- ) : 
b. Sunderland, England; studied at 
the Royal College of Music; won sev- 
eral prizes for singing; appeared be- 
fore Queen Victoria in 1900; toured 
Canada, Holland, Germany, Russia, 
and the United States; married Lud- 
wig Goetze in 1906 and retired. 

FOUQXIE, Pierre Octave (1844- 
1883): b. Pau, d. there; studied with 
Becker, Chauvet and at the Conserva- 
toire with Thomas; became librarian 
there and music critic to French jour- 
nals. He wrote for pianoforte, songs 
and operettas; wrote 4 books on Eng- 
lish and French music. 

FOURDRAIN, Felix (1880- ): 
composed the operas Echo (Paris, 
1906), La Legende du point d'Argentan 
(ib., 1907), La Glaneuse (Lyon, 1909), 
Vercingetorix (Nice, 1912), Madame 
Roland (Rouen, 1913) and Les contes 
de Perrault (Paris, 1913). 

FOTJRNIER (1) Pierre-Simon 
(1712-1768): b. Paris, d. there; intro- 
duced round-headed notes which he 
described in Essai d'un nouveau carac- 
tere de fonte (1756), also pub. a trea- 
tise on the history of music printing 
(Paris, 1765). (2) £mile-Eugene- 
Alix (1864-1897): b. Paris, d. Join- 
ville-le-Pont ; studied at the Conser- 
vatoire, won the prix de Rome with 
the opera Stratonice (Opera, 1892) ; 
pub. songs and wrote an opera, Car- 
loman, which was not produced. 

FOX, Felix (1876- ): b. Bres- 
lau; studied at Leipzig Cons.; won 
the Helbig prize; then studied with 
Philipp in Paris; became a teacher 
and pianist in Boston, 1897; with 
Buonamici founded a piano-school 
there, 1898. 

FRAEMCKE, August (1870- ): 

b. Hamburg; studied at the conserva- 
tories of Hamburg and Vienna; made ' 
his debut as pianist at Hamburg, 1886; 
toured Europe and became a joint di- 
rector with C. Hein of the New York 
College of Music in 1906. 



FRAGEROLLE, Georges Auguste 

(1855- ) : b. Paris ; wrote patriotic 
songs, several operas, a pantomime, 

[Lei FRANC, Guillaume ([?]- 
1570): b. Rouen, d. Lausanne; singer 
and choir master in Geneva and Lau- 
sanne; composed church music. 

See Landino, Francesco. 

FRANCHETTI, Alberto, Baron 
(1860- ) : b. Turin ; studied with 
Nicolo Coccon and Fortunato Magi, 
also in the conservatories of Munich 
and Dresden (Draeseke) ; composed 
orchestral and chamber music, also the 
operas, Asracle ('dramatic legend,' 
1888), Cristoforo Colombo (1892), Fior 
d'Alpe (1894), II Signor di Pourceau- 
gnac (1897), and Germania, which was 
produced also in Covent Garden and 
the New York Metropolitan Opera 
House. Ref.: III. 369, 392; VIII. 446. 
(2) Valerio: Italian violinist, nephew 
of Alberto. 

polito, Conte della Valetta (1848- 
1911): b. Turin, d. Rome; founded a 
Quartet Society, 1875, and the 'Ac- 
cademia di Canto Corale,' 1876; com- 
posed a lyric sketch and a ballet (Na- 
ples, 1896) ; wrote a paper on Doni- 
zetti (Rome, 1897). 

FRANCHOMME, Anguste (1808- 
1884) : b. Lille, d. Paris ; studied at the 
Conservatoire; played 'cello in or- 
chestra of the Opera, 1827, of the 
Theatre Italien, 1828; teacher of 'cello 
in the Conservatoire, 1846; composed 
many works for the 'cello. 

FRANCHINUS. See Gafori. 

II. 27. 

II. 91. 

FRANCIS, Samuel (18th cent.) : a 
musical pioneer in America. Ref.: IV. 

FRANCK (1) Melchior (ca. 1580- 
1639) : b. Zittau, d. Coburg, where he 
was court Kapellmeister from 1603. 
He published Melodiae sacrae a U-12 
(1600-7; 3 parts); Musikalische Rerg- 
reyen (1602) ; Teutsche Psalmen und 
Kirchengesange (1602) ; Neue Padua- 
nen, Galliarden, etc. (1603) ; Opuscu- 
lum etlicher newer und alter Reuter- 
Liedlein (1603) ; and a number of simi- 
lar collections, both of secular and 
sacred music, settings of psalms and 
other scriptures, dances, occasional 
pieces, etc. Many are reprinted, others 
preserved in manuscript in various li- 
braries. A list of his works was pub- 
lished in the Monatshefte fur Musik- 
geschichte, vol. xvii. Ref.: VII. 472; 
VIII. 125. (2) Johann Wolfgang (ca. 
1641-after 1695): b. Hamburg, d. Lon- 
don; prod. 14 operas in London from 
1679 to 1686; also pub. violin sonatas 
and Geistliche Melodien (1681, repub. 
1857). (3) Joseph (1820-1891): b. 
Liege, d. Paris; brother of Cesar (4); 



organist and teacher; pub. church mu- 
sic, piano concertos and studies, songs 
and books on theory and method. 
(4) Cesar-[AuGusTE] (1822-1890): b. 
Liege, d. Paris; studied at Liege Cons, 
until 1837, then at the Paris Cons., tak- 
ing first prize in piano and second in 
composition; organ pupil of Benoist, 
whom he succeeded as professor of 
organ at the Conservatoire, and as or- 
ganist at Ste. Clotilde, 1872. He is 
the originator of a distinctive style of 
extraordinary loftiness, nobility and 
richness, and one of the great modern 
developers of the classic forms; gen- 
erally regarded as the true founder of 
the modern French school. He com- 
posed a 4-act comic opera, Hulda 
(Monte Carlo, 1894) ; an unfinished 4- 
act lyric drama, Ghiselle (Monte Carlo, 
1896) ; the oratorios Ruth et Roaz and 
La Redemption (1871) ; a choral sym- 
phonic poem, Les Reatitudes; a sym- 
phonic poem, Le Chasseur maudit; an- 
other for piano and orchestra, Les 
Djinns; a symphony in D min.; a piano 
sonata, a violin sonata, a string quar- 
tet, a piano quintet, each a master- 
piece of its kind; also Prelude, Aria 
et Final and Prelude Chorale et 
Fugue, for piano, songs, etc. Ref.: 
I. 478; II. 439, 469ff, 371f; III. xi, xii, 
xiv, xviii, 205, 277ff, 279, 281f, 296; 
(influence) III. 301, 314, 319; songs, 
354f; choral works, VI. 295f; organ 
works, 470f; piano comp., VII. 207, 
345ff, 461; chamber music, VII. 547ff, 
561, 581, 586; orchestral works, VIII. 
324, 334ff; opera, LX. 443, 454, 460; 
mus. ex., XIII. 362, 367; portraits, II. 
470; VI. 300. 

FRANCKE (1) Kuno. Ref.: (quot- 
ed) II. 48. (2) August Hermann: 
founder of a piano factory in Leipzig, 

FRANCKENSTEIN, Clemens, Frei- 
herr von (1875- ) : b. Wiesentheid, 
Lower Franconia; conducted in Lon- 
don, Wiesbaden, and Berlin; intendant 
at court opera, Munich, 1912; General- 
intendant since 1914; composed the 
operas Griseldis (1898), Fortunatus 
(1909) and Rahab (1911). 

FRANCO (1) of Paris (sometimes 
called Franco the Elder), was maitre 
de chapelle at Notre-Dame, Paris, ca. 
1100, A. D. (2) of Cologne, prior of 
the Benedictine Abbey at Cologne in 
1190; b. Dortmund; author of Musica 
et cantus mensurabilis, Compendium 
de discantu, both printed in Gerbert's 
Scriptores. It is possible that his- 
torians have confused the two Francos, 
or that only one existed; both names 
are identified with innovations in no- 
tation. Ref.: VI. 18. 

FRANCCEUR (1) Francois (1698- 
1787): b. Paris, d. there; violinist, first 
in Opera orch., then chamber-musician 
to the King, one of the 24 violons du 
roi (1730), chamber-composer (1732), 
opera-inspector (jointly with Francois 
Rebel), director of the Opera (1751), 


and superintendent of the King's music 
(1760). He wrote 2 books of violin 
sonatas, and produced 10 operas to- 
gether with Rebel. Ref.: VII. 406. (2) 
Louis-Joseph (1738-1803) : b. Paris, d. 
there; nephew of (1); violinist in 
Opera orch. ; assistant conductor, con- 
ductor, and for a while director of the 
Opera. He composed a 1-act opera, 
Ismene et Lindor (Opera, 1766), other 
operas, and pub. Diapason general de 
ious les instruments a vent, etc. (1772). 

FRANK, Ernst (1847-1889) : b. Mu- 
nich, d. near Vienna; Kapellmeister at 
Wurzburg, 1868; chorus-master at the 
court opera, Vienna, 1869 ; court Kapell- 
meister at Mannheim, 1872-77; succeed- 
ed Billow as opera Kapellmeister in 
Hanover, 1879-87; composed 3 operas 
and many songs. 

FRANKE, Hermann (1834- ): 

b. Neusalz-on-the-Oder ; cantor in Cros- 
sen and in Sorau; royal Musikdirektor; 
composer of sacred and secular ora- 
torios, songs, etc.; author of a hand- 
book on music and an introduction to 
liturgical singing. 


Friedrich (1824-1885): b. Wumbach, 
Schwarzburg-Sondershausen ; studied 
there and in Leipzig; violinist, teacher 
and assistant conductor of the Hof- 
kapelle, Sondershausen ; prod. 3 operas, 
methods for organ and harmony and 
was distinguished for his ability as a 

FRANKLIN, Benjamin (1706-1790) : 
b. Boston, d. Philadelphia; the great 
American statesman and scientist, who 
invented the 'musical glasses' which he 
called the 'Harmonica'; also wrote va- 
rious essays on the music of his day. 
Ref.: IV. 29, 70. 

FRANKO, Sam (1857- ) : b. New 
Orleans; member of the Theodore 
Thomas Orchestra, 1880, concert-master, 
1884-91; founded the American Sym- 
phony Orchestra in 1894; gave cham- 
ber-music concerts at the Aschenbrodel 
Club, New York, 1893-1901; teacher at 
Stern Cons., Berlin, 1910; became a 
private teacher in New York, 1915; pub. 
works for the violin. 
' FRANZ, Robert (real name.Knauth, 
changed in 1847, by official permission) 
(1815-1892) : b. Halle, d. there. He en- 
countered parental opposition in youth 
but was allowed to finish his musical 
education under Fr. Schneider at Des- 
sau (1835-37). He then devoted six 
years to the study of Bach, Beethoven, 
Handel and Schubert. F.'s first set of 
12 songs appeared in 1843; he became 
organist at the Ulrichskirche, conductor 
of Singakademie and Musikdirektor at 
Halle Univ., where he received the title 
of Doctor of Music in 1861. In 1868 
he resigned on account of deafness. He 
wrote 350 songs, besides church music, 
chorales, male choruses, revisions of 
Bach and Handel; also Mitteilungen 
iiber J. S. Racks Magnificat (1863), 
Vber Rearbeitungen dlterer Tonwerke, 


namentlich Bachscher und Hdndelscher 
Vokalwerke (1871). Ref.: II. 298ff; 
songs, V. 268ff, 278, 299f, 334f; mus. 
ex., XIII. 309, 311; portrait, V. 268. See 
also individual indexes. 

FRXNZL (1) Ignaz (1736-1811): b. 
Mannheim, d. there; virtuoso violinist; 
concert master and court music di- 
rector at Mannheim; composed sym- 
phonies, violin concertos, and other 
instrumental works. Ref.: VII. 418. 
(2) Ferdinand (1770-1833) : b. Mann- 
heim, d. there; violinist and composer; 
studied composition with Padre Mar- 
tini ; court concert master, court Kapell- 
meister and director of the German 
opera at Munich; music director of the 
National Theatre at Frankf ort-on-Main ; 
composed nine violin concertos, a con- 
certo for two violins, six string quar- 
tets, a symphony, operas and other 
works. Ref.: VII. 418. 

FRASCHINI, Gaetano (1815-1887): 
b. Pavia, d. Naples; operatic tenor in 
Italy and England. 

FRASI, Ginlia (18th cent.): Italian 
singer; appeared in Handel's works in 
England, 1743-58. 

FRAUENLOB, surname of Heinrich 
von Meissen (d. Mayence, 1813) : one 
of the last minnesingers, whose Marien- 
leichen in their inflated style seem to 
show their composer's close relation to 
the Meistersinger. He is indeed sup- 
posed to have founded the first master 
singers' school at Mayence; 15 of his 
melodies are contained in the Colmar 
MS. F. is, according to a legend, said 
to have been carried to his grave by 
women. Ref.: I. 220, 222; VIII. 479. 

FREDERICK the Great (Fred- 
erick II), King of Prussia (1712-1786) : 
b. Berlin, d. Potsdam; was an accom- 
plished flute-player and an amateur 
composer, having written an opera, // 
re pastore, an overture ('Acis and Gala- 
thea'), flute solos, an aria and marches. 
C. P. E. Bach, Quantz, Graun, Benda 
and others were his musical mentors. 
Some of his works are pub. by Breit- 
kopf and Hartel. Ref.: I. 468f; II. 31, 
48, 50, 58, 70, 78, 107, 204, 277; VI. 245; 
VII. 414; VIII. 150; IX. 82, 108; por- 
trait, II. 58. 

King of Prussia. Ref.: VI. 179; VII. 
487, 494. (2) III, King of Prussia. 
Ref.: III. 198. (3) IV, King of Prus- 
sia. Ref.: II. 261. 

FRfiDfiRIX, Gustav (1834-1894): b. 
Liege, d. Brussels; critic. 

FREER, Eleanor, Everest: con- 
temp. American song composer. Ref.: 
IV. 404. 

FREIBERG, Otto (1846- ) : b. 

Naumburg; studied at the Leipzig Cons, 
and with Lachner; violinist in the court 
orchestra at .Karlsruhe; music director 
at Marburg University and at Gottin- 
gen, where he was also professor ex- 

FREMSTAD, Olive: contemp. Ameri- 
can dramatic soprano; b. Stockholm, 



Sweden, stud. Chicago, Milwaukee, and 
with Lehmann; debut in Cologne; 
sang Amsterdam, Antwerp, Vienna, Mu- 
nich, Covent Garden, Met. Opera House, 
New York, in all leading Wagner 
roles, inch Isolde, Kundry and Brunn- 
hilde, also other operas. Created 'Sa- 
lome' (in Strauss' opera) in America. 

FRENE, Eu^ne Henri (ca. 1860- 
1896): b. Strassburg, d. Paris; studied 
at the Conservatoire; conducted the 
Alsatian Choral Society of Paris and 
the orchestra of the Ostend theatre; 
wrote the opera Quand on aime, prod, 
in Paris. 

FRERE, Roderick Walter How- 
ard (1863- ): b. England; Anglican 
priest at St. Dunstan, Stepney, 1887, 
now at Mirfleld, who edited for the 
Plainsong Society the Graduate Saris- 
buriensis (1894), the Bibliotheca mu- 
sica liturgica (a descriptive catalogue 
of mediaeval MSS. in Britain, 1901) and 
the Gregorian Antiphonale Missarum 
(1896), etc., also prepared a new 
edition of Ravenscroft's Psalter, etc. 

FRESCHI, Giovanni Domenico 
(1640-1690) : b. Vincenza, d. there ; 
composed church music, an oratorio, 
'Judith,* and 14 operas, all except one 
of which was produced in Venice. Ref. : 
IX. 20. 

FRESCOBALDI, Girolamo (1583- 
1644) : b. Ferrara, buried at Rome ; 
famous organist, composer, pupil of 
Luzzasco Luzzaschi at Ferrara; trav- 
elled to Flanders and was probably 
organist at Mechlin, 1607. He pub. his 
first work, a collection of 5-part madri- 
gals, at Antwerp, 1608 (printed by 
Phalese) ; became organist of St. Pe- 
ter's, at Rome, where 30,000 people are 
said to have attended his first per- 
formance, and held this post till he 
died, though in 1628-33 he was court- 
organist at Florence. Froberger was 
his pupil, 1637-41. F. is also impor- 
tant as composer, having introduced 
daring innovations in harmony (fore- 
shadowing our modern key-system), 
new developments in fugal form, and 
improvements in notation. He pub- 
lished Fantasie a 2, 3 e k (1608) ; Ricer- 
cari et canzoni francesi (1615) ; Toccate 
e partite d'intavolatura di cembalo 
(1615) : II 2° libro di toccate, canzoni, 
versi d'inni, magnificat, gagliarde, cor- 
renti ed altre partite d'intav. di cem- 
balo ed organo (1616) ; Capricci sopra 
diuersi soggetti (Rome, 1624; repub. 
in Venice, 1628, with the Ricercari of 
1615) ; 2 books of Canzont a 1-k voci per 
sonare e per cantare con ogni sorte 
d'istrumenti (1620, 1637) ; Arie musi- 
cali a piii voci (1630) ; Fiori musicali 
di toccate, Kyrie, canzoni, capricci et 
ricercari in partitura per sonatori con 
basso per organo (1635). A fourth 
book of Canzoni alia francese was pub. 
at Venice, 1645, from manuscripts; in 
this form he also left Lamentazione, 
and In te, Domine, speravi for double 
choir. Ref.: I. 358ff; III. 385; VI. 424f, 


436; Vn. 15ff, 24, 476; VIII. 284; mus. 
ex., XIII. 83; portrait, VI. 426. 

FREUDENBERG, Wilhelin (1838-) : 
b. Raubacher Hiitte, Prussia; studied 
in Leipzig; founded a conservatory in 
Wiesbaden, 1870, and conducted the 
Singakademie there until 1886, when he 
opened a music school with Karl 
Mengewein in Berlin; choir director at 
the Kaiser Wilhelm Gedachtniskirche 
there since 1905; composed several op- 
eras, a symphonic poem, incidental 
music, an overture, church music, pi- 
ano pieces and songs. 

FREUDMAN, Ignaz. See Fried- 

FREUND (1) or Freundt, Cornelius 
([?]-1591): b. Plauen, Vogtland, d. 
Zwickau; composer of Protestant church 
music. (2) Robert (1852- ) : b. 
Pesth; studied with Moscheles, Coccius, 
Taussig and Liszt; composer of piano- 
forte pieces and songs. 

FREY (1) M. ([?]-1832); violinist, 
conductor and operatic composer at 
the Mannheim court. (2) Adolf 
(1865- ): b. Landau, Palatinate; 
studied with Mme. Schumann, Faisst 
and Brahms; court musician to Prince 
Alexander Friedrich of Hesse, 1887-93; 
professor of music at Syracuse Uni- 
versity, New York, since 1893. 

FREZZOLINI, Erminia (1818- 

1884): b. Orvieto, d. Paris; operatic 
soprano; her d^but was made at Flor- 
ence in Beatrice di Tenda (1838) ; sang 
in several Italian cities as well as in 
London, Paris, St. Petersburg and New 

FRIBERTH, Karl (1736-1816): b. 
Wullersdorf, Lower Austria, d. Vienna; 
tenor to Prince Esterhazy at Eisenstadt; 
Jesuit conductor in Vienna and com- 
poser of church music. 

FRICHOT (ca. 1800): 

said by Fetis to have invented the 
Bussian bassoon. Ref.: VIII. 51. 

FRICK, Philipp Joseph (1740-1798) : 
b. Wiirzburg, d. London; organist at 
the court of Baden-Baden; virtuoso on 
the musical glasses; teacher and writ- 
er in London. 

FRICKE (1) August Gottfried 
Imdnig (1829-1894) : b. Brunswick, d. 
Berlin; operatic bass in Brunswick, 
Bremen, Konigsberg, Stettin and in the 
Berlin Boyal Opera. (2) Richard 
(1877- ): b. Oschersleben; studied 
in Berlin; organist, director and sing- 
ing teacher in Insterburg; composer of 
male choruses, a string quartet, pieces 
for piano and organ. 

FRICKENHAUS (nde Evans), 
Fanny (1849- ) : b. Cheltenham, 
London; studied with Dupont and 
Bohrer; London concert pianist of 
note, gave chamber music concerts. 

FRIED. Oskar (1871- ) : b. Ber- 
lin, studied with Humperdinck and 
Philipp Scharwenka; director of Ber- 
lin societies; composer of Das trunkene 
Lied and Erntelied for chorus, prelude 
and double fugue for large orchestra, 



a piece for 13 wind instruments and 2 
harps; Verkldrte Nacht for soli and 
orchestra; choral works for women's 
voices, and songs. Ref.: VI. 357. 

FRIEDBERG, Carl (1872- ): b. 

Bingen, Germany; studied at the Frank- 
fort Cons.; taught piano there, 1893- 
1904; professor at Cologne Cons., 1904- 
14; toured the United States, 1914; pro- 
fessor of piano at the Institute of 
Musical Art since 1916. 

FRIEDENTHAL, Albert (1862-) : 
b. Bromberg; studied with Agath, 
Steinbrunn and Kullak; pianist resi- 
dent in Berlin; has made world-wide 
tours since 1882. He pub. Stimmen 
der Volker (5 books), Musik, Tanz und 
Dichtung bei den Kreolen Amerikas 
(1913) ; wrote piano pieces and songs. 
Ref.: (cited) IV. 305. 

FRIEDHEIM, Arthur (1859- ): 

b. St. Petersburg; studied with Bubin- 
stein and Liszt; toured America, 1891; 
taught in the Chicago College of Mu- 
sic, 1897; lived subsequently in New 
York, London, Munich and in New 
York again since 1913; wrote a piano 
concerto, piano pieces and songs; prod, 
an opera, Die Tanzerin, Karlsruhe, 

FRIEDLXNDER, Max (1852- ): 

b. Brieg, Silesia; studied with Garcia 
and Stockhausen; Dr. phil. at Bostock, 
1887, with the thesis Beitrdge zur Biog- 
raphie Franz Schuberts; became pro- 
fessor and Musikdirektor at Berlin 
Univ., 1903; exchange professor at Har- 
vard, 1911; pub. a complete edition 
of Schubert's songs and 100 Deutsche 
Volkslieder (1885) ; also assisted in 
preparing Volksliederbuch fur Manner- 
chor (1906) and a similar work for 
mixed choirs; edited new editions of 
the songs of Schumann, Mendelssohn 
and Beethoven, and wrote many valu- 
able critical essays. 

FRIEDMANN, Ignaz (1882- ): 

b. Podgorze, near Cracow; studied in 
Leipzig and Vienna; toured Europe 
since 1905; prepared a new edition of 
Chopin's work in 12 volumes; wrote 
piano pieces and pieces for 'cello and 

FRIEDRICH. See also Frederick. 

ONY. Ref.: VI. 148. 

VIII. 414. 

FRIES, Wulf (Christian Julius) 
(1825-1902): b. Garbeck, Germany, d. 
Boxbury, Mass.; played in the Ber- 
gen theatre orchestra after 1842; found- 
ed the Mendelssohn Quintet Club in 
Boston; gave concerts throughout the 
New England States until 1901. 

FRIEZE, Henry S.: contemp. Ameri- 
can musical educator. Ref.: IV. 268. 

FRIKE. See Frick. 

FRIML., Rudolph (1881- ): b. 

Prague; studied at Prague Cons.; ac- 
companied Kubelik on tours through 
the United States in 1901 and 1906; 
played his piano concerto with New 


York Symphony; composed the comic 
operas, 'The Firefly,' 'Katinka,' etc.; 
also wrote many piano pieces, songs 
and instrumental music. 

FRIMMEL, The odor von (1853-) : 
b. Amstetten, Austria; assistant cus- 
todian of the Imperial Museum, Vi- 
enna, 1884-93; director of the art gal- 
lery of Count Schonborn-Wiesentheid 
and teacher of history of art at the 
Athenaum there; editor of the Beetho- 
ven-Forschung since 1908; wrote many 
books on Beethoven. 

FRISCHEN, Josef (1863- ): b. 

Garzweiler, Palatinate; studied at Co- 
logne Cons.; conductor of the Musik- 
akademie and Philharmonic Concerts 
in Hanover, since 1902; Boyal Musik- 
direktor and conductor of the Lehrer- 
Gesangverein in Brunswick; wrote 3 
choral works with orchestra, instru- 
mental pieces, etc. 

FRISKIN, James (1886- ): b. 

Glasgow; studied at Boyal Coll. of Mu- 
sic, composer of chamber music, or- 
chestra suite, motets. Ref. : III. 442; 
VII. 589. 

FRITZE, Wilhelm (1842-1881) : b. 
Bremen, d. Stuttgart; studied in Bre- 
men, Leipzig and Berlin; toured France 
and Italy, conducted the Singakademie, 
Liegnitz, 1866-77; wrote the oratorios 
Fingel and David, a symphony, con- 
certos for violin and piano, church 
music and songs. 

FRITZSCH, Ernst Wilhelm (1840- 
1902): b. Liitzen, d. Leipzig; studied 
at the Leipzig Cons. ; secured the music- 
publishing business of Bomnitz in 
Leipzig in 1866, which he sold to 
C. F. W. Siegel in 1903; pub. Wag- 
ner's collected works; edited the Mu- 
sikalisches Wochenblatt from 1870 and 
Musikalische Hausblatter in 1875. By 
publishing the works of young com- 
posers, F. has been instrumental in 
furthering modern music. 

FRIZ (or Fritz), Gaspard (1716- 
1782): b. Geneva, d. there; studied 
with Somis; violinist and composer of 
chamber music, symphonies, violin 
sonatas, piano concertos, etc. 

FROBERGER, Johann Jakob 
(1605[?]-1667) : b. Halle(?), d. Heri- 
court, Haute-Saone, France; celebrated 
organist and composer. He was taken, 
when a boy, to Vienna, where he en- 
tered the Imperial choir and studied 
the organ. In 1637 he was court organ- 
ist at Vienna; there he was given 200 
florins to enable him to study in Borne 
under Frescobaldi, and after 4 years 
returned to his post at Vienna holding 
it 1641-45 and 1653-70. He then made 
long concert-tours (to Paris and Lon- 
don), and spent his last years in the 
service of the Duchess Sibylla of Wiirt- 
temberg at her chateau near Hericourt. 
He composed toccatas, fantasias, can- 
zoni, fugues, etc. (3 MS. vols, in the 
Vienna Library ; 2 printed in Berlin) ; 
Diverse ingegnosissime, rarissime, et 
non mai piii viste curiose partite di 




toccati, canzoni, ricercari, capricci, etc. 
(1693; reprinted at Mayence in 1695), 
and Diverse curiose e rare partite mu- 
sicali, etc. (1696) ; also Suites de clave- 
cin (1 vol.). Ref.: I. 359f, 376; VI. 431, 
442; VII. 15, 23 (footnote), 24, 32, 75, 
104, 473; VIII. 284f. 

PROHLICH (1) Joseph (1780-1862) ; 
b. Wiirzburg, d. there; founded a vocal 
and instrumental society for students, 
which became the Academic Institute 
of Music in 1804, when he became Do- 
zent and Musikdirektor at the Univ., 
advancing to professor of aesthetics, 
etc., in 1812. His institute became im- 
portant through various accessions, and 
is now the Royal School of Music. F. 
wrote masses, a requiem, symphonies, 
an opera, sonatas, choral songs, etc., 
contributed musical articles to periodi- 
cals, and pub. a Musiklehre with di- 
rections for playing all instruments 
in use, also separate methods for each 
single instrument, and a vocal school. 
(2) Anna (1793-1880), Barbara (1797- 
1845), Josephine (1803-1878) and Kath- 
arine (18O0-1879), four sisters, of 
which the first was vocal teacher at 
the Vienna Cons., and the second and 
third singers of note, the fourth being 
known as the particular friend of the 
poet Grillparzer. (3) Danish composer. 
Ref.: X. 163. 

FROMM (1) Andreas (17th cent.) : 
cantor and composer at Stettin; com- 
posed the first German oratorio, 1649, 
Der reiche Mann und der arme Lazarus. 
His Dialogus Pentacostalis is still ex- 
tant. (2) Emil (1835- ) : b. Sprem- 
berg; studied with Grell, Bach and 
Schneider; cantor at Cottbus and or- 
ganist and royal director of music at 
Flensburg; founded a choral society 
for mixed voices; composed a Passion 
cantata, works for the organ and men's 
choruses. (3) K. J. See Addenda. 

FRONTINI, F. Paolo (1860- ) : 

b. Catania; studied with Platania and 
Rossi; directed the Institute for Music 
in Catania and composed an opera and 
an oratorio, produced in Bologna, 1893 
and 1882 respectively. Ref.: III. 394. 

FROSCHAUER, Johann (15th 

cent.) : printer in Augsburg, the first 
said to have used movable type, 1498. 

FROST (1) Charles Joseph (1848-) : 
b. Westbury on the Trym; London 
organist and founder of a choral so- 
ciety; Mus. B. and Doc, Cambridge; 
teacher at the Guildhall School of Mu- 
sic and examiner at the School for 
Organists; composed oratorios, church 
services and anthems, choruses and 
organ sonatas. (2) Henry Frederick 
(1848-1901): b. London, d. there; or- 
ganist and music critic; author of a 
biography of Schubert (1881, 2nd ed„ 
1899). (3) William Alfred (1850-) : 
b. London; singing teacher at St. Paul's, 
and composer of church music. 

FROTZLER, Carl (1873- ): b. 

Stockerau, Austria; studied at the Vi- 
enna Cons.; organist at the Pfarrkirche, 


Stockerau; Kapellmeister to Count 
Nicolaus Esterhazy, and at the City 
Theatre, Linz-on-Danube ; composed 3 
operas, 3 masses, a symphony, etc. 

FRUGATTA, Giuseppe (1860- ): 
b. Bergamo; studied at Milan Cons., 
and became professor there; composed 
various works for piano, instrumental 
pieces, etc.; also pub. a Preparazione 
al Gradus ad Parnassum di dementi 

FRtJH, A r min L-ebrecht (1820- 
1894): b. Muhlhausen, d. Nordhausen; 
operatic composer; inventor of the 

FRIJYTIERS, Jan (16th cent.) : 
Flemish composer. 

FRY (1) William Henry (1813- 
1864): b. Philadelphia, d. Santa Cruz; 
music critic to the New York 'Tribune,' 
composed 2 operas prod, in Philadel- 
phia, 4 symphonic poems, cantatas, a 
Stabat Mater and songs. Ref.: IV. 132, 
167f, 333f; portrait, IV. 332. (2) D. H. 
(19th cent.): American critic. Ref.: 
(quoted) IV. 130. (3) E. R. (19th 
cent.): American impresario. Ref.: IV. 

FRYER, Herbert (1877- ): b. 
Hampstead, London; pianist; studied 
at the Royal Academy of Music, and 
became professor there; concertized in 
England and America; became pro- 
fessor at the Institute of Musical Art, 
New York, 1915; composed for the 

FRYSINGER, J. Frank (1878-) : 
b. Hanover, Pa.; studied in Baltimore, 
New York, Philadelphia and London; 
director of Hood College Cons., Fred- 
erick, Md. ; head of organ department 
at University School of Music, Lincoln, 
Nebraska, since 1911; pub. many pieces 
for piano and organ. 

FUCHS (1) Georg? Friedrich (1752- 
1821): b. Mayence, d. Paris; studied 
with Cannabich at Mannheim; pro- 
fessor of clarinet in the Conservatoire, 
1795; composed for the clarinet and 
wrote chamber music. (2) Aloys 
(1799-1853) : b. Raase, Silesia, d. Vi- 
enna; collected musical MSS. and por- 
traits of musicians; contributed to nu- 
merous journals. (3) Karl Dorius Jo- 
hann (1838- ): b. Potsdam; studied 
with von Billow, Weitzmann and Kiel; 
Dr. phil. at Greifswald with the thesis 
Praliminarien zu einer Kritik der Ton- 
kunst; concert-pianist, teacher and 
critic in Berlin, Hirschberg and Dan- 
zig, organist at the Petrikirche there 
since 1886; pub. Virtuos und Dilettant 
(1869), Die Zukunft des musikalischen 
Vortrags (1884, 2 parts), Die Freiheit 
des musikalischen Vortrags (1885), 
Praktische Anleitung zum Phrasieren 
(1886 with Riemann), Kiinstler und 
Kritiker (1898), Takt und Rhythmus im 
Choral (1911). (4) Johann Nepomuk 
(1842-1899) : b. Frauenthal, Styria, d. 
Voslau, near Vienna; Kapellmeister in 
Pressburg, Cologne, Hamburg, Leipzig 
and Vienna; director of Vienna Cons., 



1894; prod, an opera, Zinffara (Briinn, 
1892), and made arrangements of Han- 
del, Schubert and Gluck. (5) Robert 
(1847- ): b. Frauenthal; brother of 
(4) ; studied at Vienna Cons., and be- 
came professor of theory there, 1875; 
pub. symphonies, orchestral serenades, 
an overture, much piano and instru- 
mental music; prod. 2 operas. (6) 
Albert (1858-1910) : b. Basel, d. Dres- 
den; studied at Leipzig Cons.; owner 
and manager of the Wiesbaden Cons., 
1889-98; professor at the Dresden Cons, 
since 1898; composed an orchestral 
suite, a violin concerto, instrumental 
music, songs, choruses, etc. (7) Karl 
(1865- ): b. Offenbach; studied at 
the Hoch Cons, in Frankfort; played 
in St. Petersburg under Rubinstein; 
professor at the Manchester Royal Col- 
lege; pub. a 'Violoncello Method' (3 
vols., 1906). 

FttCHS, Ferdinand Karl (1811- 
1848): b. Vienna, d. there; studied at 
the Vienna Conservatory, composed 
songs, and 3 operas. 

FUENLLANA, Miguel de (16th 
cent.) : virtuoso on lute and chamber 
musician, produced and dedicated to 
Philip II of Spain a work for the lute 
containing, besides fantasias by F. 
himself, lute arrangements of vocal 
compositions of Morales, the Guerreros, 
Flecha, Vasquez and others. 

FUENTES (1) Don Pasquale (18th 
cent.-1768) : b. Albaida, Valencia, d. 
there; conductor of the Cathedral there 
and composer of church music. (2) 
Francisco de Santa Maria de: Fran- 
ciscan monk; produced in Madrid, 1778, 
Dialectos musicos. 

FUERTES, M. S. See Suriano. 

FtJGER, Kaspar (ca. 1562-1617): b. 
Dresden, d. there; studied with Figulus 
and at the Leipzig University; cantor 
and deacon at the Dresden Kreuzschule ; 
wrote Christliche Verse und Gesange, 

FUGfeRE, Lucien (1848- ): b. 
Paris; studied with Raguenau; baritone 
singer in operetta and comic opera. 

PtJHRER, Robert (1807-1861): b. 
Prague, d. Vienna; studied with Vita- 
sek; teacher at the School for Organ- 
ists at Prague, conductor of the cathe- 
dral there; organist in Gmunden, Ried 
and Vienna; prolific composer of 
masses and church music, composed 
for organ and wrote 2 books (on Greek 
scales and on rhythm, 1847). 

FUHRMANN (1) Georg Leopold 
(early 17th cent.) : author of work for 
the lute in French and German tabla- 
ture, published in Nuremburg, 1615. 
(2) Martin Heinrich (1669-after 1740) : 
b. Templin, d. Rerlin; cantor, theoreti- 
cian and critic, most of whose writings 
were in the nature of polemics. 

FULDA, Adam von. See Adam. 

FULLER (1) Loie: contemporary 
dancer. Ref.: III. 364; X. 189, 190ff. 
(2) Margaret. Ref.: (quoted on 
Elssler) X. 155. 




FtJLLSACK, Zacharias (early 17th 
cent.) : member of the council band at 
Hamburg; produced, with Christian 
Hildebrand, a collection of dance mu- 
sic, including compositions of Rateman, 
Rorchgreving, Rrade, Dowland, etc. 

FULSZTYNSKI, Sebastian (16th 
cent.) : Polish composer. 

FUMAGALLI (1) Disina (1826- 
1893): b. Inzago, d. Milan; stud, in 
Milan Cons, and taught there from 
1857; composer of over 250 pieces of 
piano music. (2) Adolfo (1828-1858) : 
b. Inzago, d. Florence; pianist, brother 
of (1) ; pupil of Gaetano Medaglia, of 
Angeleri and Ray at Milan Cons. (1837- 
47) ; toured Italy, France, and Bel- 
gium, earning the sobriquet 'Paganini 
of the pianoforte'; wrote many elegant 
and effective piano pieces which be- 
came very popular. (3) Polibio (1830-) : 
b. Inzago, Italy; brother of (1) and (2); 
pianist and composer piano and organ 
music. Ref.: III. 397. (4) Lnca (1837-) : 
b. Inzago, Italy; brother of (1), (2) and 
(3) ; pupil of Milan Cons. ; concert- 
pianist, played with great success in 
Paris (I860), and has written salon- 
music for piano, also an opera, Luigi 
XI, prod, at Florence, 1875. (5) Vin- 
cenzo (1840- ) : teacher of composi- 
tion at Milan Cons. (6) Mario Leon 
(1864- ): b. Milan; studied with 
Ceina; baritone of note. 

FUMI, Vinceslao (1823-1880) : b. 
Montepulciano, Tuscany, d. Florence; 
studied under Giorgetti in Florence; 
opera conductor and composer. 

FURCHHEIM, Johann Wilhelm 
(ca. 1635-1682): b. Dresden (?), d. 
there; violinist, 1655, court organist, 
1666, concert-master, 1680, and vice 
Kapellmeister, 1682; important violin 
composer; pub. Musikalische Tafel- 
Bedienung for strings and continuo, 
Auserlesenes Violin-Exercitium (5-part 
chamber sonatas, 1687), other works in 
MS. Ref.: VII. 386. 

FURLANETTO (1) Bonaventura 
(1738-1817): b. Venice, d. there; sing- 
ing teacher, organist, director of a con- 
servatory for girls there; composed 
masses, etc., for performance by his 
girl pupils; conductor at St. Mark's 
and teacher at the Philharmonic Insti- 
tute. (2) Pier Luigi (1849-1880): b. 
Magliano, Venetia, d. Venice; composed 
masses, cantatas and operas. 

FURNHJELM.Erilt Gustav (1883-) : 
b. Helsingfors; professor of composi- 
tion at the Helsingfors Cons, since 
1909; composed a symphony in D, a 
'Phantastic Overture,' a piano quintet 
and a Konzertstuck for violin and orch. 

FURNO, Giovanni (1748-1837) : b. 
Capua, d. Naples; taught Rellini, Ricci, 
etc., at Naples conservatories. 

FURSCH-MADI, Emmy (1847- 
1894) : b. Rayonne, France, d. Warren- 
ville; studied at the Conservatoire and 
made her debut in Paris; sang in the 



New Orleans French Opera Company, 
at Covent Garden and in the Metropoli- 
tan Opera House, New York. 

FttRSTENAU (1) Kaspar (1772- 
1819): b. Munster, d. Oldenburg; flutist 
and chamber virtuoso. (2) Anton 
Bernhard, son of Kfcspar (1) (1792- 
1852) : b. Munster, d. Dresden; virtuoso 
on flute and composer for his instru- 
ment. (3) Moritz (1824-1889): son of 
A. B. (2), b. Dresden, d. there; vir- 
tuoso on flute, custodian of the royal 
private music collection, teacher at the 
Conservatory there. He was a distin- 
guished student of musical history, 
wrote on the Dresden court opera and 
conservatory, etc., pamphlets and ar- 
ticles for musical journals and con- 
tributions to the Allgemeine deutsche 

FtJRSTNER, Adolf (1835-1908): b. 
Berlin, d. Bad Nauheim; founder of a 
music publishing firm in Berlin; pub- 


lished among other music, works of 
Richard Strauss, Delibes and Leon- 

FUX, Johann Joseph (1660-1741) : 
b. Hirtenfeld, Upper Styria, d. Vienna. 
He was organist at the Schottenkirche, 
Vienna, in 1696, court composer, 1704, 
Kapellmeister at St. Stephen's, 1698, 
and Kapellmeister to the court in 1715, 
holding the post under 3 successive em- 
perors, till his death. Of his works 
405 have been preserved but few pub- 
lished. His famous treatise on counter- 
point, Gradus ad Parnassum, was pub- 
lished originally in Latin (1725), later 
in Ger., It., Fr. and Eng. Though it 
did not recognize the modern system of 
tonality, being grounded on the old 
church-modes, it was studied by Haydn, 
Mozart and other masters. Ref.: I. 416; 
II. 62; VIII. 138; IX. 34, 45. 

FYFFE, Charles A., historian. 
Ref.: (quoted) II. 232, 237ff. 




G ABLER, (d. Ravensburg, 

Wurttemberg, 1784) : built the organ in 
Weingarten monastery (62 stops, 4 
manuals and pedal). 

GABRIEL. (1) Mary Ann Virginia 
(1825-1877) : b. Banstead, Surrey ; com- 
poser of a cantata, 'Evangeline,' of op- 
erettas and popular songs. (2) Rieh- 
ard (1874- ) : b. Zackenzin, Pome- 
rania; studied in Royal Institute for 
Church Music and the Meisterschule of 
Humperdinck; organist at Sagan; his 
compositions include a spring overture 
and choral works w. orch. (3) Max: 
contemp. theatre conductor in Hanover; 
composer of operettas produced with 
success at Magdeburg, Hanover, Breslau 
and Berlin. 

GABRIELI (1) Andrea (ca. 1510- 
1586): b. Venice, d. there; pupil of 
Adrian Willaert; chorister at San Marco 
in 1536, and in 1566 second organist. 
He was the most famous organist of 
his time and counted among his pupils 
his nephew (2), and Hans Leo Hassler. 
Of his many compositions the following 
are extant: Sacrse cantiones a 5 (1565 
and 1584) ; Cantiones ecclesiasticee a 4 
(1576 and 1589) ; Cantiones sacrse a 6-16 
(1578) ; six-part masses (1570) ; 2 
books of madrigals in 5 to 6 parts, 3 
books in 3 to 6 parts, 2 books in 6 
parts (1572-1586) ; Psalmi poeniten- 
tiales 6 vocum (1583) ; Canzoni alia 
francese per Vorgano (1571 and 1605) ; 
Sonate a 5 (1586). Many of his organ- 
pieces appeared in the Intonazioni 
d'organo (1593), Ricercari per Vorgano 
(3 vols., 1595), of his vocal music in 
the Canti concertati a 6-16 (1587) ; also 
single pieces in Phalese's Harmonia ce- 
leste (1593), Symphonia angelica (1594), 
and Musica divina (1595) ; a sonnet in 
Zuccarini's Corona di dodeci sonetti 
(1586), and songs for double chorus, 
for the reception of Henry III. of 
France, in 1574, are in Gardane's 
Gemme~ musicali (1587). Ref.: I. 330, 
356; VI. 69, 421; VII. 10; VIII. 123f. 
(2) Giovanni (1557-1612): b. Venice, 
d. there; nephew and pupil of Andrea 
(1), distinguished as organist, teacher 
(of Heinrich Schiitz et al) and com- 
poser; leader of the Venetian school. 
He published Madrigali a 6 voci o 
istromenti (1585) ; Madrigali e ricer- 
cari a 4 voci (1587) ; Ecclesiasticee can- 
tiones 4-6 vocum (1589) ; Sacree sym- 
phoniee a 6-16 (for voices or instru- 
ments, 1597) ; Symphonies sacree, lib. II, 
€-19 voc. (1615) ; Canzoni e sonate a 3- 


22 voci (1615). His edition of the Canti 
concertati include 10 of his own com- 
positions, while Andrea's Intonazioni 
and Ricercari per Vorgano (1593-95) 
and other contemporary collections 
contain many others. Ref. : I. 356; VI. 
69, 234, 321; VII. 10, 11, 471; VIII. 80, 
123, 124; IX. 29. 

GABRIELLI (1) Domenico (ca. 
1640-1690): b. Bologna, d. Modena; 
maestro at the Church of San Petronio, 
and president of the Philharmonic 
Academy, Bologna, 1683; prod. 9 op- 
eras; a volume of motets, Vexillum 
pads (1695), Cantate a voce sola (1691) 
and a collection of dances for 2 vio- 
lins, 'cello and basso continuo (1703) 
were pub. posthumously. (2) Cat- 
terina (1730-1796): b. Rome, d. there; 
operatic singer famous at all European 
courts. (3) Count Nicolo (1814-1891): 
b. Naples, d. Paris; studied at Naples 
Cons.; composed 22 operas and 60 

GABRIELSKI, Johann Wilhelm 
(1791-1846): b. Berlin, d. there; cele- 
brated flute virtuoso, who toured, and 
wrote solo and ensemble pieces for 
flute. His brother Julius (1806-1878) 
and his son Adolf also devoted them- 
selves to the flute. 

GABRILOWITCH, Ossip (1876-) : 
b. St. Petersburg; studied with Tol- 
stoff, Rubinstein and Leschetizky; con- 
cert pianist, conductor and composer 
for pianoforte. He toured the United 
States frequently with great success, 
and married the singer Clara Clemens, 
the daughter of 'Mark Twain,' who ap- 
pears with him in joint recitals. Ref.: 
portrait, VII. 364. 

GABUSSI, Vincenzo (1800-1846) : b. 
Rologna, d. London; studied with 
Padre Mattei; taught piano and voice; 
prod, several operas and pub. a series 
of songs very popular in Italy. 

GADE, Niels Wilhelm (1817-1890): 
b. Copenhagen, d. there; was the son 
of a joiner and instrument-maker. He 
abandoned his father's trade after study 
in the violin for a time ; then became 
a pupil of Wexschall, leader of the 
court orchestra, of which G. became a 
member; also studied theory with Berg- 
green. When 16 he appeared as a 
concert-violinist. In 1841 his overture 
Nachklange von Ossian took the first 
prize at the Copenhagen Musical Soci- 
ety's competition, carrying with it a 
royal stipend for the further prosecu- 
tion of the composer's studies. In 



1842 Mendelssohn played G.'s symphony 
in C minor and the Nachklange at a 
Gewandhaus concert, and, remaining in 
Leipzig, G. became an intimate friend 
of Schumann and Mendelssohn, fre- 
quently conducted the Gewandhaus con- 
certs in Mendelssohn's absence, and 
succeeded him as conductor upon his 
death in 1847. In 1848 he returned to 
Copenhagen as court conductor. G. is 
the leading northern representative of 
the Romantic school and has exerted 
a strong influence in Denmark and 
Scandinavia. He wrote 8 symphonies, 
5 overtures, 2 orchestral suites, Novel- 
ettes for orch., 1 string quintet, 1 string 
octet, 1 trio, 2 violin concertos, 3 violin 
sonatas, fantasy pieces for clarinet, 
1 sonata and many pieces for piano, 
songs and choral works of large calibre, 
notably, Comala, 'The Erl King's 
Daughter,' 'The Holy Night,' 'The Cru- 
sader,' etc.; also an opera, Mariotta, 
and sacred choral songs. Ref.: II. 263, 
347; III. 69, 72, 92; choral works, VI. 
169JJ ; piano music, VII. 326; orchestral 
music, VIII. 8, 233f, 486; ballet, X. 133, 
151; portrait, VI. 176. 

GADSBY, Henry Robert (1842- 
1907): b. Hackney, London, d. Putney; 
pupil of William Bayley, otherwise 
self-taught; organist at St. Peter's, 
Brockley; professor of harmony at 
Queen's College, London, 1884; pro- 
fessor at the Guildhall School of Mu- 
sic. He composed Psalm 130; cantatas; 
music to 'Alcestis' and 'Andromache'; 
8-part Festival Service in D; 3 sym- 
phonies; overtures, orchestral scene 
'The Forest of Arden'; a string quar- 
tet; services, anthems, part-songs, etc.; 
wrote a 'Supplemental Book of Exer- 
cises' for sight singers; also a 'Har- 
mony' (1884). 

GADSKI, Johanna (1871- ) : b. 
Anclam, Prussia; studied in Stettin; 
operatic soprano; sang in Berlin, Bay- 
reuth 3 London and New York. Her 
Wagner roles, notably Eva in Die 
Meister singer, Briinnhilde and Isolde, 
are especially noteworthy. Ref.: IV. 
145, 147. 

GAPORI (also Gaforlo, Gafuri, 
Gaffurio), Franchino (Latinized to 
Franchinus Gafurius or only Pran- 
ehimis) (1451-1522) : b. Lodi, d. Milan; 
theorist; studied theology and music; 
lived in Mantua, Verona and (1477) 
Genoa; having fled with the fugitive 
Doge Prospero Adorno to Naples, he 
held public disputations there with 
Filippo da Caserta and G. Spataro; 
was choirmaster at Monticello 3 years; 
in 1484 became singer and master of 
the boys in Milan Cathedral and first 
singer in the choir of Duke Lodovico 
Sforza; founded a music-school at Mi- 
lan in 1485. He wrote Theoricum opus 
harmonicee disciplines (Naples, 1480; 
2nd ed. Milan, 1492, as Theoria mu- 
sicse) ; Practica musicee sive mu- 
sicee actiones in IV libris (Milan, 1496; 
containing examples of mensural no- 



tation in block-print; other editions 
1497, 1502, 1512) ; Angelicum ac di- 
vinum opus musicee . . . materna lin- 
gua scriptum (Milan, 1508) ; De har- 
monia musicorum instrumentorum opus 
(Milan, 1518, with biography of G. by 
P. Meleguli), and Apologia Franchini 
Gafurii adversus Joannem Spatarium 
et complices musicos Rononienses 
(Turin, 1520). 

GAGLIANO (1) Marco di Zanobi da 
(c. 1575-1642) : b. Gagliano, Tuscany, d. 
Florence; composer; founded Ac- 
cademia degl' Elevati at Florence 
(1607) ; priest and maestro di cappella 
at the church of San Lorenzo ; composed 
operas, Dafne (1608), Medora (for coro- 
nation ceremonies of Emperor Ferdi- 
nand II, 1619), and La Flora (with 
Peri, 1628) ; also madrigals and church 
music; one of the most notable of the 
first composers in the Stile rappresen- 
tativo. Ref.: I. 335, 378; (quoted) I. 
333; IX. 9, 13. (2) famous family of 
violin makers of Naples who followed 
the Stradivari model. Alessandro, 
a pupil of Stradivari, worked from 
1695-1725; his sons, Nicolo and Gen- 
naro, from 1700-50. Fernando (1736- 
81) was a son of Nicolo. 

GAHRICH, Wenzel (1794-1864): b. 
Bohemia, d. Berlin; violinist; composer 
of ballets for Taglioni, then ballet con- 
ductor at the Boyal Opera, Berlin. 

GA¥L, Edmftp- Sophie (nee Garre) 
(1775-1819): b. Paris, d. there; studied 
singing under Mengozzi and toured 
southern France and Spain; studied 
theory under Fetis, Perne and Neu- 
komm; sang in London, 1816, in Ger- 
many and Vienna, 1818; composed op- 
eras, Les deux jaloux (1813) ; Mademoi- 
selle de Launay a la Rastille (1813) ; 
Angela (1814 with Boieldieu) ; La 
meprise (1814) ; La serenade (1818) ; 
also vocal romances and nocturnes. 

GAILHARD, Pierre (1848- ): b. 

Toulouse; studied at the Conservatoire, 
Paris; debut as bass, Ope>a Comique, 
1867; director of the Opera, 1884-1907; 
wrote a scenario for Vidal's ballet, La 
Maladetta (1893) and the libretto for 
Guernica (1895). 

GAL.ANDIA. See Garlandia. 

GALE, Clement R.: contemp. Anglo- 
American organist and church com- 
poser. Ref.: IV. 357. 

GALEAZZI, Francesco (1758-1819): 
b. Turin, d. Bome; director of concerts 
in the Teatro Valle, Bome, for 15 years; 
violin teacher at Aseoli; pub. an early 
method for violin (Bome, 1791-6). 

GALEN (2nd cent.) : writer on vocal 
anatomy. Ref.: V. 55. 

GALEOTTI (1) (Galiott), Stefano 
(or Salvatore) (18th cent.) : composer 
of 'cello sonatas and trio sonatas 
printed by Walsh in London (1750-60), 
Le Clerc in Paris and Hummel in 
Amsterdam. (2) Vincenzo Tomaselli 
(early 19th cent.) : Italian ballet master 
in Denmark. Ref.: X. 162. (3) Cesare 
(1872- ): b. Pietrasanta, Lucca; 


composer of operas, including Anton 
(Milan, 1900), and La Dorise; also or- 
gan music, etc. Ref.: III. 397. 

GAL.ES, Weston (1877- ): b. 

Elizabeth, N. J.; studied at Yale Uni- 
versity, in New York and Paris; organ- 
ist and choirmaster of Christ Church, 
New York, 1902-8, of Emanuel Church, 
Boston, 1908-13; founder and conduc- 
tor of the Detroit Symphony Or- 


GALILEI, Vincenzo (ca. 1533-ca. 
1600): b. Florence, d. there; father of 
the astronomer, Galileo G. He was 
skilled on the lute and violin, and fa- 
miliar with ancient Greek theory. He 
became a member of the so-called 
Florentine camerata, the circle of artists 
and amateurs meeting at Count Bardi's 
palace, and his compositions for solo 
voice with lute-accompaniment are con- 
sidered the starting-point of the mon- 
odic style cultivated by the founders 
of opera. He published Discorso della 
musica antica e della moderna (Flor- 
ence, 1581) to the 2nd ed. (1602) of 
which is appended a polemical Di- 
scorso intorno alle opera di messer 
Gioseffo Zarlino di Chioggia (originally 
issued separately in 1589) ; and II Fro- 
nimo, dialogo sopra Varte del bene 
intavolare e rettamente suonare la mu- 
sica, etc. (Venice, 1583; 2nd ed., 1584). 
Ref.: I. 329f; V. 154; VIII. 480; IX. 5, 8. 

GALIN, Pierre (1786-1821): b. 
Samatan, France, d. Bordeaux; started 
in 1817 courses in a simple method 
of learning music, which he set forth 
in his Exposition d'une nouvelle 
methode pour I'enseignement de la mu- 
sique (1818), issued in 2nd and 3rd 
editions under the title of Methode du 
Meloplaste (1824, 1831), later known as 
Galin-Chev^-Paris Method. 

GAL.ITZIN (1) Nicolas Borissovitch 
(1794-1866): d. Kurski; Russian prince, 
'cellist, and an amateur of exceptional 
accomplishment, to whom Beethoven 
dedicated an overture (op. 124) and 3 
quartets (op. 127, 130, 132), and with 
whom he corresponded to the time of 
his death. Ref.: VII. 520. (2) 
Georg (1823-1872): b. St. Petersburg, 
d. there; son of (1) ; established 
a choir of 70 boys in Moscow, 1842, 
and later an orchestra which toured 
Europe and America introducing Rus- 
sian music; wrote masses, orchestral 
works, instrumental soli, songs and 

6ALLAY (1) Jacques Francois 
(1795-1864): b. Perpignan, d. Paris; 
horn virtuoso; studied under Dauprat 
at Paris Conservatoire, where he took 
first prize; played in the Odeon and 
Theatre Italien; member of the Royal 
chapelle, and in 1832 chamber musician 
to Louis Philippe; in 1842 he succeeded 
Dauprat as horn professor in the Cons. ; 
composed horn quartets, trios, duos; 
recreations, nocturnes, etudes and con- 
certos for horn; wrote a Mithode com- 
plete de cor. (2) Jules (1822-1897) : b. 


Saint-Quentin, d. Paris; 'cello player 
and student of lutherie; wrote Les In- 
struments a archet a VExposition uni- 
versale de 1867 (Paris, 1867) ; Les 
luthiers italiens aux XVII 6 et XVIII* 
siecles, nouvelle edition du 'Parfait 
Luthier' (La Chilonomie) de I'abbe 
Sibire, suivie de notes sur les maitres 
des diverses ecoles (Paris, 1869) ; a 
reprint of du Manoir's Le mariage de 
la musique avec la danse, with histori- 
cal introduction and explanatory notes 
(Paris, 1870) ; Les instruments des 
ticoles italiennes, catalogue precede d'une 
introduction et suivi de notes sur les 
principaux maitres (Paris, 1872) ; while 
in Vienna, 1873, he edited the Rapport 
sur les instruments de musique [d 
archet] (Paris, 1875). 

GALLBNBERG, Wenzel Robert, 
Graf von (1783-1839): b. Vienna, d. 
Rome; joint-director of the opera in 
Vienna, 1821-3; failed as manager of the 
Karntnerthor Theater, 1829; wrote 
about 50 ballets and much piano 

GALLI, Amintore (1845- ): b. 
Talamello, near Rimini; editor and 
composer; studied at Milan Cons, for 
several years on the editorial staff of 
the publisher Sonzogno, in Milan, and 
lecturer on the history of music at the 
Cons.; since 1872 has been music re- 
viewer for the Secolo and editor of II 
teatro illustrato and Musica popolare; 
composer of the opera II corno d'oro 
(1876) and 'David' (1904), the ora- 
torios Espiazione and Cristo al Golgata, 
a setting of Goethe's Totentanz for bari- 
tone and orchestra, a string quartet, 
etc.; author of Etnografla musicale 
(1898), Estetica della musica (1900), 
Storia e teoria del sistema musicale 
(1901), Piccolo lessico di musica, etc. 

GALLI-MARIfi, Celestine (nie 
Marie de l'Isle) (1840-1905) : b. Paris, d. 
Nice; dramatic mezzo-soprano; made 
her debut at Strassburg, 1859; sang in 
Toulouse, 1860; Lisbon, 1861; sang 
'Bohemian Girl' at Rouen, 1862; was 
engaged for the Paris Opera Comique; 
debut there, 1862, as Serpina in La 
Serva Padrona; she created the rdles 
of Mignon, 1866, and Carmen, 1875, also 
several others, singing in more than 
20 operas during the years 1862-78 and 
1883-85. Ref.: II. 388. 

GALLIA. See [i/] Spine. 

GALLIARD, Johann Ernst (1687- 
1749) : b. Celle, Hanover, d. London ; 
pupil of A. Steffani; oboist; chamber 
musician to Prince George of Den- 
mark in London, 1706; organist at 
Somerset House; composer of cantatas, 
a Te Deum, a Jubilate, anthems, flute 
and 'cello solos ; also music to the 'Morn- 
ing Hymn of Adam and Eve,' from 
Milton's 'Paradise Lost,' and Hughes' 
opera Calypso und Telemachus (1712), 
as well as music to plays, masques and 
pantomimes. Ref.: X. 149f. 

GALLICO, Paolo (1868- ): b. 
Trieste; studied at the Vienna Cons.; 



gave concerts in various countries of 
Europe, then became concert-pianist 
and teacher in New York, 1892; wrote 
an opera, Harlekin, an operetta, Johan- 
nistraum, piano pieces and songs. 

GALLIGNANI, Giuseppe (1851- ) : 
b. Faenza; studied at the Milan Cons.; 
maestro di cappella at Milan Cathedral, 
and editor of La Musica Sacra; com- 
posed 4 operas, organ-pieces and 
church music. 

GALL US (1) Jacobus (or Jacob 
HMndl, or Hahnel) (ca. 1550-1591) : b. 
Carniola, d. Prague; Kapellmeister to 
the Bishop of Olmiitz, later Imperial 
Kapellmeister at Prague; composer con- 
temporary with Palestrina and Lasso; 
has written pieces pub. in Boden- 
schatz's Florilegium Portense, Proske's 
Musica divina and collections of Scho- 
berlein, Zahn, Becker, Bochlitz, and 
others; also the following printed 
works: Missae selectiores (1580, 5-8 
parts, four books), Musici operis 
harmoniarum, 4, 5, 6, 8 et plurium 
vocum (1st part, 1586; 2nd, 3rd, 
1587; 4th, 1590), Moralia 5, 6 et 8 
vocibus concinnata (1586), Epicedion 
harmonicum . . . Caspari Abb. Zabr- 
dovicensis (1589), Harmoniae variae 4 
vocum (1591), Harmoniarum moralium 
[4 voc] (1589-90, 3 parts), Sacrae can- 
iones de prsecipuis festis 4-8 et plurium 
vocum (1597), Mottettae quae praestant 
omnes (1610). Handel in his 'Funeral 
Anthem' used Gallus' Ecce quomodo 
moritur Justus. (2) Johannes (Jean 
le Cocq, Mattre Jean, Mestre .Than) 
(d. ca. 1543) : Dutch contrapuntist; was 
maestro di cappella to Duke Ercole 
of Ferrara; pub. many pieces in col- 
lections and in a volume of motets 
printed by Scotto (1543). (3) See 
Mederitsch, Johann. 

GALPIN, [Rev.] F. W.: contemp. 
English collector of, and writer on, 
old instruments. Ref.: III. 430. 

GALSTON, Gottfried (1879- ): 
b. Vienna; studied in Vienna and Leip- 
zig; taught at the Stern Cons., Berlin; 
1903-7, titular professor at the Cons., 
St. Petersburg, since 1908; toured Aus- 
tralia, Europe and America, 1912-13; 
pub. a Studienbuch (1909). 

GALUPPI, Baldassare (1706-1784) : 
b. Island of Burano (from which he 
was surnamed il Buranello), d. Venice; 
pupil of his father, a barber and vio- 
lin player, and Lotti. He prod. Dorinda 
(Venice, Teatro S. Angelo) with bril- 
liant success in 1729. He was so suc- 
cessful in comic opera that he was 
called padre dell' opera buffa. He was 
also a harpsichord player and com- 
poser for that instrument. He visited 
England in 1741 and was maestro at 
St. Mark's, director of the Cons, degli 
Incurabili, and organist at various 
churches, 1762-64; was maestro to the 
court of Catherine II of Russia, 1765- 
68, and again director of the Incurabili 
at Venice. He wrote 54 operas, ora- 
torios, a cantata, and other church mu- 


sic. Ref.: II. 15, 179; VII. 97, 116f; 
IX. 39, 53. 

GAMBALE, Emmannele: Milanese 
music teacher; wrote La riforma musi- 
cale . . . (1840), advocating a basic 
scale of 12 semitones (Ger. transl. by 
Haser, 1843) which he carried out in 
his La prime parte della riforma musi- 
cale . . . (1846), wherein are etudes 
written in his new notation; translated 
Fetis' Harmony. 

GAMBLE], John (17th cent.) : English 
violinist and composer. 

GAMUCCIj Baldassare (1822-1892): 
Florentine pianist and writer. 

GANASSI, Silvestro (del Fontego) : 
b. Fontego, n. Venice, ca. 1500; author 
of La Fontegara, la quale insegna di 
suonare il flauto, etc. (Venice, 1535; a 
method for the 7-holed flute-d-bec, with 
explanations of the 'graces') ; and 
Regula Rubertina che insegna suonare 
de viola d'arco tastada (1542-3, in 2 
parts; a method for viola and bass 
viol), two highly valuable books, which 
were printed by G. himself and only 
one copy of each is extant (Liceo Filar- 
monico, Bologna). Ref.: VII. 374. 

GAND, Cli.-Nicolas-Euj*ene (ca. 
1826-1892): d. Boulogne-sur-Seine ; fa- 
mous violin maker. 

GANDOLFI, Riccardo [Cristofor© 
Daniele Diomede] (1839- ) : b. Vog- 
hera, Piedmont; studied with Conti, Pa- 
cini, and Mabellini; inspector of stud- 
ies, then librarian-in-chief of the Real 
Instituto di Musica, Florence; at first 
composer of operas, then of instru- 
mental works (overtures, etc.) and 
church music (masses, Requiem, can- 
tata, etc.) ; wrote historical studies on 
Francesco Landino (1888), Mozart 
(1891), on early Florentine monody, 
Malvezzi and Cavalieri, Rossini, and 
valuable articles in the Rivista musicale 
Italiana and Ricordi Musicali Fiorentini. 

GANNE, Louis-Gaston (1862- ) : 
b.Buxieres-les-Mines, Allier; studied un- 
der Dubois and Franck at the Conserva- 
toire; chef d'orchestre of the balls at 
the Opera and first chef d'orchestre at 
the municipal Casino at Royan; com- 
poser of ballets, pantomimes, and di- 
vertissements; also the vaudeville Tout- 
Paris (1891), a comic opera, Rabelais 
(1892), and the vaudeville operetta 
Les Colles des femmes (1893) ; has pub. 
about 50 light pieces for piano for 4 
hands, numerous songs, etc. 

GXNSBACHER, Johann (1778- 
1844): b. Sterzing, Tyrol, d. Vienna; 
studied under Abbe Vogler; Kapell- 
meister of the cathedral, Vienna, 1823; 
pub. church music, including 2 masses 
and 2 requiems, 3 terzettos for so- 
pranos and tenor, piano sonatas and 
trios; much church music, a symphony, 
serenades, marches, songs and piano 
music are in MS. 

GANTVOORT, Arnold Johann 
(1857- ) : b. Amsterdam ; taught pri- 
vately and in various colleges in the 
United States: connected with the Col- 



lege of Music, Cincinnati, since 1894; 
pub. educational music books. 

GANZ (1) Adolf (1796-1870) : b. May- 
ence, d. London; violinist; 1819, con- 
ductor at Mayence; Kapellmeister to 
the Grand Duke of Hesse-Darmstadt, 
1825. (2) Moritz (1806-1868) : b. May- 
ence, d. Berlin; 'cellist, brother of (1) ; 
first 'cellist in Berlin Court Orchestra, 
1827; composed concertos, fantasias, 
trios, duets, etc., for 'cello. (3) Leo- 
pold (1810-1869) : b. Mayence, d. Ber- 
lin; violinist, brother of (1) and (2); 
made concert tours with Moritz G. ; 
joined Berlin court orchestra, 1827; 
became concert-master, 1840; pub. duos 
for violin and 'cello. (4) £duard 
(1827-1869): b. Mayence; pianist, di- 
rector of a Berlin music school. (5) 
Rudolph (1877- ): b. Zurich; pian- 
ist and composer; studied in the con- 
servatories of Zurich, Lausanne and 
Strassburg; also under Busoni, Blan- 
chet and Urban in Berlin; toured Eu- 
rope, taught in Chicago, 1901-05; has 
played with leading orchestras and mu- 
sical organizations throughout U. S. 
and Canada; has composed a sym- 
phony, concert piece for piano and 
orch., piano pieces, songs, etc. (6) Wil- 
helm (1883-1914) : b. Mayence; pianist, 
studied under Eckert in Berlin and An- 
schiitz in Coblenz; professor at the 
Guildhall School of Music, London; 
conducted the Ganz Orchestral Con- 
certs in London from 1879-82, composed 
fashionable salon pieces for piano. 

GARAT, Pierre-Jean (1764-1823) : b. 
Ustaritz, Basses-Pyrenees, d. Paris; con- 
cert singer and teacher; studied singing 
under Franz Beck in Bordeaux; studied 
law at University of Paris in 1780; 
became private secretary to Count 
d'Artois; after the revolution accom- 
panied Bode to Hamburg; with him re- 
turned to Paris in 1794, where G. sang 
at the Feydeau Concerts, 1795, became 
professor of singing at the Conserva- 
toire; was the foremost singer on the 
French concert stage in every depart- 
ment of vocal music for more than 20 
years. Nourrit, Levasseur and Pon- 
chard were his pupils. 

GARAUDfi, Alexis de (1799-1852): 
b. Nancy, d. Paris; studied theory un- 
der Cambini and Beicha, and singing 
under Crescentini and Garat; was a 
singer in the royal choir from 1808- 
30 and professor of singing in the 
Conservatoire from 1816-41; pub. 3 
string quintets, many ensemble pieces 
for violin, flute, clarinet and 'cello, 
sonatas and variations for piano, a 
solemn mass, solfeggi, vocalises, arias, 
duets, songs, etc.; also a Methode de 
chant (1809, op. 25; 2nd revised ed. 
as Methode complete de chant, op. 40) ; 
Solfege, ou methode de musique; Me- 
thode complete de piano; and L'har- 
monic rendue facile, ou theorie pratique 
de cette science (1835). 

GARCIA (1) [Don] Francisco Sa- 
verio (1731-1809): b. Nalda, d. Sara- 


gossa; singing teacher and composer; 
maestro di cappella at the Cathedral 
of Saragossa; composed operas and 
oratorios. (2) Manuel del Popolo 
Vicente (1775-1832): b. Seville, d. 
Paris; singer, teacher, composer; fa- 
mous on the operatic stage in Spain, 
France, Italy, England, Mexico and the 
United States; wrote about fifty operas, 
several ballets and a cantata, Endimion; 
teacher of his children, Marie Malibran, 
Pauline Viardot and Manuel Garcia. 
Ref.: II. 185; IV. 118f. (3) Manuel 
(1805-1906): b. Madrid, d. London; 
world-famous vocal teacher; professor 
at Paris Cons. (1847-50), subsequently 
at Boyal Acad, of Music, London; stud- 
ied the functions of the vocal organs 
and invented the laryngoscope; author 
of Memoire sur la voix humaine (1840) 
and Traite" complet de Vart du chant 
(1847) ; among his pupils were Eugenie 
Garcia, Jenny Lind, Henriette Nissen 
and Jul. Stockhausen. Ref.: V. 10, 57f; 
portrait, V. 58. (4) Marie-Felicita. 
See Malibran. 

GARCIN, Jules-Auguste-Salomon 
(1830-1896): b. Bourges, d. Paris; stud- 
ied at the Conservatoire, Paris; joined 
the orchestra of the Opera, 1856, and 
became first violin, 1871 ; conductor of 
the Cons, concerts, 1882-92; and pro- 
fessor of violin there after 1890; com- 
posed a symphonic suite for orchestra 
and violin pieces, including a con- 
certino and a concerto. 

GAR DA NO (or Gardane), Antonio 
(ca. 1500-1571): d. Venice; early Ital- 
ian music printer; reprinted many cur- 
rent publications, important novelties, 
and his own compositions as Mottetti 
del Frutto (1539) and Canzoni francesi 
(1564). His heirs published under his 
name until 1650. 

6ARDEL, Maximilian: ballet com- 
poser. Ref.: X. 14, 89, 91, 131, 148, 151, 

GARDEN, Mary (1877- ): b. 
Edinburgh, but reared in America; op- 
eratic soprano; studied with Fugere 
and Chevallier in Paris; debut at 
Opera Comique in 1900 in 'Louise' 
(Charpentier), one of her most success- 
ful roles; created Marie in La Mar- 
seillaise, Diane in La Fille du Tabarin, 
etc.; created Melisande in Pelleas et 
Melisande (Debussy) ; sang Herodiade, 
Manon, Thais in Massenet's operas, Sa- 
lome in Strauss' opera, etc., both in 
Paris and the U. S., where she appeared 
first at the Manhattan Opera House, then 
with the Chicago Opera Co. Ref.: por- 
trait, IV. 144. 

GARDINER (1) William (1770- 
1853): b. Leicester, d. there; music- 
lover who sought to improve English 
church music by adapting English 
texts to the compositions of celebrated 
masters; pub. 'Sacred Melodies' (6 
vols.) ; wrote 'The Music of Nature,' 
'Music and Friends' (1838), 'Sights in 
Italy' (1847), and translated Stendhal's 
'Life of Haydn.' (2) H. Balfour 



(1877- ): b. London; studied at Ox- 
ford, also with Knorr at Frankfort, was 
singing teacher in the schools of Win- 
chester for a time, then devoted him- 
self to composition, having composed a 
sympTiony in D, an orchestral fantasy, 
overture, English Dance, string quintet 
in C minor, string quartet in B, etc. 
Ref.: III. 422. 

GARIEL, Ednardo (1860- ): b. 

Monterey, Mexico; studied with Mar- 
montel in Paris; music and language 
teacher at the Normal school in Sal- 
tillo, Mexico; pub. Chopin, la tradicion 
de six musica, etc. (1895), Causas de la 
decadenza del arte musical en Mexico 
(1896), and an elementary music 

GARLANDIA (1) Johannes de (b. 
ca. 1190): English writer; founded a 
school of music in Paris and was for 
a time on the faculty of the new Uni- 
versity of Toulouse; author of De 
musica mensurabili, pub. in Cousse- 
maker's Scriptores, Vol. I., and a dic- 
tionary, containing much valuable in- 
formation on old instruments, pub- 
lished in the Collection de documents 
inedits de Vhistoire de France, first 
series (Paris, 1837). (2) Johannes de 
(ca. 1300) : author of Introductio mu- 
sicae secundum, pub. in Coussemaker's 
Scriptores, Vol. I., and Optima intro- 
ductio in contrapunctum, the oldest 
known work on counterpoint, pub. in 
Scriptores, Vol. III. 

GAR.MER, Francois-Joseph (1759- 
1825): b. Lauris, Vaucluse, d. there; 
studied with Sallantin in Paris; second 
oboe at the Opera, 1778, first oboe, 
1786; pub. music for the oboe, con- 
certos, symphonies, duos, etc.; also a 
Methode pour le hautbois. 

GARRETT, George Mursell (1834- 
1897): b. Winchester, d. Cambridge; 
pupil of Elvey and Wesley, organist 
at Winchester and Madras cathedrals 
and Cambridge Univ., Mus. D. 1867, 
F. R. C. O. He became lecturer on 
harmony and counterpoint and was 
examiner in music at Cambridge Univ., 
conductor and solo pianist of St. 
John's Coll. Musical Soc, composed an 
oratorio, 'The Shunammite' (1882); 
5 cantatas, 4 services, and other church 
music; part-songs, songs, organ pieces, 
etc. Ref.: VI. 493. 

GARRISON, Mabel: b. Baltimore, 
Md. ; studied at Peabody Cons, and in 
New York; debut as soprano in Bos- 
ton, 1912; member of Aborn Opera Co., 
1912-13; Metropolitan Opera Company 
since 1914 

GARSO, Siga (1831-1915): b. Tisza 
Vesceny, Hungary, d. Vienna; studied 
in Pesth; debut at Arad, 1854; taught in 
Bremen and wrote several books on 
singing, including Schule der speziellen 
Stimmbildung auf der Rasis des losen 
Tones (1911). 

GARTNER, Joseph (1796-1863): b. 
Tachau, Bohemia, d. Prague; organ 
builder there; pub. a book on organ 


building, Kurze Relehrung iiber die 
innere Einrichtung der Orgeln . . . 
(1832, 2nd ed., 1841). 

GASCUE, Francisco (1848- ): 

b. San Sebastian, Spain; student of 
Basque folk-music; pub. La musica 
popular vascongada (1906), La opera 
vascongada (1906), Ensayos de critica 
musical (1909-10), Historia de la So- 
nata (1910) and Origen de la musica 
popular vascongada (1913) ; also essays 
in various musical journals. 



GASPARI, Gaetano (1807-1881) : b. 
Bologna, d. there; historiographer; 
studied under B. Donelli at Liceo Musi- 
cale, 1820, took first prize in composi- 
tion in 1827 and was made honorary 
maestro in 1828; maestro di cappella at 
Cento and Imola until 1836 ; then assist- 
ant to Donelli, and after his death pro- 
fessor of solfeggio, 1840 ; librarian to the 
Liceo and professor of aesthetics, 1855; 
maestro di cappella at S. Petronio, 
1857-66; appointed a member of the 
Royal Deputation for historical re- 
search in Romagna, 1866; wrote Ri- 
cherche, documenti e memorie risguar- 
danti la storia dell' arte musicale in 
Roloyna (1867), Ragguagli sulla capella 
musicale delta Rasilica di S. Petronio 
in Rologna (1869), Memorie . . . dell' 
arte mus. in R. al XVI secolo (1875); 
composed masses, a Miserere in 2 parts 
with small orchestra, a 5-part Miserere 
mei Deus with organ and an Ave Maria 
for children's voices with piano. 

GASPARINI (1) (or Guasparini), 
Francesco (1668-1737) : b. Camaiore, 
d. Rome; studied under Corelli and 
Pasquini in Rome; director of music at 
the Cons, della Pieta, Venice (ca. 1700) ; 
maestro di cappella at the Lateran, 
Rome, 1735; prod, about 40 operas at 
Venice, Rome, Vienna, etc.; wrote 
masses, motets, cantatas, psalms, an 
oratorio, 'Moses,' etc.; also a method 
of figured-bass playing, L'Armonico 
pratico al cembalo, etc. (Venice, 1683; 
7th ed., 1802). Benedetto Marcello was 
his most famous pupil. (2) Michelan- 
gelo (1685-1732): b. Lucca, d. Venice; 
contralto and composer; studied under 
Lotti; founded a famous singing school 
at Venice where Faustina Bordoni was 
his pupil; brought out 5 operas in 

GASPARO DA SALO (or Bertolotti) 
(ca. 1542-1609): b. Salo, d. Brescia(?), 
where he settled about 1563 as a maker 
of viols, violins, viole da gamba, and 
contrabass viols; is credited with hav- 
ing modernized the form of the violin, 
giving the f-holes their present shape, 
also its graceful curve to the scroll, 
and prolonging and sharpening the 4 
corners of the bouts. His eldest son, 
Francesco, Giovan' Paolo Maggini, and 
Giacomo Lafranchini were his pupils. 
Ref.: I. 362; VIII. 72, 73. 

GASPERINI, Guido (1865- ): b. 

Florence; 'cello pupil of Sbolci and in 


composition of Tacchinardi ; student of 
musical history; gave illustrated lec- 
tures in Florence, Rome, and Parma 
(some pub., 1899) ; librarian of the 
Parma Cons, since 1902; pub. directions 
for interpreting 16th-cent. notation, a 
small Storia della Semiografla musi- 
cale (Milan, 1905), etc.; founded the 
'Assoziazione dei musicologi italiani' 
(affiliated with the Int. Mus. Soc). 

GASSMANN, Florian Leopold (1729- 
1774): b. Brux, Bohemia, d. Vienna; 
abandoned a commercial career for 
music, running away from home at 12, 
and made his way as a harper to Padre 
Martini in Bologna, who taught him 
two years. He entered the service of 
Count Leonardo Veneri at Venice, then 
went to the Vienna court as ballet 
composer, 1764, succeeded Reutter as 
court Kapellmeister, 1771. He founded 
the Tonkunstler Societat (now the 
'Haydn') for the relief of the widows 
and orphans of musicians. G. com- 
posed 23 operas, orchestral and cham- 
ber works, and church music. Salieri, 
his pupil, became the teacher of his 2 
daughters, Maria Anna and Maria 
Theresia (Rosenbaum), opera singers 
of note. Ref.: II. 62; VII. 499, 503. 

GASSNER, Ferdinand Simon (1798- 
1851): b. Vienna, d. Karlsruhe; violin- 
ist and chorusmaster at the National 
Theatre, Mayence, 1816; Musikdirektor 
at Giessen University, 1818; Dr. phil., 
1819; chorusmaster at the Darmstadt 
Theatre after 1826; ed. the musical 
journals, Musikalischer Hausfreund, 
1822-35, Zeitschrift fur Deutschlands 
Musikvereine und Dilettanten; pub. 
Partiturkenntniss . . . (1838, French 
ed., 1871), Dirigent und Ripienist 
(1846), and a Universallexikon der 
Tonkunst (1849) ; also composed 2 op- 
eras, ballets, songs, etc. 

GAST, Peter. See Koselitz. 

GASTINEL, Leon-Gustave-Cyprien 
(1823-1906) : b. Villers, d. Paris; studied 
under Halevy at the Conservatoire ; took 
first grand prix de Rome for his can- 
tata Velasquez in 1846; prod. Le Miroir 
(1853), L'Opera aux fetiches (1857), 
Titus et Rerenice (1860), Le buisson 
vert (1861), Le Rarde (Nice, 1896), and 
the ballet Le rive (Grand Opera, 1890) ; 
has also written 3 operas not produced; 
also 4 oratorios and 3 solemn masses, 
orchestral compositions, chamber mu- 
sic, choruses, etc. 

GASTOLDI, Giovanni Giacomo (ca. 
1556-1622) : b. Caravaggio, d. Mi- 
lan(?); was maestro di cappella at 
Mantua and Milan. Composed canzoni, 
canzonetti, madrigals, masses, psalms, 
vespers, balletti concerti, etc., published 
1581-1611. Ref.: V. 153; VII. 377. 

GATES, Bernard (ca. 1685-1773): d. 
North Acton; English singer and com- 

GASTOUfi, Amedee (1873- ): b. 
Paris; studied with Deslandres, Lavig- 
nac, Guilmant and Magnard; edited 
Revue du Chant Gregorien (1896-1905), 

Gaudio Mcll 

Tribune de St. Gervais since 1904; pro- 
fessor of Gregorian Chant at Schola 
Cantorum since 1896; music critic of 
La Semaine Litteraire since 1905; di- 
rected a series of llth-14th cent, works, 
Primitifs de la Musique Francaise, 
1914; organist and maitre de chapelle 
at St. Jean-Baptiste-de-Belleville ; re- 
cipient of many honors in France and 
elsewhere; composed Missa Paschalis; 
Messe breve, Petite Messe, Messe Solen- 
nelle, the cantata Au Christ Redemp- 
teur, Jeanne d'Arc, incidental music, 
motets and organ works; wrote His- 
toire du chant liturgique a Paris (vol. 
I, 1905), Les origines du chant . . . 
(1907), a catalogue of musical MSS. in 
the libraries of France (1907), a new 
method of Gregorian chant (1908), 
L'Art gregorien (1911), La musique de 
Veglise (1911), Le Graduel et I'Anti- 
phonaire romains (1913). 

GATAYES (1) Guillaume-Pierre- 
Antoine (1774-1846) : b. Paris, d. 
there; pub. music for guitar, solo and 
with other instruments; wrote meth- 
ods for guitar and one for harp. (2) 
.Joseph-Leon (1805-1877): b. Paris, d. 
there; son of (1); harpist and com- 
poser for the harp; music critic for 
Parisian journals. (3) Felix (1809-?) : 
b. Paris; son of (1); pianist and com- 
poser of symphonies; overtures and 
military music for orchestra; toured 
Europe, America and Australia. 

GATTI-CASAZZA, Giulio (1869-) : 
b. Ferrara, Italy; operatic impresario; 
manager of La Scala, Milan, till 1908; 
then of the Metropolitan Opera House, 
New York; married Frances Alda, so- 
prano (q. v.). 

GATTY (1) Sir Alfred Scott 
(1847- ): b. Ecclesfield, Yorkshire; 
composed 2 operettas, 'Sandford and 
Merton's Christmas Party' (1880) and 
'Not at Home' (1886) ; musical plays, 
'Rumpelstiltkin,' 'The Goose Girl' and 
'The Three Bears,' also several vol- 
umes of children's songs and piano 
pieces. (2) Nicholas Comyn (1874-) : 
b. Bradfield; Mus. B., Cambridge, 1898; 
music critic for 'Pall Mall Gazette,' 
1907-14, assistant conductor at Covent 
Garden; wrote the operas 'Grey steel' 
(1906), 'Duke or Devil' (1909), 'The 
Tempest,' orchestral pieces, piano con- 
certo, instrumental music and cho- 

[do] GAUCQUIER, Alard (correct 
name Dunoyer, also Latinized to Nu- 
eeus) (16th cent.): b. Lille; tenor, 
then Vice-Kapellmeister in the Vienna 
court chapel, 1564-76, Kapellmeister to 
Duke (later Emperor) Matthias; com- 
poser of Magnificat 4-6 voc. (1574), 
Quatuor missae 5, 6-8 vocum (1581), 
and other church music. 

GAUDENTIOS: Greek writer, 1652. 

GAUDIO MELL (16th cent.): teach- 
er of Palestrina. According to Pitoni 
he was maestro to the King of Portugal, 
and went to Rome in 1580 to take ad- 
vantage of the fame gained by his pu- 



pil; there he is supposed to have 
founded a music school; the confusion 
of his name with Goudimel, according 
to Riemann, has created the legend that 
the latter was Palestrina's teacher and 
founder of the famous music school in 

GAUL., Alfred Robert (1837-1913): 
b. Norwich, Eng., d. Edgebaston; stud- 
ied under Dr. Ruck; was organist at 
Fakenham, Rirmingham, and Edgebas- 
ton; graduated (1863) as Mus. Rac, Can- 
tab.; conductor of the Walsall Phil- 
harmonic in 1887; teacher and conduc- 
tor at the Rirmingham and Midland 
Inst., and teacher at King Edward's 
High School for Girls and at the Rlind 
Asylum; wrote an oratorio, 'Hezekiah' 
(1861) ; several cantatas, including 
'Ruth' and 'The Holy City 5 ; passion 
music; the 96th Psalm; an ode, 'A 
Song of Life'; glees, vocal trios and 
duets, songs and part-songs, etc. 

GAULTIER (1) Jacques, Sieur de 
Neue, called le vieux or Vancien (ca. 
1600-ca. 1670): b. Lyons, d. Paris; lute 
virtuoso at the English court and at 
Paris. (2) Denis (called le jeune or 
I'illustre) (between 1600 and 1610-1672) : 
b. Marseilles, d. Paris; cousin of (1), 
celebrated lute virtuoso and composer 
for the lute. His Pieces de luth and 
Livre de tablature were printed, the 
former in 1660, the latter by his widow 
and cousin. No copies are preserved, 
but several manuscript collections have 
been found. G. and his cousin estab- 
lished a lute school at Paris, and 
among their pupils were Mouton, du 
Faux, Gallot, and du Rut. (3) Pierre 
(17th cent.) : lute composer, issued 
suites for lute, 1638. (4) EnnSmond 
(1635-ca. 1680) : Royal chamber lutenist 
in Paris; pub. two books of pieces in 
lute tablature. (5) Pierre (1642-1697) : 
b. Cioutat, Provence, . d. at sea ; he 
bought from Lully the patent for an 
operatic enterprise at Marseilles, where 
he performed an opera of his own, 
1687. (6) Aloysiu.s £douard Camille, 
Abbot (1755-1818): b. Italy, d. Paris. 
He originated a new method for musi- 
cal elementary teaching and described it 
in his Elements de musique, etc. (1789), 
an 18th cent, forerunner of modern 
kindergarten methods. 

GAUNTLETT, Henry John (1805- 
1876) : b. Wellington, Shropshire, d. Lon- 
don; by profession a lawyer but also 
organist in several churches and Mus. 
Doc, Lambeth, 1843. Together with 
the organ-builder, William Hill, he was 
instrumental in introducing the C or- 
gan, instead of the earlier F and G 
organs, into England. He published 
many anthems, hymns, songs, glees, 
and organ pieces, also some compila- 
tions of church music. Ref.: VI. 407. 

GAUTHIER, Gabriel (1808-[?]): 
b. Dept. of Saone-et-Loire, France; 
studied at the Institute for the Rlind, 
Paris, 1818, where he was instructor, 
1827-40; organist of St. £tienne-du- 


Mont; pub. Repertoire des maitres de 
chapelle (1842-5), Le mecanisme de la 
composition instrumentale and Consid- 
erations sur la question de la reforme 
du plain chant . . . (1843). 

(called Willy) (1859- ) : b. Villiers- 
sur-Orge, France; music critic for vari- 
ous Paris papers; pub. several volumes 
of his criticisms, Lettres de Vouvreuse, 
Bains de sons, Ruthmes et rires, La 
mouche de croches, Entre deux airs, 

GAUTIER (1) Jean-Francois Eu- 
gene (1822-1878): b. Vaugirard, near 
Paris, d. Paris; studied violin under 
Habeneck and composition under Ha- 
levy in the Paris Cons.; became second 
conductor at the Theatre National 
(later the Theatre Lyrique), 1848; pro- 
fessor of harmony at the Conservatoire, 
1864, which subject he later combined 
with history. He also wrote many cri- 
tiques for the Paris journals; was musi- 
cal director at the Church of St. Eugene. 
Among his works are a number of 
comic operas which were produced at 
the Theatre Lyrique and at the Opera 
Comique; an oratorio, 'The Death of 
Jesus,' an Ave Maria, a cantata, etc. 
(2) Theophile (1811-1872) : b. Tarbes, 
d. Paris; prominent writer, author of 
the romance Mademoiselle de Maupin 
and many years dramatic editor of La 
Presse and the Moniteur universal. 
Also published Les beautes de Vopera 
(1845); Souvenirs du theatre (1883), the 
latter work treating in detail of vari- 
ous famous musicians. Ref.: X. 152, 
158, (quoted) 157. 

GAVEAUX, Pierre (1761-1825): b. 
Beziers, d. Paris; studied under Franz 
Beck at Bordeaux; was tenor at the 
church of Saint-Severin ; opera singer 
at Rordeaux, Montpellier, and in the 
Opera Comique, Paris, 1789; composed 
33 operas, chiefly for the Theatre Fey- 

GAVINIES, Pierre (1726-1800): b. 
Bordeaux, d. Paris; violin virtuoso. 
He was mostly self-taught, following 
the style of the old Italian masters. 
He first appeared at the Concerts Spir- 
ituels (1741), which he established in 
conjunction with Gossec. In 1795 he 
became violin professor at the Con- 
servatoire, where he had numerous dis- 
tinguished pupils. In France he is con- 
sidered the founder of the French school 
of violin playing. Besides 6 concertos, 
9 sonatas, 24 Matinees (studies in all 
the keys), and the celebrated Romance 
de Gavinies he wrote a comic opera, 
Le pretendu (prod. 1760). Ref.: VII. 

GAVRONSKI, Voitech (1868- ): 

b. Seimony, near Vilna ; studied at War- 
saw Musical Institute, later Berlin and 
Vienna; orchestral conductor in Vilna; 
concertized in Russia; founded a music 
school in Orel, then settled in War- 
saw ; composed a symphony, 3 string 
quartets (one received the Paderewski 



prize, 1898), 2 operas, piano pieces, 

GAY (1) John (18th cent.): English 
writer, author of the text of the 'Beg- 
gar's Opera.' Ref.: IX. 74, 79. (2) 
Maria (1879- ): b. Barcelona; 
dramatic contralto; made her de- 
but as Carmen, Brussels, 1902; toured 
Europe, sang at the Metropolitan Op- 
era House, New York, 1908-9, with the 
Boston Opera Company, 1910-12, and 
with the Chicago Opera Company since 

GAYNOR, Jessie: contemp. Ameri- 
can composer of songs, etc., 6 oper- 
ettas (4 w. Bedle). Ref.: IV. 355. 

GAZTAMBIDE [y Garbayo], Joa- 
quim (1822-1870) : b. Tudela, Navarra, 
d. Madrid; studied at Madrid Conserva- 
tory ; conductor and one of the founders 
of the 'Concert Society,' also honorary 
professor at the Conservatory; wrote 
40 zarzuelas (operettas). A younger 
relation, Xavier G., has composed zar- 

GAZZANIGA, Giuseppe (1743-1819) : 
b. Verona, d. Crema; studied at Na- 
ples; prod, his first opera, II flnto cieco, 
in Venice, 1770; maestro di cappella of 
Crema cathedral, 1791; composed in all 
33 operas, 4 oratorios, and much 
church music. 

GEBAUER (1) Michel Joseph (1763- 
1812) : b. La Fere, Aisne, d. during the 
retreat from Moscow; oboist in the 
Royal Swiss Guard, 1777; oboist in 
the Garde Nationale, 1791; professor 
at the Conservatoire; bandmaster of 
the Garde des Consuls, and later of 
the Imperial Guard; wrote more than 
200 marches for band; pub. many duets 
for 2 violins, violin and viola, for 2 
flutes, for flute and horn, flute and 
bassoon, etc.; also quartets for flute, 
clarinet, horn, and bassoon. (2) Fran- 
cois-Rene" (1773-1845): b. Versailles, 
d. Paris; bassonist; studied under his 
brother Michel and Devienne; profes- 
sor of bassoon at Conservatoire, 1796- 
1802 and after 1825; member of Opera 
orchestra, 1801-26; composed quintets, 
quartets, trios, duets, sonatas, etudes 
and symphonies concertantes for wind 
instruments, also overtures, military 
marches and pot-pourris; wrote a 
method for bassoon. (3) fitienne- 
Francois (1777-1823) : b. Versailles, d. 
Paris; flutist; studied under his brother 
Michel and Hugot; flutist in the Opera 
Comique orchestra, 1801-22; composed 
more than 100 flute solos, flute duets, 
sonatas for flute and bass, exercises for 
flute, airs varies for clarinet, etc. (4) 
Pierre-Panl (1775-[?]): b. Versailles; 
died young; pub. 20 horn duets. (5) 
Franz Xaver (1784-1822): b. Eckers- 
dorf, n. Glatz, d. Vienna; choirmaster 
at the Augustiner Hofpfarrkirche, 
Vienna, 1816; founded the celebrated 
Concerts spirituels, was their first con- 
ductor; also a member of the Gesell- 
schaft der Musikf reunde ; was a friend 
of Beethoven; pub. songs and part- 


songs. (6) Johann Christian (1808- 
1884) : b. Copenhagen, d. there ; pupil of 
Kuhlau, later Weyse and J. P. E. Hart- 
mann; organist at Copenhagen; teacher 
of piano and theory at the Cons., pub. 
a piano method, other educational piano 
works; composed songs, sacred choral 
songs, children's songs, etc., and trans- 
lated Richter's Harmony into Danish. 

GEBEL (1) Georg (Sr.) (1685-1750) : 
b. Breslau, d. there; studied under 
Winkler and Krause; organist at Brieg, 
1709, and at Breslau, 1713; invented a 
clavichord with quarter-tones, also a 
clavicymbalum with a pedal keyboard; 
composed many unpublished pieces, in- 
cluding a passion oratorio, cantatas, 
masses, psalms, canons up to 30 parts, 
organ pieces, clavichord music, etc. 
(2) Georg (Jr.) (1709-1753): b. Brieg, 
Silesia, d. Rudolstadt; studied with his 
father; second organist at St. Maria 
Magdalene, Breslau, and Kapellmeister 
to the Duke of ols, 1729; joined Count 
Bruhl's orchestra at Dresden, 1735; 
Kapellmeister to the Prince of Schwarz- 
burg-Rudolstadt, 1747; wrote 12 operas, 
2 passions, 2 Christmas cantatas, sets 
of cantatas for several ears, more than 
100 orchestra symphonies, partitas, 
concertos, and a great variety of in- 
strumental and vocal music. (3) 
Georg Sigismnnd ([?]-1775) : d. 
Breslau; organist of the Elisabeth- 
kirche; composed preludes and fugues 
for organ. (4) Franz Xaver (1787- 
1843) : b. Furstenau, n. Breslau, d. Mos- 
cow; studied under Albrechtsberger and 
Abbe Vogler; Kapellmeister at Leo- 
poldstadt Theatre, Vienna, in 1810; later 
at theatres in Pesth and Lemberg ; piano 
teacher in Moscow, 1817-43; composed 
operas, a mass, 4 symphonies, over- 
tures, string quintets and quartets, 
many piano pieces, etc. 

G^DALGE, Andre (1856- ): b. 

Paris; studied under Guiraud at the 
Conservatoire, 1884; took the second 
grand prix de Rome in 1885, prix Cres- 
sent in 1895 with the lyric drama He- 
lene; composed music to Carre's panto- 
mime Le petit Savoyard (Paris, 1891) ; 
Vaux de Vire for solo, chorus and or- 
chestra (1895) ; a 1-act opera bouffe, 
Pris au piege (Paris, 1895) ; 2 sympho- 
nies, several orchestra suites, a string 
quartet, piano pieces, etc.; author of 
Traite de la fugue (1901 et seq.), Les 
gloires musicales du monde (1898). 

GEAR, George Frederick (185 7-) : 
b. London; studied at the London 
Academy of Music and became profes- 
sor there; musical director of the Ger- 
man Reed Company, 1876-92; composed 
instrumental music, piano sonatas, 
songs, and the operettas, 'A Water-Cure' 
and 'Hobbies.' 

GEBHARD, Heinrich (1878- ): 

b. Sobernheim, Germany; studied with 
Clayton Johns in Boston and Leschetiz- 
ky in Vienna; made his debut as pian- 
ist with the Boston Symphony Orches- 
tra, 1900; wrote a string quartet, a 



sonata for piano and violin, and other 
works for the piano. 

GEBHARDI, Ludwig Ernst (1787- 
1862) : b. Nottleben, Thuringia, d. Er- 
furt; organist and teacher at Erfurt 
Seminary; pub. several collections of 
organ pieces, school songs, a Choral- 
buch, a method for organ and 'Method 
of Thoroughbass' (4 vols. a 1828-35). 

GEDEONOPP (19th cent.) : Russian 
ballet-master. Ref.: X. 181. 

GEHE, Eduard: author of the text 
of Spohr's Jessonda. Ref.: IX. 211. 

GEHRING, Franz (1838-1884) : d. 
Penzing, ri. Vienna; lecturer on mathe- 
matics at Vienna University; wrote Mo- 
zart's biography for Hueffer's 'Great 
Musicians'; also several articles for 
Grove's 'Dictionary.' 

GEIBEL (1) Emmanuel (1815- 
1885) : German poet. Ref.: V. 330f ; VI. 
198, 222. (2) Adam (1855- ): b. 
Neuenheim; studied at the Pennsyl- 
vania Institute for the Blind and with 
Dr. D. D. Wood of Philadelphia; or- 
ganist of the Stetson Mission since 
1885; established a music publishing 
firm, 1897; president of the Adam 
Geibel Music Co. since 1906; Mus. D., 
1911; wrote cantatas, pieces for organ 
and piano, songs, etc. 

GEIJER, Erik Gustaf (1783-1847): 
b. Ransatter, Wermeland; d. Upsala; 
professor at Upsala Univ.; musical ed- 
itor of a collection of Swedish folk- 
songs, Svenska Folkvisor (3 vols., 
1814-6, 2nd ed., 1846); pub. with Lind- 
blad a collection of modern Swedish 
songs, also original songs of like char- 

GEISLER (1) Johann Gottlieb 

([?]-1827): d. Zittau; author of Be- 
schreibung und Geschichte der neues- 
ten und vorziiglichsten Instrumente 
und Kunstwerke filr Liebhaber und 
Kunstler (1792-1800, in 12 parts) which 
contains a description of the Bogen- 
klavier. (2) Paul (1856- ): b. Stolp, 
Pomerania; dramatic composer; studied 
under his grandfather; musical director 
at Mecklenburg, and Konstantin Decker; 
chorus-master at the Leipzig City Thea- 
tre, with Angelo Neumann's Wagner 
troupe, 1881-82 ; Kapellmeister at Bremen 
(under Seidl), 1883-85; has composed 
the operas Ingeborg (Bremen, 1884), 
Hertha (Hamburg, 1891), Die Ritter 
von Marienburg (Hamburg, 1891), Palm 
(Liibeck, 1893), and Wir Siegen (1 act, 
Posen, 1898) ; music to the dramas 
Schiffbrilchig and Unser tdglich Brod 
gieb uns heute (both Hamburg, 1890) ; 
the symphonic poems Der Rattenf anger 
von Hameln (1880; score published), 
Till Eulenspiegel, Mira, Maria Magda- 
lena, Heinrich von Ofterdingen, Ekke- 
hard, Beowulf, Der Hidalgo, Walpurg- 
isnacht, Am Meere, Der wilde Jager, 
Der neue Tannhauser; 2 cycles for soli, 
chorus and orchestra, Sansara and Gol- 
gotha; orchestral episodes; songs, etc. 
GEISSLER (1) Karl (1802-1869) : b. 
Mulda, Saxony, d. Bad Elster; Musik- 


direktor and teacher in the latter city; 
composer of piano studies, organ pieces, 
songs, choruses, etc.; edited chorale 
books and collections of organ pieces. 
(2) Friedrich (1868- ) : b. Dohlen, 
near Dresden; studied at Freiburg and 
Leipzig; music critic in Leipzig and 
Bromberg; music critic in Dresden since 
1896; has pub. a number of dramatic 

GEISTITVGER, Maria Charlotte 
Cacilia (1836-1903): b. Graz, Styria, d. 
Rastenfeld; soprano; sang in Vienna, 
Prague, Leipzig, Berlin and in New 
York in 1897. 

GELINEK (1) Herman Anton 
(Cervetti) (1709-1779) : b. Horzenio- 
wecs, Bohemia, d. Maitland; was a monk 
in a monastery in Seelau, left it and 
gained wide reputation as a violinist; 
to hide his identity in Italy he as- 
sumed the name of Cervetti. Among 
his works are violin concertos and so- 
natas. (2) Joseph, Abbe (1758-1825): 
b. Selcz, Bohemia, d. Vienna; became 
piano teacher in the family of Count 
Kinsky on Mozart's recommendation. 
He wrote a vast number of variations, 
fantasias, etc., on popular themes, bril- 
liant, but of slight artistic merit, also 
chamber music (trios, sonatas for vio- 
lin, piano, etc.), mostly published in 
Vienna, whither he accompanied his 
patron. Ref.: II. 161f; VII. 182. 

GELLERT, Christian Fiirchtegottt 
German poet. Ref.: II. 49, 275. 

GELTZERj Russian ballet dancer. 
Ref.: X. 185. 

GEMINIANI, Francesco (ca. 1680- 
1762): b. Lucca, d. Dublin; pupil of. 
Scarlatti, Corelli, and Lunati (il Gob- 
bo). He went to London in 17l4, where 
he is said to have introduced a simpli- 
fied system of violin playing. He pub. 
the 'Art of Playing the Violin' (1740; 
2nd ed., entitled 'The Entire New and 
Complete Tutor for the Violin, etc.'), 
the earliest known violin method, which 
was translated into German and French. 
He also wrote methods for the harpsi- 
chord and the guitar; a 'harmonic 
guide' (1742, supplement later), treat- 
ises on accompanying, 'Good Taste,' 
'Memory,' etc. He composed for the 
violin 12 solos (1716), 18 concertos 
(1735, 1741, 1758), 12 solos (1739), 12 
sonatas (1758), also 12 string trios and 
6 solos for 'cello. Arrangements of the 
sonatas Nos. 1, 2 and 7, and some 
piano pieces were reprinted. Ref.: II. 
51; VII. 401, 430f, 482. 

GEMtJNDER, August (1814-1895) : 
b. Ingelfinge, Germany, d. New York; 
famous violin maker; established a 
business in Springfield, Mass., 1846; 
moved to New York in 1860, where his 
four sons, August, Rudolf, Charles 
and Oscar, kept up the firm as 
'August Gemunder and Sons.' 

GENAST, Eduard Fran* (1797- 
1866): b. Weimar, d. Wiesbaden; made 
his debut as operatic baritone, Weimar, 
1814; director of Magdeburg Theatre, 



1828, and at the court theatre, Weimar, 
after 1829; wrote the operas, Die Son- 
nenmanner (1828) and Die Verrather 
auf den Alpen (1833), also pub. his 
memoirs in 4 vols, as Aus dem Tage- 
buch eines alten Schauspielers (1862-6). 
His daughters, Doris (1826-1912) and 
Emilie (1833-1905), became famous, 
the former as an actress, the latter as 
a singer. 

GENfiE (1) [Franz Friedrich] Rich- 
ard (1823-1895): b. Danzig, d. Baden, 
n. Vienna ; opera composer ; studied under 
Stahlknecht at Berlin; theatre Kapell- 
meister at Reval, Riga, Cologne, Aix-la- 
Chapelle, Diisseldorf, Danzig, Mayence, 
Schwerin, Amsterdam, and Prague, 
1848-67; Kapellmeister at the Theater 
an der Wien, Vienna, 1868-78; wrote 
libretti for Strauss, Suppe, and Mil- 
locker, as well as some of his own; 
composed the operettas Der Geiger aus 
Tirol (1857), Der Musikfeind, Die Gen- 
eralprobe, Rosita, Der schwarze Prinz, 
Am Runenstein (with von Flotow, 
1868), Der Seekadett (1876), Nanon, Im 
Wunderlande der Pyramiden, Die letz- 
ten Mohikaner, Nisida, Rosina, Zwil- 
linge, Die Piraten, Die Dreizehn (1887). 
(2) Adeline: contemporary Danish 
ballet dancer. Ref.: X. 151, 167; por- 
trait, X. 168. 

GENEUALI, Pietro (correctly Mer- 
candetti) (1782-1832): b. Masserano, 
Piedmont, d. Novara; studied under 
G. Massi at Rome; prod, his first opera, 
Gli amanti ridicoli, there, 1802, followed 
by 50 more in the chief Italian cities, 
Lisbon, etc. / baccanali di Roma 
(Venice, 1815) is considered the best. 
G. was conductor in Barcelona; then 
maestro di cappella at Novara cath., 
where he wrote an oratorio, II voto di 
Jefte, 1827, masses, psalms, etc. Ref.: 
IX. 133. 

GENET (called Carpentras), Ele- 
azar (ca. 1475-1532) : b. Carpentras, 
Vancluse, d. Avignon; Papal singer; 
composer of 4-part masses and other 
church music, printed in round notes 
and as choir book (without ligatures). 

GENSS, Hermann (1856- ) : b. 
Tilsit; studied at the Royal Hochschule 
fur Musik, Berlin; taught at Lubeck, 
Hamburg and the Sondershausen Cons.; 
director of the Schumacher Cons., 
Mayence, 1891; co-director of the 
Scharwenka-Klindworth Cons., Berlin, 
1893; professor at the Irving Institute, 
San Francisco, 1899, and director there 
since 1905; prod, an opera, Hunold, der 
Spielmann (1914) ; wrote chamber mu- 
sic, orchestral works and songs. 

GEORGES, Alexandre (1850- ): 

b. Arras, France ; studied at the Nieder- 
meyer School, Paris, and became pro- 
fessor there; composed the operas, Le 
Printemps (1890), Poemes d'amour 
(1892), Charlotte Cordag (1901), Miarka 
(1905), Myrrha (1909), Sangre y Sol 
(1912), incidental music and songs. 

GfiRARD, Henri-Philippe (1763- 
1848): b. Liege, d. Versailles; studied 


in Rome; taught singing in the Con- 
servatoire, Paris, after 1795; pub. a 
Methode de chant (1819) and a treatise 
on harmony in support of Rameau's 
theory (1833). 

GfiRARDY, Jean (1877- ): b. 

Liege, son of Dieubonne G., professor 
at the Conservatory (1848-1900) ; studied 
with R. Bellmann at Liege Cons.; 'cello 
virtuoso of international renown ; toured 
Europe and America frequently. Ref.: 
portrait, VII. 596. 

GERBACH (1) Joseph (1787-1830): 
b. Sackingen, Baden, d. Karlsruhe; 
teacher at the Teachers' Seminary 
there; pub. school songs and Reihen- 
lehre . . . (1832). (2) Anton (1801- 
1848): b. Sackingen, d. Karlsruhe; 
brother of (1) and his successor at the 
Seminary; pub. a piano method, songs, 
quartets, and a Tonlehre. 

GERBER (1) Heinrich Nikolaus 
(1702-1775) : b. Wenigen-Ehrich, near 
Sondershausen, d. Sondershausen. He 
studied the organ with J. S. Bach, while 
studying law at Leipzig, 1724-27; be- 
came organist at Heringen, 1728, and to 
the court at Sondershausen, 1731. He 
wrote much organ music and pieces for 
clavichord and pianoforte ; also invented 
improvements in the organ and a xylo- 
phone with keyboard. (2) Ernst Lud- 
wig (1746-1819) : b. Sondershausen, d. 
there; son and pupil of (1); studied 
law and music in Leipzig, learned 
'cello and organ, then assisted, and in 
1775 succeeded his father as organ- 
ist. His fame rests on his Historisch- 
biogr aphis ches Lexikon der Tonkiinst- 
ler (Leipzig, 2 vols., 1790-92) which 
was based on a collection of portraits 
collected on his travels and such mea- 
gre material as his local library and 
his publisher, Breitkopf, yielded. The 
supplementary edition, Neues hist.- 
biogr. Lexikon der Tonkiinstler, con- 
tained many corrections and additions 
sent him from everywhere. Both works 
became valuable sources of material 
for more recent historians. G. com- 
posed sonatas for piano, choral prel- 
udes for organ, and music for wind 
instr. His large library was acquired 
by the Vienna Gesellschaft der Musik- 
freunde. Ref.: (cited) VII. 383. 

GERBERT [von Hornau], Martin 
(1720-1793) : b. Horb-on-Neckar, d. St.- 
Blaise. He studied in the Benedictine 
monastery at St.-Blaise, joined the or- 
der, 1736, and became successively 
priest, professor of theology and prince- 
abbot. He pub. at least one work of 
lasting value on music, Scriptores ec- 
clesiastici de musica sacra potissimum 
(1784), a collection of treatises by me- 
diaeval writers of note, with the mis- 
takes contained in their originals. His 
other writings deal with the liturgy. 
Ref. : I. 142 ; II. 67. 

GERHARDT (1) Paul (1607-1676) : 
b. Grafenhainichen, Saxony, d. Liibben; 
Protestant church hymn writer; con- 
sidered the most eminent next to 



Luther; was deacon of St. Nicholas*, 
Berlin, 1657-66, and from 1676 arch- 
deacon in Liibben; poet of 'O Haupt 
voll Blut und Wunden,' 'Nun ruhen alle 
W alder,' etc. (2) Paul (1867- ) : b. 
Leipzig, pupil of the Cons, there, or- 
ganist in Leipzig and Zwickan; com- 
poser of organ pieces, sacred and secu- 
lar songs, choral works, etc. (3) Elena 
(1883- ): b. Leipzig; studied at the 
Leipzig Cons.; made her debut as con- 
tralto, Leipzig, 1903, with A. Nikisch 
as accompanist; engaged for the Leip- 
zig Opera where she appeared in 16 per- 
formances of Werther; but abandoned 
the stage for the concert platform, on 
which she has been eminently success- 
ful; toured America every season since 
1912 as lieder singer (soprano) ; also 
successful in oratorio. Ref.: portrait, 
V. 364. 

GERICKE, WHhelm (1845- ): b. 

Schwanberg (Styria) ; pupil of Dess- 
off; Kapellmeister, Vienna Hofoper, 
1874; conductor Boston Symphony, 
1884-89 and 1898-1908, spending the in- 
terim in Vienna (where he conducted 
the Gesellschaftskonzerte) and Dresden. 
He composed an operetta, a Requiem, 
concert overture, chamber music, songs, 
etc. (MS.). Ref.: IV. 190f. 

GERLACH (1) Dietrich (16th cent.) : 
music printer in Nuremberg, associated 
with Ulrich Neuber 1566-71, working 
independently till his death, 1575, when 
the business was continued by his wid- 
ow till 1592. (2) Theodor (1861- ) : 
b. Dresden; theatre Kapellmeister in 
various German cities; director of a 
musical training institute at Carlsruhe; 
composer of songs (some 'spoken'), 
chamber music serenade for string or- 
chestra, organ sonata, Lob der Musica 
(Luther), for chorus and orchestra, pa- 
triotic songs for men's chorus, inci- 
dental music, and an opera Matteo Fal- 
cone (Hanover, 1898), also 2 'spoken 

GERLE (1) Conrad (d. 1521): cele- 
brated Nuremberg lute-maker in 1469. 
(2) Hans (d. Nuremberg, 1570) : prob- 
ably son of (1) ; known as early as 
1523 as violinist and maker of violins 
and lutes. He wrote Lauten-Parthien 
in der Tabulatur (1530) ; Musica Teusch 
auf die Instrument der grossen und 
kleynen Geygen auch Laulten, etc. 
(1532) ; Musica und Tabulatur, auff die 
Instrument . . . gemert mit 9 teutscher 
und 38 welscher auch Frantzosischer 
Liedern und 2 Mudeten, etc. (2nd ed. 
to the former, 1546), Musica Teusch 
ander Theil (1533), and Ein newes sehr 
kiinstliches Lautenbuch, darinen etliche 
Preambel und welsche Tenti, mit vier 
Stimmen, etc. (1552). Ref.: VII. 374. 

GERMAN, Edward (1862- ) : b. 
Whitchurch, Shropshire; composer; 
studied at Boyal Acad, of Music; be- 
came musical director of the Globe 
Theatre, 1889, conductor of concerts at 
the Crystal Palace, etc. He wrote op- 
eras and operettas ('The Rival Poets,' 


1886; The Emerald Isle* [with Sulli- 
van], 1901; 'Merrie England,' 1902; 'The 
Princess of Kensington,' 1903; 'Tom 
Jones,' 1907 ; 'Fallen Fairies,' 1909) ; also 

1 symphonic poem, symphonic suites, 

2 symphonies, marches, etc., for orch. ; 
incidental music to Shakespearean and 

other plays ('Henry VIII,' 'As You Like 
id many songs. 

Ref.: III. 

It,' etc.) anc 
425, U26, 432. 

GERMER, Heinrich (1837-1913) : b. 
Sommersdorf, Saxony, d. Dresden; 
studied at the Berlin Akademie; taught 
piano in Dresden; wrote Die Technik 
des Clavierspiels (1877), Die Musikal- 
ische Ornamentik, Rhythmische Prob- 
leme, Wie spielt man Klavier? and a 
piano method; also edited the piano 
sonatas of Mozart and Beethoven and 
studies from Czerny. 

GERNSHEIM, Friedrich (1839-) : 
b. Worms; pianist; studied at Leipzig 
Cons, and Paris; Musikdirektor at 
Saarbrucken Cons.; teacher at Cologne, 
1865-74 (ducal professor, 1872) ; con- 
ductor of the Maatschappij concerts at 
Rotterdam, 1874; teacher at the Stern 
Cons., Berlin, 1890-97; and conductor 
of the Stern Gesangverein to 1904, also 
of the Eruditio musica of Rotterdam 
from 1897; member of the senate of 
the Berlin Royal Academy, and head 
of an academic master-school for com- 
position. G. wrote 4 symphonies, 
overtures, piano concerto, 2 violin con- 
certos, 'cello concerto, choral works 
(Salamis, Wdchterlied an der Neujahrs- 
nacht 1200, Odins Meeresritt, and Das 
Grab in Busento for male chorus and 
orchestra; Nordische Sommernacht, 
Preislied, Der Nornen Wiegenlied, Pho- 
bus Apollo and Agrippina for mixed 
chorus and orchestra; some with solos), 
and especially chamber music, 3 piano 
quartets, 2 piano quintets, trios, 3 vio- 
lin sonatas, 2 'cello sonatas, 4 string 
quartets and 1 string quartet. Ref. III. 
209f; VII. 321, 324, 466; VIII. 251. 

GERSTER, Etelka (Mme. Gardini- 
Gerster) (1855- ) : b. Kaschau, Hun- 
gary; coloratura soprano; pupil of 
Marchesi at the Vienna Cons., made 
debut at Venice, 1876, as Gilda in Rigo- 
letto; sang at Marseilles, Genoa, and 
Kroll's, Berlin, and subsequently all 
through Europe and (1878, 1883, 1887) 
in the U. S. Since 1896 she has taught 
in Berlin and for a time in New York. 
Ref.: IV. 137, 160. 

GERVILLE-RfiACHE, Jeanne: con- 
temp, operatic mezzo-soprano in Europe 
and America. Sang leading roles in 
Manhattan Opera House, New York. 
Ref.: IV. 152. 

GERVINUS, Georg Gottfried (1805- 
1871): b. Darmstadt, d. Heidelberg; 
historian and man of letters; was a 
founder of the Leipzig Handel-Verein ; 
wrote Handel und Shakespeare. Zur 
Xsthetik der Tonkiinst (1868). A se- 
lection of songs from Handel's ora- 
torios and operas, called Naturgemasse 
Ausbildung in Gesang und Klavierspiel, 



was published by bis wife, Victoria, 
in 1892. 

GESIUS (or Gogs), Bartholomuus 

(ca. 1555-1613) : b. Miincheberg, near 
Frankfort-on-Oder, d. Frankfort-on- 
Oder; composer of church music; pub. 
numerous collections of psalms, hymns, 
chorals, motets, masses, etc., 1588-1624; 
also a Synopsis musicae practicae (1609 
[1615, 1618]). 

GESUALDO, Don Carlo, Prince of 
Venosa (ca. 1550-1614) : an accomplished 
musician, who, living in the new era 
of the monodic style cultivated by the 
Florentines, was known as a *chromati- 
cist.' His methods were ahead of his 
generation, his music being not only 
rich in contrapuntal devices, but also 
distinguished by melodious voice-lead- 
ings, and appropriateness to the text. 
He published 6 books of Madrigali a 5 
(Genoa, 1585; score, 1613). fie/.: I. 276. 

GETTY, Alice: contemp. American 
song- writer, fief.; IV. 406. 

GEVAERT, Francois- Auguste (1828- 
1908) : b. Huysse, near Oudenarde, 
d. Brussels; musical theorist and com- 
poser; studied at Ghent Cons., 1841-47, 
and took the grand prix de Rome for 
composition. He was organist at the 
Jesuit church from 1843. He prod. 2 
operas in Belgium, then visited, suc- 
cessively, Paris (producing an opera at 
the Theatre Lyrique), Spain, Italy and 
Germany ; he prod*, 9 more operas and a 
festival cantata, De nationale verjaer- 
day, which won him the Order of Leo- 
pold. G. was chef de chant at the Paris 
Opera, 1867-70, and succeeded Fetis as 
director of the Brussels Cons., 1871. 
He composed 12 operas, 3 cantatas, a 
Missa pro defunctis, Super flumina 
Babylonis, an overture, Flandre au lion, 
ballads, songs, etc. His theoretical and 
historical writings constitute probably 
his most valuable work. They include 
Rapport sur la situation de la musique 
en Espagne (1851), Leerboek van den 
Gregoriaenschen Zang (1856), and 
Traite d' instrumentation (1863), long 
considered the best of its kind thus 
far published (revised as Nouveau 
traite", etc., 1885, and transl. into Ger- 
man by Biemann; 2nd part, Or- 
chestration, 1890) ; also Les origines 
du chant liturgique de Veglise latine 
(1890; transl. by Biemann); Vade- 
mecum de I'organiste; and the monu- 
mental La Melopee antique dans Veglise 
latine. He also edited Les gloires 
d'ltalie (1868) and Chansons du XV me 
siecle (1875) both valuable collections 
of old music practically arranged, fie/.: 
(citations, etc.) I. 131, 135, 140, 144, 
146f; VIII. 89 (footnote), 91. 

GEYER, Elodoard (1811-1872): b. 
Berlin, d. there; studied composition 
with Marx; founded the Mannergesang- 
verein, 1842, and was a co-founder of 
the Tonkunstlerverein ; taught theory in 
the Kullak-Stern Cons., 1851-66; music 
critic for various German papers; 
composed operas, symphonies, songs 


and chamber music, also wrote a Kom- 
positionslehre (1862) and a work on 
the use of silent keyboards in teach- 

GHEERT, Jacques. See Turnhout, 
Gerakd de. 

GHEYN, Matthias van den (1721- 
1785) : b. Tirlemont, Brabant, d. Lou- 
vain; organist at St. Peter's, Louvain, 
and town carilloneur for many years; 
pub. Fondements de la basse continue; 
also pieces for organ and carillon, and 
6 divertissements for harpsichord, ca. 

GHISELIN (Ghiseling or Ghiseli- 
nus), Jean (15th-16th cent.) : Nether- 
land contrapuntist; may be identical 
with Verbonnet; wrote 5 masses in 
Petrucci's Missae diversorum (1503) ; 5 
motets in the Mottetti della corona 

GHISLANZONI, Antonio (1824- 
1893) : b. Lecco, d. Caprino-Bergamas- 
co; manager of Italia Musicale and ed- 
itor of the Gazzetta Musicale, Milan; 
wrote more than 60 libretti and pub. 
Reminiscenze artistiche. 

GHIZEGHEM. See Heyne. 

GHRO, Johann. See Groh. 

GHYS, Joseph (1801-1848) : b. Ghent, 
d. St. Petersburg; violinist; studied 
under Lafont at Brussels Conservatory; 
taught at Amiens and Nantes; toured 
France, 1832, Belgium, 1835, Germany 
and Austria, 1837, and northern Eu- 
rope; wrote Variations for violin with 
piano or orchestra; Le mouvement per- 
petuel, for violin with string quartet; 
violin concerto in D; romances; 
L'orage for violin solo, etc. 

GIACCHE. See Berchem. 


GIACOBI (Giacobbi), Don Girol- 
amo (1567-1630) : b. Bologna, d. there 
as maestro di cappella at S. Petronius; 
one of the first Bolognese opera com- 
posers, having prod. Andromeda (1610), 
the festival drama fieno sagriflcante 
(1617), the intermezzi L'aurora ingan- 
nata (or Dramatodia, 1608) ; also wrote 
motets, psalms, litanies and other 
church music, incl. 2 books of 4-part 

GIACOMELLI, Geminiano (1686- 
1743): b. Parma, d. Naples; dramatic 
composer; studied under Capelli, later 
under Scarlatti at Naples; prod. Iperm- 
nestra at Parma in 1704, and wrote 8 
other operas, including Cesare in Egitto 
(Turin, 1735) also Psalm 8 for 2 tenors 
and bass; concert-arias with continuo. 

GIACOMO, Lorenzo di (16th cent.) : 
Italian organ builder, fie/.: VI. 405. 

GIACOSO, Giuseppe: contemporary 
Italian librettist, fie/.; LX. 489, 492, 

GIALDINI, Gialdino (1843- ): b. 
Pescia; studied with Mabellini at Flor- 
ence; composer and conductor; prod, 
the operas, Rosmunda (1868), La Sec- 
chia rapita (1872), L'idolo cinese 
(1874), 1 due soci (1892), La Pupilla 
(1896), La Bufera (1910), also pub. a 



collection of folk-songs, orchestral and 
instrumental music. 

GIAMMARIA: 16th cent. Jewish lute- 
nist. Ref.: I. 328. 

GIANELLI, Pietro, Abbate (ca. 1770- 
1822): b. Friuli, d. Venice; pub. an 
early Italian dictionary of music 
(1801), also a Grammatica ragionata 
della musica (1801) and a collection of 
biographies of musicians (1822). 

GIANETTINI, Antonio (1649-1721) : 
b. Venice, d. Modena; maestro di cap- 
pella at the court of Modena; prod. 6 
operas (3 in Venice, 3 in Hamburg) ; 6 
oratorios, cantatas and church music. 

GIARDA, Luisi Stefano (1868-) : 
b. Cassolnovo, Pavia; studied at the 
Milan Cons.; taught at the Padua Mu- 
sic School and at the Royal Cons., Na- 
ples; wrote the operas, Rejetto and 
'Lord Byron,' orchestral and instru- 
mental music, 'cello studies, etc. 

GIARDINI, Felice de> (1716-1796): 
b Turin, d. Moscow; violinist and com- 
poser; pupil of Paladini and of Somio 
at Turin; played in theatre orchestras 
in Rome and Naples, and small con- 
certs; then appeared in London with 
great success and in Paris became a 
court favorite. He became leader at 
the Italian opera, London, 1752, man- 
ager in 1756, and again in 1763, but 
losses caused his return to the concert 
stage in 1765. He led the Pantheon con- 
certs, 1774-80, the Italian opera, 1782- 
83; in 1790 failed again with opera in 
London and took his troupe to Russia, 
where he died. He prod. 5 operas in 
London, also an oratorio, Ruth (1752), 
and wrote 5 sets of violin solos, 6 duets, 
6 violin sonatas, 12 violin concertos, 6 
piano quintets, 12 string quartets, string 
trios, songs, etc. Only his violin mu- 
sic is of permanent value. Ref.: VII. 

GIBBONS (1) Edward (ca. 1570-ca. 
1650) : organist at Bristol cathedral, 
1592-1611, Exeter, 1611-44; Mus. D., 
Oxon., 1590. Wrote anthems, etc. 
(MSS. in British Museum and Oxford). 
(2) Ellis (d. ca. 1650) : brother of (1) ; 
organist at Salisbury cathedral. (3) 
Orlando, brother of (1) and (2), (1583- 
1625): b. Cambridge, d. Canterbury; 
chorister at King's Coll., Cambridge, 
1596 ; organist of the Chapel Royal, 1604, 
Westminster Abbey, 1626. Mus. D., 
Oxon., 1622. He published 'Fantasies 
of III. parts . . . composed for viols' 
(1610). This, the earliest engraved 
compositions in England, has been ed- 
ited by E. F. Rimbault aHd reprinted 
(1843). Pieces for the virginal, pub. 
in 'Parthenia,' were reprinted in 1843 
(by the Musical Antiquarian Soc), and 
a selection of his church music, edited 
by Ouseley, in 1873. A selection of 
harpsichord pieces has been repub. by 
Augener. There are church composi- 
tions in Wither's 'Hymns and Songs 
of the Church,' Boyce's 'Cathedral Mu- 
sic' and Leighton's 'Teares or Lamen- 
tations of a Sorrowfull Soule' (1614). 


Ref.: I. xlvii, 306; IV. 4; V. 167; VI. 
75, 98, 449f, 475; VII. 19, 395; mus. ex., 
XIII. 81. (4) Christopher (1615-1676) : 
b. London, d. there; son of Orlando, 
pupil of Edward Gibbons; organist of 
Winchester cathedral, 1638-61; of the 
Chapel Royal, 1660-76; of Westminster 
Abbey, 1660-65; private organist to 
Charles II; Mus. D., Oxon., 1664. He 
wrote motets (preserved in Dering and 
Playford's Cantica Sacra, 1674) and 
other works. 

GIBSOX, [George] Alfred (1849-) : 
b. Nottingham; studied violin with 
Henry Farmer; first violin at Drury 
Lane Opera, 1867, and at Covent Gar- 
den, 1871-83; leader of King's Private 
Band since 1893; professor of violin at 
the Royal Academy of Music. 

GIBSONE, Guillauine-Ignace (ca. 
1826- ): b. London; studied piano 
with Moscheles; teacher and composer 
in London since 1850; wrote 3 can- 
tatas, an opera and 2 symphonies in 
MS. ; pub. sonatas for piano and violin, 
songs and piano pieces. 

GIDE, Casimir (1804-1868) : b. 
Paris, d. there; studied at the Con- 
servatoire, and became a partner in his 
father's book business in 1847; prod. 6 
operas (1828-58) and 7 ballets in Paris. 

GIESEKE, Ludwig (18th cent.) : 
German writer. Ref.: IX. 101. 

GIGAULT, Nicolas (ca. 1645- ): 
b. Claye, Rrie; organist at St. Mar- 
tin's, St. Nicolas aux champs and St. 
Esprit at Paris; pub. Livre de musique 
pour Vorgue (1685, repub. by Guil- 
mant), also Livre de Noels diversifies 
a 2, 3 et 4 parties (1685). 

GIG III: 17th cent, composer of 
sonatas, etc. Ref.: VII. 478. 

GIGOUT, Eugene (1844- ): b. 
Nancy; pupil, later teacher, at Nieder- 
meyer School, Paris; also studied 
with Saint-Saens. He became organist 
at St. Augustin in 1863 and became fa- 
mous as concert organist through west- 
ern Europe; founded an organ-school, 
subsidized by the government, at Paris, 
1885. G. has composed many organ 
pieces, large and small, over 300 Grego- 
rian and plain-song compositions, and 
vocal pieces. He pub. Album Gregorien 
(2 vols.). Ref.: VI. 485. 

GILBERT (1) Alfred (1828-1902): 
b. Salisbury, d. London; studied at the 
Royal Academy of Music; organist in 
London; composer of 3 piano trios, 
a suite for strings, 3 operettas and 
author of a piano method. (2) Ernest 
Thomas Bcnnet G. (1833-1885) : b. 
Salisbury, d. London; brother of (1), 
pupil of the Royal Academy of Music 
and the Leipzig Cons.; organist and 
vocal teacher; composer of orchestral 
and chamber music, wrote educational 
piano pieces and a Harmony. (3) 
Walter Bond (b. Exeter, 1829): pupil 
of Wesley and Bishop; Mus. D. Oxon, 
1886; organist in New York from 1869, 
composer of church music. (4) Henry 
F. (1860- ): b. Boston, Mass.; pu- 



pil of MacDowell; composer of orches- 
tral works, some based on negro and 
other racial Idioms, including A Com- 
edy Overture, Humoresque on Negro 
Minstrel Tunes, Negro Rhapsody, Riders 
to Sea (symphonic prologue), The 
Dance in Place Congo (symphonic 
poem) ; also songs, piano pieces, etc. 
Champion of nationalism in American 
music. Ref.: IV. 311, 408ff; (quoted 
on racial influence) IV. 278; mus. ex., 
XIV. 264; portrait, IV. 408. (5) 
Jean [pseudonym for Max Winter- 
feld] (1879- ) : pupil of Xaver 
Scharwenka; Kapellmeister in Bremer- 
haven, Hamburg and Berlin (Apollo 
Theatre) till 1910; composer of oper- 
ettas and farces, including Polnische 
Wirtschaft (Berlin, 1911; Paris, 1914, 
as Menage polonais), etc. (6) [Sir] 
W. S. (19th cent.) : English humorist, 
author of texts for Sullivan's musi- 
cal comedies. Ref.: IX. 235. 

GILBERTS, Hallett (1875- ): b. 

Winthrop, Maine; studied in Boston; 
composer of songs which have become 
popular, including 'In Reverie,' 'Span- 
ish Serenade,' 'Song of the Canoe,' 
'Two Roses,' etc. 

GILCHRIST (1) James (1832-1894): 
d. Glasgow; eminent violin maker. (2) 
William Wallace (1846-1916) : b. Jer- 
sey City, N. J.; studied under H. A. 
Clarke at the Univ. of Pennsylvania; 
choirmaster at St. Clement's Church, 
Philadelphia, 1873; organist Christ 
Church, Germantown, and teacher at 
the Philadelphia Musical Acad, from 
1882; conductor of choral societies; 
composed Psalm xlvi, for soli, cho- 
rus, orchestra and organ, 'Song of 
Thanksgiving,' 'The Rose,' cantata 
(1887), 'Ode to the Sun,' 'Autumn 
Dreaming,' orchestral works, songs, 
church music, etc. Ref.: TV. 357. (3) 
Connie (19th cent.) : English dancer. 
Ref.: X. 189. 

GILES, Nathaniel (ca. 1550-1633): 
b. Worcester, England; d. Windsor; 
chorister of Magdalen Coll., Oxford, 
1559; organist and choir-master of St. 
George's Chapel, Windsor, 1595; suc- 
ceeded Hunnis as Master of the Chil- 
dren of the Chapel Royal, 1597; Mus. 
Doc. Oxon., 1622; wrote some pieces 
in Leighton's 'Teares or Lamentacions 
of a Sorrowfull Soule' (1614) ; a service 
and an anthem in Barnard's 'Church 
Music' (1641) ; 'Lesson of Descant of 
Thirtie-eighte Proportions of Sundrie 
Kindes' in Hawkins' 'History of Mu- 
sic'; several anthems in MS. 

GILIBERT, Charles (1866-1910): b. 
Paris, d. New York; studied at the Con- 
servatoire and sang at the Opera- Com- 
ique, Paris, later in Brussels; first ap- 

S»ared at the Metropolitan Opera 
ouse, New York, in 1900, where he 
sang until 1903; Manhattan Opera 
House, 1906-10; excelled in baritone 
roles of modern French operas, notably 
the Father in Charpentier's Louise. 
Ref.: TV. 148, 152. 


GILL, Allen: contemp. English 
choral conductor. Ref.: III. 422. 

GILLE, Karl (1861- ): b. Eldag- 
sen, near Hanover; Kapellmeister in 
Elbing; Hofkapellmeister in Schwerin, 
1891; conductor at the Stadttheater, 
Hamburg, 1897, at the Volksoper, Vi- 
enna, 1906-10; and since 1910 at the 
Hanover court theatre. 

GILLES. See Brebos. 

GILMAN (1) Lawrence (1878- ): 
b. New York; music critic ('Harper's 
Mag.,' etc.) ; wrote biography of Edward 
MacDowell (1909) and several studies 
in musical aesthetics. Ref.: (cited) IV. 
366, 368. (2) Benjamin Ives. Ref.: 
(cited) I. 14, 40. 

GILMORE, Patrick Sarsfield (1829- 
1892) : b. near Dublin, d. St. Louis, 
Mo.; organized the famous Gilmore's 
Band in Boston, 1859; bandmaster in 
the Federal army at New Orleans, 
1864; conducted 2 great music festi- 
vals in Boston, 'National Peace Jubilee,' 
1869, and 'World's Peace Jubilee,' 1872. 
G. toured the United States, Canada 
and Europe (1878) with his band; com- 
posed dance music, songs, military mu- 
sic and arrangements for band. 

GILSE, Jan van (1881 ) : b. Rot- 
terdam; studied at Cologne Cons., and 
with Humperdinck in Berlin; conducted 
opera in Bremen and Amsterdam; com- 
posed 3 symphonies, 2 of which won 
prizes (1902, 1909), an overture, inter- 
mezzi, Eine Lebensmesse, songs and an 
opera, Frau Helga von Stavern. 

GILSON, Paul (1865- ): b. Brus- 
sels; Belgian composer, a self-taught 
musician; won the grand prix de 
Rome in 1892 with cantata Sinai; pro- 
duced opera Aluar at Brussels (1896) ; 
also brought out another cantata, 
Francesca da Rimini (1895) ; sym- 
phonic sketches, La, mer (1892), a 
septet and scherzo for wind-instru- 
ments, orchestral fantasy on Canadian 
folk tunes (1898), a Scottish rhapsody, 
two symphonic poems and other works 
for orchestra, the operas Gens de mer 
(1902) and Prinses Zonnenschijn 
(1903), choral works, songs, etc. 

GINER, Salvador (1832-1911): b. 
Valencia, d. there; studied at the Valen- 
cia Cons.; composed a symphony, Las 
cuarto Estaciones, a cantata, Feria de 
Valencia, an oratorio, Judit, and 10 op- 
eras, the most successful of which were 
Sagunto (1891) and El Sonador (1901). 

GINGUENfi, Pierre-Lonis (1748- 
1816): b. Rennes, d. Paris; member of 
the French Academy; literary historian; 
wrote Lettres et articles sur la musique 
(1783), containing his journalistic pa- 
pers on the Gluck-Piccini controversy; 
also articles on mus. history in the 
Encyclopedic, etc. Ref.: IX. 58. 

GIORDANI (corr. Carmine), Tom- 
mas© (1744-ca. 1816) : b. Naples, d. 
Dublin; appeared in buffo roles at the 
Haymarket Theatre, London, 1762; 
taught music and managed an Italian 
opera-troupe at Dublin; wrote an op- 



era, 'Perseverance' (Dublin, 1789) ; an 
oratorio, 'Isaac'; trios for flutes and 
bass, 5 books of flute-duos, duos for 
'cello, piano-pieces, songs, etc. (2) 
(Giordanello), Giuseppe (1744-1798): 
brother of (1); b. Naples, d. Fermo; 
opera-composer; fellow-student of 
Cimarosa and Zingarelli at the Con- 
servatory of Loreto; popular teacher 
and composer in London, 1772-82; 
maestro di cappella of Fermo cathedral; 
composed about 30 operas, including 
11 Bacio, 1794, 6 piano quintets, 3 
piano quartets, 6 string quartets, 30 
trios, 6 violin concertos, piano sonatas 
for 2 and 4 hands; preludes and ex- 
ercises for piano; soprano duets; 5 
books of Canzonette for solo voices; 
other secular and sacred music in MS. 

GIORDANO, Umberto (1868- ): 
b. Naples; dramatic composer; pro- 
duced a 4-act opera seria Andrea Che- 
nier, La Scala, Milan, 1896; a 2-act 
opera seria Regina Diaz, Naples, 1894; 
and a 3-act 'melodrama' (opera) Mala 
vita, Rome, 1892, produced in Milan as 
11 Voto, 1897; Madame Sans-Gene (N. 
Y., 1915). Ref.: III. 369, 377; LX. 481,485. 

GIORGI. See Banti. 

GIORGIONE. Ref.: I. 327. 

GIORNOVICHI. See Jarnovic. 

GIOSA, Nicola de (1820-1885): b. 
Bari, d. there; pupil of Ruggi, Zin- 
garelli and Donizetti at Naples ; com- 
poser of Don Checco (1850) and 23 
other, less successful, operas. He also 
wrote romanzas, canzoni, etc., of popu- 
lar nature, and church music. 

GIORZA, Paolo (1838-1914): b. Mi- 
lan, d. Seattle, Wash.; composed many 
successful ballets produced principally 
at La Scala, Milan (1853-66), also one 
opera, military and dance music. 

GIOVANELLI, Ruggiero (ca. 1550- 
1620): b. Velletri, d. Rome; maestro di 
cappella in San Luigi de' Francesi at 
Rome, 1587; later in the Collegium 
Germanicum; succeeded Palestrina as 
maestro di cappella at St. Peter's, 
1594; joined the Pontifical Chapel, 
1599; prepared a new edition of Gradu- 
als (2 vols., 1614-15). His printed 
works include 3 books of 5-part madri- 
gals (1586-87-89) ; 2 of 4-part Madri- 
gali sdruccioli (1587) ; 2 books of 
5- to 8-part motets; 3-part Canzonette 
and Villanelle (1592-93); also scat- 
tered madrigals in the collections of 
Scotto and Phalese; other works in 
MS. are in the Vatican Library. 

hannes de Florentia (14th cent.) : b. 
at Cascia, near Florence; founder of 
the style reform that spread from 
Florence soon after 1300 (ars nova) ; 
lived at the court of. Mastinos II della 
Scala (1329-51) at Parma; composed 
madrigals, caccias, canzoni and ballads. 
Ref.: I. 263, 266. 

GIRARD, Narcisse (1797-1860): b. 
Nantes, France, d. Paris; studied at the 
Conservatoire; maitre de chapelle at 
the Opera Italien, 1830-2, at the Opera- 


Comique, 1837-46; conductor at the 
Opera and professor of violin at the 
Conservatoire, 1847; became general 
musical director of the Opera, 1856; 
prod. 2 operas (1841, 1842). 

GIRAUDET, Alfred Angnste 

(1845- ): b. £tampes; studied with 
Delsarte; made his debut as dramatic 
bass in Paris, 1868; professor at the 
Conservatoire, 1888-1900; pub. Mim- 
ique, Physionomie et Gestes (1895). 

GIZZI, Domenico (1684-1715) : b. 
Arpino, near Naples; d. there; pupil 
of A. Scarlatti at Cons. San Onofrio, 
where he became vocal teacher (till 
1740) ; teacher of Feo and Gioach. 
Conti, who adopted the name *Giz- 
ziello'; composed for the church. 

GIZZIELLO, Gioachino. See 


GLADSTONE, Francis Edward 

(1845- ) : English organist; b. Sum- 
mertown, n. Oxford; studied under 
Wesley, 1859-62; organist at Weston- 
super-mare, Llandaff, Chichester, Brigh- 
ton, London, and Norwich; choir- 
director at St. Mary of the Angels, 
Bayswater; Mus. Doc. Contab., 1879; 
professor of counterpoint, etc., at 
Trinity College, London, in 1881; pro- 
fessor of harmony and counterpoint at 
Royal College of Music in 1883; com- 
posed church music, an overture, some 
chamber-music (all in MS.) ; also or- 
gan pieces; wrote 'The Organ- Student's 
Guide' and a 'Treatise on Strict Coun- 
terpoint,' 1906. 

GLAREANUS, Heinrich Loris (or 
Henricus Loritus) (1488-1563): b. 
Glarus; d. Freiburg, Baden; attended 
the Latin School at Bern; studied the- 
ology at Cologne; also music under 
Cochlaus; crowned poet laureate by 
Emperor Maximilian I, 1512; taught 
and lectured in Basel, Paris, and Frei- 
burg; wrote Isagoge in musicen (Ba- 
sel, 1516) ; and the Dodecachordon 
(1547), in which he advocates 12 
church-modes instead of the usually 
accepted eight. It is also a valuable 
source for the history of mensural 
music, notation, and early music- 
printing; pub. Musicae epitome ex 
Glareani Dode kachordo (J. L. Woneg- 
ger, 1557; 2nd ed. 1559; in German: 
Uss Glareani Musik ein Vsszug . . . 
1557) ; revised edition of Boetius' 
writings, edited by M. Rota, 1570. 

GLASENAPP, Karl Friedrich 
(1847-1915): b. Riga; studied philoso- 
phy at Dorpat; contributor to the 
Bayreuther Blatter; head-master at 
Riga from 1875; wrote Richard Wag- 
ner's Leben und Wirken (Leipzig, 2 
vols., 3rd ed. 1894) ; also a Wagner- 
Lexikon (Stuttgart, 1883). 

GLASER (1) Karl Gotthelf (1784- 
1829) : b. Weissenfels, d. Barmen ; stud- 
ied at the Thomasschule, Leipzig; be- 
came a teacher, musical director and 
music dealer in Barmen after 1814; 
pub. chorales, piano music, songbooks 
for schools, a piano method (1817), a 



Kurze Anweisung znm Choralspiel 
(1824), and a work on the theory of 
musical composition by means of a 
•musical compass' (1828). (2) Franz 
(1798-1861) : b. Obergeorgenthal, Bohe- 
mia, d. Copenhagen; studied at Prague 
and in Vienna; Kapellmeister in Vi- 
enna, 1817, and in Berlin, 1830; Boyal 
conductor at Copenhagen after 1842; 
wrote 13 operas, of which Des Adlers 
Bbrst (1833) was the most successful, 
incidental music, an overture, cantata, 

GLASS, Louis Christian August 
(1864- ) : b. Copenhagen ; studied at 
Brussels Cons.; pianist, 'cellist and 
composer of symphonies, overtures, an 
orchestral suite, instrumental music, 
etc. Cf. Christian H. G. (Addenda). 

GLAZOUNOFF, Alexander (1865-) : 
b. St. Petersburg, where he attended 
the Polytechnic Institute and became 
acquainted with Balakireff and Rim- 
sky-Korsakoff in 1880; then studied 
composition with Rimsky-Korsakoff. 
He prod, his first symphony in 1881, 
and at Weimar under Liszt in 1884; 
his second in Paris, 1889, and his 
fourth in London. He conducted the 
Russian Symphony Concerts at St. Pe- 
tersburg with Rimsky-Korsakoff and 
Liadoff, 1896-97. His numerous works 
include for orchestra: 8 symphonies, 
5 suites, 6 overtures, 2 serenades, 2 
fantasies, a symphonic poem, a •sym- 
phonic tableau,' an elegy, a Poeme 
Lyrique, Rhapsodie Orientate, he 
Printemps, marches, waltz, etc.; cham- 
ber music: 5 string quartets, 5 nov- 
elettes and a suite for string quartet, 
a string quintet, a brass quartet, 
Quatuor slave, a Riverie for horn, and 
In Modo Religioso, quartet for brass; 
for piano: a suite, 2 sonatas, etudes, 
dances, etc.; also songs. Ref.: III. 
x, xi, xii, xiv, xvii, 137 ff; V. 368; 
VI. 395; VII. 333; VIII. 451ff; X. 183 
186, 224; portrait, III. 150. 

GLEASON, Frederick Grant 
(1848- ) : b. Middletown, Conn. ; pu- 
pil of Dudley Buck, and Moscheles, 
Richter, Plaidy, Lobe, etc., at Leipzig 
Cons.; of Loeschhorn, Weitzmann, and 
Haupt at Berlin, and Beringer in Lon- 
don; organist in Hartford, New Britain; 
teacher in Chicago. He composed or- 
gan and piano pieces, songs, church 
music, cantatas; also symphonic poem, 
orchestral sketches, etc. Ref.: TV. 346. 

GLEISSNER, Franz (1760-ca. 1815) : 
b. Neustadt-on-the-Waldnab, d. Mu- 
nich; inventor of lithographic process 
of music printing. His work, a set 
of songs, was first to be so printed; 
introduced his invention in Munich, 
Offenbach and Vienna. 

GLEITZ, Karl (1862- ): b. Hit- 

zerode, near Cassel; studied at the 
Leipzig Cons, and the Akademie, Mu- 
nich; composed 6 symphonic poems, a 
fantasy for piano and orchestra and a 
violin sonata; pub. Kunstlers Erden- 
wallen (1896-07). 


GLEN, John (1833-1904): b. Edin- 
burgh, d. there; manufacturer of bag- 
pipes from 1866 and student of early 
Scotch music; wrote several books on 
Scotch dances and melodies. 

GLIfcRE, Reinhold Moritzovitch 
(1875- ): b. Kieff; composer; stud- 
ied at the Cons, of Moscow under 
Taneieff and Ippalitoff-Ivanoff. His 
compositions include 2 string quar- 
tets, 3 string sextets, a string octet, 
3 symphonies, a symphonic poem, 'The 
Sirens,' a ballad for 'cello, piano 
pieces and songs. Ref.: III. xvii, 146, 
150f; VI. 396; VII. 555; VIII. 463; X. 
206, 207, 254, 259; portrait, III. 150. 

GLINKA, Mikhail Ivanovitch 
(1804-1857) : b.